Capital Punishment Essays
Capital punishment vs. juveniles.
Many people around the world believe a prison is a safe place for criminals or felons that have committed a crime. Those criminals could have been in jail for many reasons. It could be for murder, kidnapping, burglary, status offenses, or even possession of drugs. Sometimes criminals tend to break out of prison for a sentence of life, because of the attempt. One of the most hated consequences for crimes during trials is the Death Penalty/Capital Punishment. Capital Punishment is […]
Cruel Capital Punishment in George Orwell’s Story “A Hanging”
George Orwell’s story “A Hanging” tells readers about a traumatic involvement Orwell had when he was given the opportunity to travel from Europe to participate in the capital punishment of a Hindu male. “I had never realized what it means to destroy a healthy, conscious man.” The effect of reading that line, it really sinks in how distraught Orwell felt. In this essay, Orwell uses a variety of literary elements to create a grave atmosphere and notes the behavior between […]
Death Penalty and Justice
By now, many of us are familiar with the statement, "an eye for an eye," which came from the bible, so it should be followed as holy writ. Then there was Gandhi, who inspired thousands and said, "an eye for an eye will leave us all blind." This begs the question, which option do we pick to be a good moral agent, in the terms of justice that is. Some states in America practice the death penalty, where some states […]
Time to Say Goodbye to Capital Punishment
On May 18, 2017, My aunt, Ebony Archie left her car running to go inside a Kroger grocery store. She went inside the store to get my 6-year-old little cousin, Kingston cupcakes for his graduation from the kindergarten ceremony that was the next day. Kingston was fast asleep on the back seat so she figured why need leave him there since it was a quick stop. While my aunt entered the store there were 3 teenage boys sitting in their […]
Texas Capital Punishment
The death penalty has existed for centuries. Ancient societies like the Romans to modern day Texans have had their hands filled with this idea. The difference is the methods used to execute its victims; ranging from disturbing impalements to painless deaths by injection. Texas has had its own history of methods, electric chairs, gas chambers, firing squad, death by hanging and now by lethal injection. The question of whether these methods have caused a decrease in crime in the state […]
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The Death Penalty should not be Legal
Imagine you hit your sibling and your mom hits you back to teach that you shouldn't be hitting anyone. Do you really learn not to be violent from that or instead do you learn how it is okay for moms or dads to hit their children in order to teach them something? This is exactly how the death penalty works. The death penalty has been a form of punishment for decades. There are several methods of execution and those are […]
Should Capital Punishment be Allow in Modern Society
America faces an ethically instilled dilemma on whether or not a convicted criminal of a serious crime should face the ending of his or her life as punishment. Many people argue that this form of compensation is unethical, while others believe that the punishment is justified. This immensely controversial topic leads to many states outlawing the punishment completely, while others severely restrict its boundaries. On the other hand, some legislatures are completely for the punishment. There are two distinct ways […]
The Problematics of Capital Punishment
Capital punishment is a universal problematic ideology under constant debate. Those that oppose the death penalty often agree that it is immoral for the government to take the life of an individual. They frequently state that the death penalty is a cruel and unusual punishment, but our Constitution would never allow such punishments. It states in the eighth amendment, “Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted,” (Martin and Jackson) which protects […]
Does the Death Penalty Effectively Deter Crime?
The death penalty in America has been effective since 1608. Throughout the years following the first execution, criminal behaviors have begun to deteriorate. Capital punishment was first formed to deter crime and treason. As a result, it increased the rate of crime, according to researchers. Punishing criminals by death does not effectively deter crime because criminals are not concerned with consequences, apprehension, and judges are not willing to pay the expenses. During the stage of mens rea, thoughts of committing […]
The Abolishment of Capital Punishment
Dating back to the 18th century, the death penalty was a punishment used by many across the world. Currently, the death penalty is legal in 30 states (Gramlich). Since 1976, 1,483 people have been killed as a punishment for their crimes in the United States (Death Penalty Info). The act of killing a human as punishment for a crime that has been committed is justified in a number of ways. One of the main reasons being that if the crime […]
Capital Punishment or Permanent Punishment
No two people have the same list of beliefs and opinions. Good luck trying to venture out into the world trying to figure out this complex mind game. Politicians have a 0% chance of having the same views. With, every person does not see eye too eye on literally everything. A debacle that has been expressed year after year between the states, federal government, and even other countries have battled back and forth over this issue. What is the issue […]
About the Death Penalty
The death penalty has been a method used as far back as the Eighteenth century B.C. The use of the death penalty was for punishing people for committing relentless crimes. The severity of the punishment were much more inferior in comparison to modern day. These inferior punishments included boiling live bodies, burning at the stake, hanging, and extensive use of the guillotine to decapitate criminals. In the ancient days no laws were established to dictate and regulate the type of […]
The Use of Capital Punishment
Capital Punishment is when a person is legally punished for a crime by death. This is a subject that is very controversial and people tend to have a strong opinion of support or opposition on the topic. I support capital punishment for what I believe are many logical and sound reasons. Capital punishment is the most equal discipline for a person who commits murder. Putting someone to death for a terrible crime makes other criminals think twice of doing the […]
Redemption and Capital Punishment
In 2005, a man named Stanley Tookie Williams was sentenced to death by the State of California after being convicted of murdering four people. While waiting for his execution, Williams attempted to make amends by writing children’s books that warned about the dangers of gangs and violence. Because of these acts, many people believed that Williams’ sentence should be reduced to life in prison. The governor of California, Arnold Schwarzenegger, did not believe he truly regretted his actions, due to […]
Why Capital Punishment should be Abolished
Capital punishment has been used in the United States for vicious criminals since its inception. It helps in restituting, retribution and incapacitating for crimes like murder, treason and other serious crimes (Kasten 2). Today, the state governments have the responsibility to decide on capital punishment. There are thirty-eight states in the United States that have allowed capital punishment but only seventeen have implemented the punishment on more than two criminals over the twenty years that the law has been in […]
The Idea of Capital Punishment
While punishing crimes by death may seem outlandish to most, capital punishment, better known as the death penalty, is still legal in the majority of our states to this day. Surprisingly, studies show that the majority of citizens in the United States still support capital punishment. In my opinion, I believe that the death penalty should be abolished in all states for three reasons: the morals of using such an extreme punishment, the risk of an unfair judgement, and the […]
The Controversy of Death Penalty
The death penalty is a very controversial topic in many states. Although the idea of the death penalty does sound terrifying, would you really want a murderer to be given food and shelter for free? Would you want a murderer to get out of jail and still end up killing another innocent person? Imagine if that murder gets out of jail and kills someone in your family; Wouldn’t you want that murderer to be killed as well? Murderers can kill […]
My Opinion on the Capital Punishment
I believe the laws of the death penalty can go both ways as of why it should be loosened but retained for serial killers. I think the death penalty should be banned because it's not the best way to punish killers because it doesn’t reduce the crime rate. Not only does it not reduce crime rate but it also isn’t equal throughout the United States because only twenty states have abolished capital punishment. The death penalty cost the United States […]
Is Capital Punishment a Violation of Human Rights
The Eighth Amendment of United States Constitution provides that “excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.” Numerous Supreme Court Justices have wrestled with the interpretation of the Eighth Amendment and the question of what the Framers really meant by it. Capital Punishment also known as ‘The Death Penalty’ should be abolished because it is inhuman and shows little regard for human life. For years and even today, the idea ‘an eye […]
Capital Punishment is Morally Indefensible
The story of one of the most horrific hate crimes of our day came to an end this past Thursday. Or did it? Capital punishment also termed punishment by death was used on John William King by lethal injection for the murder of James Byrd Jr. The family however shared with CNN news reporters as they watched their brother’s murderer be executed, “they believe this was a just punishment, however, they felt nothing, there was no sense of relief."" Understandably […]
The Inclusion of Capital Punishment through History
The inclusion of capital punishment as a penalty for criminal behavior has existed from the beginning of civilized society. The practice came to the United States with the first immigrants, was not excluded by the framers of the constitution, and continues to be a form of criminal punishment in thirty states, as well as the United States Government and Military. Despite its long history, capital punishment is controversial because of its extreme nature. As the American population has grown and […]
Stephen Nathanson’s “An Eye for an Eye”
According to Stephen Nathanson's "An Eye for an Eye?", he believes that capital punishment should be immediately abolished and that the principle of punishment, "lex talionis" which correlates to the classic saying "an eye for an eye" is not a valid reason for issuing the death penalty in any country, thus, abolishment of Capital Punishment should follow. Throughout the excerpt from his book, Nathanson argues against this principle believing that one, it forces us to "commit highly immoral actions”raping a […]
Capital Punishment Needs to End
We need to end capital punishment! In America today, there are over 1,000 state prisoners on death row (Meehan, 1). A Justice Department official recently said that many of them are exhausting their appeals and that we may soon, "witness executions at a rate approaching the more than three per week that prevailed during the 1930s,” (Meehan, 1). The death penalty is atrocious and an unacceptable punishment. Our world and country will greatly benefit by the abolishment of capital punishment. […]
Why Capital Punishment is Cruel: Argumenatation
Death penalty, or capital punishment, are means of legal punishment that have been continuously analyzed and argued. Some serious criminal offenses are punishable by death (most often violent homicides where the jury determines that the convicted offender lacks remorse). Capital punishment remains controversial and has been outlawed in many countries. Many countries also still allow the death penalty under certain circumstances/when a certain crime is committed. Many states in the United States still allow capital punishment. The majority of the […]
Capital Punishment: Solving Murder with Murder
In the year of 2018, 2,738 people were killed by the death penalty marked by July 1st. Majority of the executions since 1976 have been primarily white defendants with a number of 55.7% amongst another race. In our country the death penalty was set in motion by 30 states by October 11th, 2018; having Texas leading with a total of 560 executions by 2019. In a world where we completely ban murder from even happening in the first place, we […]
Capital Punishment Crime Deterrence
Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 Beginning of Capital Punishment The death penalty, also know as capital punishment, is where a criminal is put to death by a governing authority. Capital punishment has been used since ancient times. The earliest sign of capital punishment dates back to the eighteenth century BCE. In ancient Babylon, Greece and Asia capital punishment was used for crimes such as property damage, theft and practicing magic. A code of vengeance between tribal groups, known as the vendetta […]
Is the Death Penalty Morally Right?
There have been several disputes on whether the death penalty is morally right. Considering the ethical issues with this punishment can help distinguish if it should be denied or accepted. For example, it can be argued that a criminal of extreme offenses should be granted the same level of penance as their crime. During the duration of their sentencing they could repent on their actions and desire another opportunity of freedom. The death penalty should be outlawed because of too […]
Why Capital Punishment is Cruel and Regressive
Capital Punishment is the legally authorized killing someone for committing a heinous crime. This form of punishment is very flawed and should be outlawed for the following reasons: The Death Penalty Models the Behavior it Seeks to Prevent, The death penalty is incompatible with human rights and human dignity/ There is no humane way to kill, The risk of executing innocent people exists in any justice system, and there has been numerous amounts of cases to make Capital Punishment unconstitutional […]
Capital Punishment in the State of California
Along with costly trials and imprisonments comes the possibility of wrongfully executing an innocent human being – something of which has unfortunately occurred after past death sentence trials. A wrongful execution can stem anywhere from: inadequate legal representation, police and prosecutorial misconduct to mistaken eyewitness testimonies and racial prejudice or community/political pressures to solve a case. “According to a sweeping new statistical analysis, … the rate of wrongful death sentences in the U.S. is much higher than experts have estimated” […]
Religious Values and Death Penalty
Religious and moral values tell us that killing is wrong. Thou shall not kill. To me, the death penalty is inhumane. Killing people makes us like the murderers that most of us despise. No imperfect system should have the right to decide who lives and who dies. The government is made up of imperfect humans, who make mistakes. The only person that should be able to take life, is god. "An eye for an eye leaves the whole world blind". […]
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Essay About Capital Punishment Capital punishment is a death penalty that is put into impact for significant wrongdoings. Capital punishment is an exceptionally dubious theme in the Country and all through the world. The United States has been divided by the death penalty debate, there are many supporters, however; there are also many who opposes it. For Capital Punishment Advocates of capital punishment state it is a vital instrument for protecting lawfulness, preventing crime, and not cost as much life detainment. The defenders of capital punishment think that revenge or eye for an eye praises the person in question. Capital punishment defenders also feel that it helps comfort devastated loved ones and guarantees the culprits of offensive violations never have a chance to cause future tragedy. In most criminal cases, survivors demand justice for killers of relatives. Many people have faith that the criminal justice system is in existence, in great part, to deflect others from carrying out wrongdoings. Surveys demonstrate that crime is the main concern of most citizens of the United States and the people support capital punishment. President Bush made the war on crime a major priority years ago and placed capital punishment change the most important item in the fight against crime (Hansen, 1992). Lawmakers and some citizens praise capital punishment for its motivating capacity to reinforce the community’s retributive and obstructive messages. Many individuals feel like capital punishment serves as a marvelous advertiser of criminals that may decide to perform disturbing crimes. The requirement of capital punishment for planned homicides lies in the answer to the Country’s problems. Against Capital Punishment Contenders of the death penalty state there is no obstruction impact on crime, wrongly enables the government to take human life, and sustains social treacheries by excessively focusing on certain individuals and people who cannot afford the price of good lawyers. Capital punishment has no impediment impact on criminality, individuals fells this enables the government to take the life of humans. Capital punishment is a weight to citizens economically because the genuine price of operating an execution is said to be 2-5 times greater than separating the criminal in the penitentiary for as many years as possible. The practice of accomplishing a decision to hang the criminal is an extensive amount of time since it involves various petitions, thorough events which strain the whole procedure as the suspect can be on trial for many years. The procedure requires a considerable amount of money to assist numerous officers extending from lawyers, judges, clerks, and other officials in court. The general routine of chastisement is worth holding to preserve criminal law even though the practice as a whole may be administered unfairly. The use of capital punishment should be dismissed as it is disseminated unethically, keeping other requirements of criminal law unblemished (Brooks, 2004). The criminal justice system ought to mirror the ethical opinions of humanity. Thus, causing the punishment of death on its community entirely disrupts religious lessons on the holiness of life. Conclusion It can be determined that there are many pros and cons connected with capital punishment however persuasively it very well may be pleased that the cons exceed the pros for example it is consistently satisfactory that life is given by God and no person should make that type of decision.
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Capital Punishment Essay
Essay on Capital Punishment
Capital Punishment is the execution of a person given by the state as a means of Justice for a crime that he has committed. It is a legal course of action taken by the state whereby a person is put to death as a punishment for a crime. There are various methods of capital punishment in order to execute a criminal such as lethal injection, hanging, electrocution, gas chamber, etc. Based on moral and humanitarian grounds, capital punishment is subjected to many controversies not only at the national level but also at the global platform. One must understand the death sentence by itself.
Many records of various civilizations and primal tribal methods denote that the death penalty was a part of their justice system. The system of the prison was evolved to keep people in confinement for some time who have done wrong in their life and was harmful to society. The idea behind keeping the criminal in the prison was to give them a chance to change and reform themselves. The idea works well with people who have done minor offences like theft, robbery, etc. A complication arises when grievous offences like brutal and inhumane acts of rape, murder, mass killing, etc. are involved. So, the contentious part is the grimness of the crime, which is the deciding reason for execution.
During the 20th century period, millions of people died in the wars between the nations or states. In this violent period, military organizations practised capital punishment as a way of maintaining discipline. The death penalty was employed for crimes in many religious beliefs and historically was practised widely with the support of religious hierarchies. Today, there is no religious faith attached to the morality of capital punishment. It has been left to the discretion of the judiciary system to award the punishment in special circumstances.
Most people feel that punishment for crimes like murders, rapes, and mass killings should not be death but some reformative or preventive sentence. The death penalty cannot reform a criminal, since once dead he cannot be reformed. Some people hold the view that no one has the right to take away anyone’s life for any reason. One should not take the role of God in taking away anybody’s life. At the same time, a criminal has no right to take away anyone’s life for any reason at all. If a person could go to an extent of taking someone’s life, he too has no right to live in a civilized society. Both the arguments can be cited to support viewpoints that are poles apart.
Mankind has coined a large number of methods of capital punishment:
hanging by the rope until a person breathes his last.
death by electric current.
the murderer faces a firing squad.
the offender is beheaded and executed.
the culprit is poisoned.
the offender is stoned to death.
he is burnt alive at the stake.
the criminal is made to drown.
the criminal is thrown before hungry beasts of prey.
death through crucifixion.
the offender is thrown into a poisonous gas chamber.
Methods can be different but all of these methods have one thing common and that is capital punishment is barbaric in all forms. It is savage and vindictive. It is a relic of an uncivilized era. Many people say that the methods by which executions are carried out involve physical torture. Contrary to the popular belief that the death penalty deters all future crimes, various surveys have shown that the threat of the death penalty does not in any way reduce the occurrence of violent crimes.
Capital Punishment in India
Capital punishment in India does not come with a single stoke. The practice of Capital punishment is not very common in India. In our country, the Court of Session awards a death sentence according to the gravity of the offence, and this verdict requires confirmation by the High Court. Then an appeal can be made to the Supreme Court of India. In some cases, an appeal to the Supreme Court lies as a matter of right, where the High Court has reversed the verdict of the Sessions Court either into acquittal or punishment or has enhanced the sentence to capital punishment.
Lastly, if needed an appeal can be made to the president of India and the governors of states for mercy. The President is solely guided by the notes in the files by the Home Minister or the Secretariat. He is bound to pen down the reasons for mercy. It is exercised very judiciously.
Contemplating over capital punishment has been ramping on for a countless number of years. It is true that the death sentence is not the solution to the increase in crimes but at the same time, capital punishment inflicts physiological fear in the minds of people. In many countries, the use of this punishment has helped to deter crimes and change the minds of future criminals against committing heinous crimes. Capital punishment should be given in the rare of the rarest cases after proper investigation of the criminal’s offence.
FAQs on Capital Punishment Essay
Q1. What Do You Understand By Capital Punishment?
Ans. Capital Punishment is the execution of a person given by the state as a means of Justice for a crime that he has committed. It is a legal course of action taken by the state whereby a person is put to death as a punishment for a crime. There are quite a few methods of capital punishment to execute a criminal such as lethal injection, hanging, electrocution, gas chamber, etc.
Q2. Why Do Some People Argue Against Capital Punishment?
Ans. Some people argue against capital punishment because they hold the view that no one other than God has the right to take anyone’s life. They argue that criminals should get a chance to change or reform themselves into good and responsible human beings. If they are executed, then they cannot be reformed.
Q3. What are Some Methods that Mankind has Coined for Capital Punishment?
Ans. Mankind has coined various methods of capital punishment:
the criminal is burnt alive at the stake.
the offender is thrown before hungry beasts of prey.
Q4. Does Capital Punishment Deter the Rate of Crimes?
Ans. There is no solid evidence to the theory of capital punishment that it reduces the crime rate but yes it does instil psychological fear in the minds of future criminals against committing heinous crimes.
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Argumentative Essays on Death Penalty
The death penalty for murderers: ethical considerations, death penalty as a cruel and unusual punishment, made-to-order essay as fast as you need it.
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Capital Punishment: Establish Or Demolish
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The Death Penalty: Pros and Cons
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Why I Support The Death Penalty in Special Cases
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Pro Death Penalty: Uncovering The Good Side in The Evil
Pro-death penalty arguments: a comprehensive analysis, the ethics of capital punishment: death is not a right decision, the death penalty as an effective punishment, abolishment of capital punishment, why capital punishment should be legalized, abolishing the death penalty: a persuasive call for justice, reasons why the death penalty should be abolished, analysis of the effect of death penalty on crime rates in iran, the reasons why i am against death penalty, punishing the unforgivable: a study of capital punishment, against the death penalty: a persuasive argument for abolition, the legitimacy of the death penalty, people’s attitude to the death penalty, the death penalty issue in texas, the unethical nature of death penalty: an argumentative perspective, the public support for the death penalty in singapore, research paper on the drawbacks of death penalty, pro-death penalty arguments for serious crimes in south africa, death penalty: the answer to today's incarceration problems.
The death penalty, known as capital punishment, refers to the act of carrying out the prescribed execution of a convicted offender who has been sentenced to death by a court of law for committing a criminal offense.
The history of the death penalty stretches back thousands of years. Its origins can be traced to ancient civilizations such as Mesopotamia, where various forms of execution were practiced, including hanging, beheading, and stoning. Throughout history, the death penalty has been used by different societies as a means of punishment for a range of offenses. In medieval Europe, the death penalty became more prevalent, with common methods including burning at the stake, drawing and quartering, and hanging. The practice was often carried out publicly as a form of deterrence and to demonstrate the power of the ruling authority. Over time, there have been shifts in public opinion and legal systems regarding the death penalty. In the 18th century, the Enlightenment era brought forth ideas of human rights and the reformation of justice systems, leading to calls for the abolition of cruel and excessive punishments. In the modern era, many countries have abolished the death penalty, considering it a violation of human rights and the right to life. However, the death penalty remains in practice in several countries around the world, albeit with varying degrees of usage and controversy.
Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United States, Japan, Taiwan, China, India, North Korea, Singapore, Iraq, Vietnam, Yemen, Somalia, Bangladesh, South Sudan, etc.
Hanging, shooting, lethal injection, beheading, stoning, inert gas asphyxiation, electrocution and gas inhalation.
Furman v. Georgia: In 1972, this groundbreaking legal case had a profound impact on the death penalty in the United States. The Supreme Court's decision resulted in a temporary suspension of capital punishment across the nation. The ruling declared that the arbitrary application of the death penalty violated the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments of the Constitution. Consequently, states were compelled to revise their death penalty laws in order to address concerns of arbitrariness and ensure a fairer application of the ultimate punishment. The Troy Davis case: Troy Davis, who was convicted of murder in Georgia in 1991, garnered international attention and raised substantial doubts about the fairness and accuracy of the death penalty. Despite maintaining his innocence until his execution in 2011, his case shed light on issues such as the reliability of eyewitness testimony, the potential for racial bias within the criminal justice system, and the inherent risk of wrongful convictions.
Public opinion on the death penalty is diverse and varies across different countries and cultures. However, there are several common trends and perspectives. Supporters of the death penalty argue that it serves as a deterrent to crime and provides justice for victims and their families. They believe that certain crimes warrant the ultimate punishment and that the death penalty acts as a form of retribution. On the other hand, opponents of the death penalty raise concerns about its morality, effectiveness, and potential for wrongful convictions. They argue that capital punishment violates the right to life, promotes violence, and is irreversible in cases of wrongful execution. Many argue that the justice system is fallible and prone to errors, raising questions about the reliability and fairness of capital punishment. Public opinion on the death penalty has been shifting in some countries, with a growing trend towards abolition. Factors such as evolving societal values, concerns about human rights, and the recognition of the potential for errors and biases within the justice system have contributed to changing perspectives.
1. Deterrence. 2. Retribution. 3. Justice for victims. 4. Cost-effectiveness. 5. Upholding societal values.
1. Irreversibility. 2. Human rights. 3. Ineffectiveness as a deterrent. 4. Racial and socioeconomic biases. 5. Moral and ethical considerations.
The topic of the death penalty is of paramount importance due to its profound implications on society, justice, and human rights. It raises fundamental questions about punishment, ethics, and the role of the state in administering justice. The death penalty sparks intense debates on multiple fronts, including its effectiveness as a deterrent, the potential for wrongful convictions, and the moral implications of state-sanctioned killing. Examining the death penalty forces us to confront inherent biases and flaws within the criminal justice system, such as racial and socioeconomic disparities in sentencing. It prompts discussions on the irreversibility of capital punishment and the risks of executing innocent individuals. Moreover, it demands an exploration of alternative approaches to punishment, rehabilitation, and the potential for reforming criminal justice systems.
The topic of the death penalty is highly relevant and worth exploring in an essay for students due to its interdisciplinary nature and profound societal impact. Writing an essay on this subject provides an opportunity for students to delve into complex ethical, legal, and social issues. Studying the death penalty encourages critical thinking and analysis of the justice system, including questions about fairness, human rights, and the potential for error. It prompts students to examine the moral implications of state-sanctioned killing and grapple with issues of punishment and rehabilitation. Furthermore, researching the death penalty enables students to explore the historical and cultural aspects of capital punishment, analyzing its evolution and variations across different societies. They can investigate case studies, legal precedents, and empirical evidence to evaluate the effectiveness, equity, and potential biases associated with the death penalty.
1. In 2020, Amnesty International reported that at least 483 executions were carried out in 18 countries worldwide. The top five executing countries were China, Iran, Egypt, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia. 2. According to the Death Penalty Information Center, as of April 2021, 185 innocent individuals have been exonerated and released from death row in the United States since 1973. 3. The United States is among the few Western democracies that still retain the death penalty. However, its use has significantly declined over the years. In 2020, the country recorded the lowest number of executions (17) in nearly three decades.
1. Donohue III, J. J., & Wolfers, J. (2009). Estimating the impact of the death penalty on murder. American Law and Economics Review, 11(2), 249-309. (https://academic.oup.com/aler/article-abstract/11/2/249/232287) 2. Goldberg, A. J., & Dershowitz, A. M. (1970). Declaring the death penalty unconstitutional. Harvard Law Review, 1773-1819. (https://www.jstor.org/stable/1339687) 3. Soss, J., Langbein, L., & Metelko, A. R. (2003). Why do white Americans support the death penalty?. The Journal of Politics, 65(2), 397-421. (https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1111/1468-2508.t01-2-00006) 4. Banner, S. (2022). The death penalty. In The Death Penalty. Harvard University Press. (https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.4159/9780674020511/html) 5. Hoyle, C. (2008). Death Penalty. In Elgar Encyclopedia of Human Rights. Edward Elgar Publishing. (https://www.elgaronline.com/display/book/9781789903621/b-9781789903621.death.penalty.xml) 6. Radelet, M. L., & Borg, M. J. (2000). The changing nature of death penalty debates. Annual Review of Sociology, 26(1), 43-61. (https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.soc.26.1.43) 7. Vidmar, N., & Ellsworth, P. (1973). Public opinion and the death penalty. Stan. L. Rev., 26, 1245. (https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/stflr26&div=63&id=&page=) 8. Donohue, J. J., & Wolfers, J. (2006). Uses and abuses of empirical evidence in the death penalty debate. (https://www.nber.org/papers/w11982) 9. Ellsworth, P. C., & Gross, S. R. (1994). Hardening of the attitudes: Americans' views on the death penalty. Journal of social Issues, 50(2), 19-52. (https://spssi.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1994.tb02409.x) 10. Wolfgang, M. E., & Riedel, M. (1973). Race, judicial discretion, and the death penalty. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 407(1), 119-133. (https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/000271627340700110)
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