- Staff intranet
- Find an event
- Academic writing
Types of academic writing
- Planning your writing
- Structuring written work
- Grammar, spelling and vocabulary
- Editing and proofreading
- Evidence, plagiarism and referencing
- Resources and support
The four main types of academic writing are descriptive, analytical, persuasive and critical. Each of these types of writing has specific language features and purposes.
In many academic texts you will need to use more than one type. For example, in an empirical thesis:
- you will use critical writing in the literature review to show where there is a gap or opportunity in the existing research
- the methods section will be mostly descriptive to summarise the methods used to collect and analyse information
- the results section will be mostly descriptive and analytical as you report on the data you collected
- the discussion section is more analytical, as you relate your findings back to your research questions, and also persuasive, as you propose your interpretations of the findings.
The simplest type of academic writing is descriptive. Its purpose is to provide facts or information. An example would be a summary of an article or a report of the results of an experiment.
The kinds of instructions for a purely descriptive assignment include: 'identify', 'report', 'record', 'summarise' and 'define'.
It’s rare for a university-level text to be purely descriptive. Most academic writing is also analytical. Analytical writing includes descriptive writing, but also requires you to re-organise the facts and information you describe into categories, groups, parts, types or relationships.
Sometimes, these categories or relationships are already part of the discipline, while in other cases you will create them specifically for your text. If you’re comparing two theories, you might break your comparison into several parts, for example: how each theory deals with social context, how each theory deals with language learning, and how each theory can be used in practice.
The kinds of instructions for an analytical assignment include: 'analyse', 'compare', 'contrast', 'relate', and 'examine'.
To make your writing more analytical:
- spend plenty of time planning. Brainstorm the facts and ideas, and try different ways of grouping them, according to patterns, parts, similarities and differences. You could use colour-coding, flow charts, tree diagrams or tables.
- create a name for the relationships and categories you find. For example, advantages and disadvantages.
- build each section and paragraph around one of the analytical categories.
- make the structure of your paper clear to your reader, by using topic sentences and a clear introduction.
In most academic writing, you are required to go at least one step further than analytical writing, to persuasive writing. Persuasive writing has all the features of analytical writing (that is, information plus re-organising the information), with the addition of your own point of view. Most essays are persuasive, and there is a persuasive element in at least the discussion and conclusion of a research article.
Points of view in academic writing can include an argument, recommendation, interpretation of findings or evaluation of the work of others. In persuasive writing, each claim you make needs to be supported by some evidence, for example a reference to research findings or published sources.
The kinds of instructions for a persuasive assignment include: 'argue', 'evaluate', 'discuss', and 'take a position'.
To help reach your own point of view on the facts or ideas:
- read some other researchers' points of view on the topic. Who do you feel is the most convincing?
- look for patterns in the data or references. Where is the evidence strongest?
- list several different interpretations. What are the real-life implications of each one? Which ones are likely to be most useful or beneficial? Which ones have some problems?
- discuss the facts and ideas with someone else. Do you agree with their point of view?
To develop your argument:
- list the different reasons for your point of view
- think about the different types and sources of evidence which you can use to support your point of view
- consider different ways that your point of view is similar to, and different from, the points of view of other researchers
- look for various ways to break your point of view into parts. For example, cost effectiveness, environmental sustainability, scope of real-world application.
To present your argument, make sure:
- your text develops a coherent argument where all the individual claims work together to support your overall point of view
- your reasoning for each claim is clear to the reader
- your assumptions are valid
- you have evidence for every claim you make
- you use evidence that is convincing and directly relevant.
Critical writing is common for research, postgraduate and advanced undergraduate writing. It has all the features of persuasive writing, with the added feature of at least one other point of view. While persuasive writing requires you to have your own point of view on an issue or topic, critical writing requires you to consider at least two points of view, including your own.
For example, you may explain a researcher's interpretation or argument and then evaluate the merits of the argument, or give your own alternative interpretation.
Examples of critical writing assignments include a critique of a journal article, or a literature review that identifies the strengths and weaknesses of existing research. The kinds of instructions for critical writing include: 'critique', 'debate', 'disagree' and 'evaluate'.
You need to:
- accurately summarise all or part of the work. This could include identifying the main interpretations, assumptions or methodology.
- have an opinion about the work. Appropriate types of opinion could include pointing out some problems with it, proposing an alternative approach that would be better, and/or defending the work against the critiques of others.
- provide evidence for your point of view. Depending on the specific assignment and the discipline, different types of evidence may be appropriate, such as logical reasoning, reference to authoritative sources and/or research data.
Critical writing requires strong writing skills. You need to thoroughly understand the topic and the issues. You need to develop an essay structure and paragraph structure that allows you to analyse different interpretations and develop your own argument, supported by evidence.
This material was developed by the Learning Hub (Academic Language and Learning), which offers workshops, face-to-face consultations and resources to support your learning. Find out more about how they can help you develop your communication, research and study skills .
See our Writing skills handouts .
- Learning Hub (Academic Language and Learning)
- Learning Hub (Academic Language and Learning) workshops
- Research skills for HDR students
- Reading and note taking
- Critical thinking
- Website feedback
Your feedback has been sent.
Sorry there was a problem sending your feedback. Please try again
You should only use this form to send feedback about the content on this webpage – we will not respond to other enquiries made through this form. If you have an enquiry or need help with something else such as your enrolment, course etc you can contact the Student Centre.
- Find an expert
- Media contacts
- How to log in to University systems
- Class timetables
- Our rankings
- Faculties and schools
- Research centres
- Campus locations
- Find a staff member
- Careers at Sydney
- Emergencies and personal safety
- Subject Guides
Academic writing: a practical guide
Types of academic writing.
- Academic writing
- The writing process
- Academic writing style
- Structure & cohesion
- Criticality in academic writing
- Working with evidence
- Assessment & feedback
- Reflective writing
- Examination writing
- Academic posters
Guides: types of writing
This section helps you develop the specific skills needed for key types of academic writing.
There are many types of academic writing, each with its own aims, structure and style. The tasks you might do depends on your subject, the module assessment aims and your level of study. For example, essays are common in arts and humanities subjects, but reports are more common in science subjects.
Use the resources on this page for a brief overview of the different styles of writing, or visit our dedicated guides to explore a writing type in detail.
Types of academic writing [YouTube]
- << Previous: Tools
- Next: Essays >>
- Last Updated: Aug 24, 2023 4:15 PM
- URL: https://subjectguides.york.ac.uk/academic-writing
Want to create or adapt books like this? Learn more about how Pressbooks supports open publishing practices.
8 Types of Academic Writing
Identifying the keywords in your assignment instructions can help you understand the type of writing that you are expected to do.
If you are a beginning academic writer, in your first semester of university studies, you will likely start with some descriptive writing.
By the end of your first semester, you may be expected to include analysis, persuasion, and critique in your writing. Most of the academic writing you will do as a university student will include a combination of these different types of writing.
Below, we’ll look more closely at the four different types of writing (descriptive, analytical, persuasive, and critical) and consider strategies for developing ideas.
Click on the titles to expand the sections.
- Description and discussion of types of writing reproduced, with permission, from "Types of Academic Writing" by University of Sydney Learning Centre https://sydney.edu.au/students/writing/types-of-academic-writing.html ↵
Academic Writing Basics Copyright © 2019 by Megan Robertson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.
Share This Book
What is Academic Writing? Common Types With Examples
| Candace Osmond
Candace Osmond studied Advanced Writing & Editing Essentials at MHC. She’s been an International and USA TODAY Bestselling Author for over a decade. And she’s worked as an Editor for several mid-sized publications. Candace has a keen eye for content editing and a high degree of expertise in Fiction.
Every person experiences writing an academic paper at least once in their student life. This type of writing uses accurate language, facts, logical flow, and a formal tone to showcase their knowledge.
These academic writing styles and examples will help you receive a perfect score or get that research grant. Keep reading to know the elements and types of academic writing with examples.
How is Academic Writing Different from Other Types of Writing?
An academic paper is writing used in universities and scholarly publications with a formal tone in its content. It includes essays, research papers, research proposals, and other documents for scholarly publication.
Any academic writing has the same process as other texts. However, the topic, idea, and tone are different. For example, a journal article brings attention to unbiased information through a clear and precise thesis statement.
A thesis statement includes the entire argument of your study or paper. It involves the central idea that shows your content reader what you will reveal or prove. Because it’s supposed to be objective, academic writing must have theories, causes, and effects.
This type of writing doesn’t always need to be based on facts. But it needs to be as objective and unbiased as possible. Here’s what differentiates academic writing from personal writing.
Formal approach with an impersonal tone
Cites scholarly sources
Sentences are made of evidence, evaluations, and arguments.
Focused and well-structured
Formal or informal approach may include conversational language.
Doesn’t require scholarly sources
Content is made of personal experiences
Elements of Academic Writing
The elements of academic writing vary according to the specific type of writing you’re producing. But here are some common elements of any academic writing assignment.
The best-known writers in any field of study know how to use jargon words in any report or essay to convey an academic tone. For the ordinary reader, everything might look like flowery language. But for readers in the same discipline, the writer makes convincing arguments.
An academic writing style always has a certain level of vocabulary. The two types include:
- Academic vocabulary (more general).
- Subject-vocabulary (for a particular field of study).
Some examples of general academic vocabulary include “analyze,” “concept,” and “construct.” In the field of law, some subject-vocabulary include “acquittal,” “dismissal,” “jurisdiction,” and “tribunal.”
Scholarly articles need to include proper citation styles to establish a more authoritative tone. The academic content must include research from reliable sources like studies and journal articles.
Even if you only borrowed an idea and used it in a single sentence, you still need to follow proper referencing. Some style guides include Modern Language Association (MLA), Chicago Manual Style, and American Psychological Association (APA).
Academic content should also pay attention to the conventions of the reference list. Check the style guide to see how you should format the bibliography. Remember that other style guides also require footnotes.
Academic essay writing needs to have a proper outline to convey the entire message. First, academic articles should contain a research question or thesis statement to develop their argument. This should be in the introduction part.
The body of writing contains all supporting details. You may use headings to divide longer texts into chapters. Your body paragraph should also start with a topic sentence all the time.
Don’t forget to use transition words when expressing connections between your ideas. Use the proper punctuations with a variety of sentence lengths.
Uses Third Person Point of View Most of the Time
Academic writing usually uses a third-person point of view like “he,” “she,” or “they.” The writer doesn’t refer to themselves as “I” or “me.” Instead, they use “researcher” to name themselves.
Doing so provides more objectivity to the paper, separating the author from the academic topics. It also stresses the academic style where the writer supports their focused argument and not their personal experience.
But some academic journals now accept the first-person point of view, especially APA. It doesn’t necessarily mean the writer is using informal language. Using credible sources and academic vocabulary still keeps the paper’s formality.
Common Types of Academic Writing
There are different types of academic writing, including a book report, journal article, and dissertation. Here are the most common types:
- Research paper.
- Research proposal.
- Thesis and dissertation.
- Lab report.
- Literature review,
- Annotated bibliography.
We can also categorize the major types of these papers into five.
Descriptive papers are the simplest types of writing that academic writers produce. It has several purposes, although it primarily offers facts and information in several fields of study. This academic writing can describe a phenomenon, person, place, case, or object.
You can also use personal experience when making descriptive essays. But effective writing includes using precise language to avoid turning it into personal writing.
Most academic papers in universities aren’t entirely descriptive. A scientific question and an analysis typically follow a factual statement. Analytical writing includes reorganizing facts, showing relationships, and comparing information.
An academic study may include comparing and contrasting complex ideas and theories.
Or you may deconstruct a single notion and contextualize it in a different social setting. You’ll find this writing style in reviews of literature.
When writing an analytical paper, always make the structure of your writing clear. Create an outline beforehand, and don’t forget to add accurate citations.
Persuasive writing has the same characteristics as analytical writing, plus your point of view. This type of writing requires a coherent argument backed by relevant evidence throughout the paper.
The writer also has to include a recommendation, interpretation of findings, and an analysis of others’ scholarly writing. Some academic writing examples include persuasive essays and the final part of a research article.
Any persuasive assignment requires you to “discuss,” “evaluate,” or “argue.” As always, you need to add citations to your work to make yourself more credible.
Critical writing is a form of writing in college essays and postgraduate writing. Critical writing assignments follow a formal writing style with the added feature of another point of view.
What makes it different from persuasive writing is that a critical essay needs more than one point of view. And that includes your own. This writing should also have a strong statement or messages backed by authoritative sources.
Academic Writing Example 1: Research Proposals
Colleges usually submit research proposals before conducting their studies. This form of academic writing is a concise yet coherent summary of your proposed research. It should contain the essential issues and questions that your research should address.
Aside from outlining the general area of your study, the proposal also proves that your research will be unique and beneficial. Although it’s not a persuasive paper, it should convince the professor that your study is worth performing.
An excellent-quality paper also matches your research interest with the professor or supervisor. Consider it like an application on which potential advisers will pick if they want to support your research or not.
The research proposal also allows you to demonstrate your skills and aptitude for the level of research you’re conducting. This is where you can prove that you can communicate complex ideas concisely and critically.
Research Proposal Structure
The research proposal must always contain the following:
- A cover letter addressed to whom you’re proposing. It must show a summary of your proposal and why they should approve it.
- An introduction or abstract in a short paragraph.
- The rationale, significance, and limitations of your research.
- Your methods for conducting the study, including your budget.
Research Proposal Example
Here’s a great example of an excerpt from a research proposal in the field of criminology:
The empirical focus of the research will be strategies of restorative justice, as articulated by Thames Valley Police. Recent developments in restorative justice constitute a radical realignment in police practices, resulting in a more holistic and multi-level approach (involving all forms of police’ consumer’, including victims, offenders, families, local authorities and members of the business community). In this regard, Thames Valley offers a unique case of a self-styled ‘model’ of modern policing and is considered to be one of the most innovative forces in the country (see, for example, their Restorative Justice programme, 2001).
Academic Writing Example 2: Dissertations
Dissertations are another type of academic paper with definite writing rules. This document aims to give evidence of a candidate’s knowledge and skills in a scholarly method. But the content itself may serve educational purposes that contribute to the field of study.
This academic paper typically has ten to twenty thousand words that answer a specific research question. The answer to the research question may be based on an experiment, empirical study, or literature review.
To advisers and professors, the method of producing a dissertation matters more than the result. You can still create a dissertation without actual findings or if your tested hypothesis was wrong.
You might have to conduct a study even before writing the dissertation. A needs analysis, survey, or experiment will help you determine the significant “problem” or “question” you want to address.
Let your supervisor or adviser direct how you will conduct your studies. They will instruct the scope, limitations, and method for your research.
Dissertations and thesis papers always pay attention to structure. Below is the academic paper format of a dissertation:
- Introduction (including the background of the study and its significance).
- Review of related literature.
- Findings or data analysis.
- Conclusion and recommendations.
Here’s one example of an excerpt from a sample dissertation :
This chapter will discuss secondary research findings using the National Health Service as a case study. The secondary sources discussed will use all relevant material such as books, journal articles, publications from the National Health Service website and newspaper articles that have been reviewed by an individual or a group of individuals who are involved with a study or have performed extensive research within an area which is directly or indirectly related to the main question of this dissertation.
Academic Writing Example 3: Abstracts
The abstract summarizes your dissertation or research paper found at the start of the document. It’s composed of evidence-based arguments and research outcomes in concise sentences.
This type of academic writing is the shortest and, therefore, the easiest. It usually has around 150-300 words only. The word limit depends on the style guide you’re following or the advice of your research adviser.
There are several acceptable approaches to writing an abstract. The easiest way is to imitate the structure of your large paper. It should contain the introduction, method, findings, and conclusions.
Although the abstract is the first part of your thesis or research paper, it’s usually the last you write. Remember that it’s not an excerpt from your report or a reflection of your work. It’s simply a summary of everything in one paragraph.
Your abstract must contain the following in only a few sentences:
Here’s an example of an abstract whose research focuses on medicine:
The Southwest shrub Juniperus communis (Juniper Berry) has many significant medicinal value in the Native American culture that has not been proven scientifically. One of the popular uses of Juniper berries aside from its detoxifying action is its potential to repel insects. This study focuses on the development of insect repellant from its essential oil obtained through steam distillation. 50 g of fresh berries was collected and dried for 5 days and is placed in a still tank with 100 mL of water for steam distillation using the Flinn Scientific Borosilicate Lab Kit. Gather the extracted oil and dilute 70% in three separate containers to be transferred into spray bottles. Testing involved the spraying of the dilute sample into a class jar with Anopheles juidthae (common NM mosquito) and compared this to the effect of a commercial insect repellant. After testing and comparing the result, the commercial insect repellant significantly showed that it is a better insect repellant compared to the J. communis diluted essential oil. However, the essential oil has also an insect repellant potential.
Practice Your Academic Writing Skills
There are different types of academic writing styles you’ll encounter as you enter university or college. Whether it’s a dissertation, research paper, or persuasive essay, remember to use a formal and impersonal tone. Doing so will help you become more logical and objective.
Keep practicing your academic writing skills to succeed in your field of study!
Help Us Improve!
- Did we make a mistake? - Do you have feedback or suggestions on how we can improve?
ENHANCE YOUR SKILLS WITH OUR FREE INTERACTIVE PROOFREADING AND EDITING WORKSHEETS!
- Test your grammar knowledge
- Identify and correct common grammar mistakes
- Learn correct punctuation
- Practice your proofreading skills
Grammarist is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com. When you buy via the links on our site, we may earn an affiliate commission at no cost to you.
2023 © Grammarist, a Found First Marketing company. All rights reserved.
How to Master the 4 Types of Academic Writing
Written by Scribendi
If you live in the academic writing world, you know that scholarly writers express their ideas in a wide variety of ways. But did you know that all academic writing can be categorized into 4 essential styles?
To excel in each, you must be familiar with each of the 4 academic writing styles: descriptive, analytical, persuasive, and critical .
Let's dive into how you can master each of the 4 types of academic writing so that you're in a great position to write your next paper or proposal.
Want to improve your academic essay writing skills ?
Descriptive writing finds its way into nearly every type of academic writing.
In almost every academic essay, there's an opportunity to summarize or describe an event, situation, incident, case study, or phenomenon, and this is what descriptive writing is—the opportunity to report, define, or record facts or information.
With descriptive writing , the ability to appeal to the five senses when describing an event or phenomenon is paramount. Your word choice should be relevant but also vivid—for example, using the word "stallion" instead of "horse."
As with all academic writing styles, you don't want to use too much jargon or too many complex words that might confuse your reader. But with descriptive writing, you do want to use words that paint a picture and leave the reader with something that appeals to their senses.
While certain elements of descriptive writing can be found in many types of essays, it's less common in argumentative essays because they focus on taking a stance on an issue rather than describing vivid details.
Descriptive writing is used when:
Summarizing the results of an experiment
Sharing findings from research you've done on a topic
Describing a specific problem
Reporting a case study on a group or person
Creating a profile of a group or person
Describes subjects in a way that appeals to the reader's five senses
Uses figurative language like similes and metaphors to help the reader feel what is being described
Uses language that is clear and relevant to your primary theme
Analytical writing is a type of academic writing that investigates the significance of facts or details and presents an argument or claim backed by evidence.
The purpose is to uncover the deeper meaning of an idea through evaluation and critical analysis. Analytical writing answers the questions "Why?", "How?", and "So what?"
Most often, analytical writing is used to analyze a text, movie, issue, idea, or process. Perhaps one of the most important things to remember about analytical writing is that you must break up your topic into smaller pieces and analyze those pieces to shed light on a larger picture.
For example, if you're writing an analytical essay on a novel, you might assess smaller aspects of the book and use your analysis to determine whether the author succeeded in achieving their overall goal, providing evidence to support your argument.
If you need more help, check out The Complete Beginner's Guide to Academic Writing .
Types of analytical essays :
Cause-and-effect: In this type of essay, you write about an event, situation, or process that causes something.
Compare-and-contrast: In this type of essay, you discuss the similarities and differences between things.
Classification: In a classification essay, you divide certain ideas or objects into categories.
Process: A process essay explains the steps taken to achieve something.
Definition: A definition essay offers an explanation of a certain idea or concept.
Key characteristics :
Is clearly outlined and well structured
Is supported by evidence or research
Has a thesis statement
The purpose of persuasive essay writing is to convince the reader to believe or do something.
In persuasive writing, logic and reason are used to prove that a certain idea is more plausible or legitimate than another.
Unlike writing an argumentative essay, which presents a balanced view of both sides of an issue, a persuasive essay favors the author's point of view.
Check out How to Write a Persuasive Essay for more information.
Persuasive writing is used when:
Trying to get your audience to agree with you
Convincing readers to buy services or products, as in advertising and copywriting
Attempting to change political and social trends
Key characteristics :
Clearly explains the aspects of your issue that you aim to address
Presents facts that support your point of view, such as statistics or other researched information
Has an organized structure that builds the argument in a linear fashion—from least important to most important
Has a strong conclusion that persuades your audience of your point of view
Critical writing is used in various academic writing styles to analyze or evaluate a specific text from your point of view.
This doesn't mean you must be critical in the way that you would be critical of a movie you didn't like.
Writing critically is more about analyzing the work than making a judgment about it.
Critical writing allows you to find your academic voice and develop your own critical analysis of a text.
Critical writing is used when:
Discussing movies, novels, poems, or video games
Discussing world events or sociopolitical issues
Presenting research methods and making arguments
Presents why other writers' conclusions should be either accepted or rejected
Presents your own argument with evidence that supports your conclusion
Acknowledges that your own evidence and conclusion have limitations
Academic writing is the best way to contribute complex ideas to the scholarly community.
Check out 4 Examples of Academic Writing on our blog.
Choosing the correct type of academic writing will ensure that your ideas are conveyed clearly and effectively.
No matter which academic writing style you choose, a proofreader or professional editor can help you enhance it.
Gain Confidence in Your Work
Hire an expert academic editor , or get a free sample, about the author.
Scribendi's in-house editors work with writers from all over the globe to perfect their writing. They know that no piece of writing is complete without a professional edit, and they love to see a good piece of writing turn into a great one after the editing process. Scribendi's in-house editors are unrivaled in both experience and education, having collectively edited millions of words and obtained nearly 20 degrees collectively. They love consuming caffeinated beverages, reading books of various genres, and relaxing in quiet, dimly lit spaces.
Have You Read?
"The Complete Beginner's Guide to Academic Writing"
10 Time Management Techniques for Academics
How Academic Writing Differs from Other Forms of Writing
The Complete Beginner's Guide to Academic Writing
Upload your file(s) so we can calculate your word count, or enter your word count manually.
We will also recommend a service based on the file(s) you upload.
Drag File(s) Here to Calculate Your Word Count
English is not my first language. I need English editing and proofreading so that I sound like a native speaker.
I need to have my journal article, dissertation, or term paper edited and proofread, or I need help with an admissions essay or proposal.
I have a novel, manuscript, play, or ebook. I need editing, copy editing, proofreading, a critique of my work, or a query package.
I need editing and proofreading for my white papers, reports, manuals, press releases, marketing materials, and other business documents.
I need to have my essay, project, assignment, or term paper edited and proofread.
I want to sound professional and to get hired. I have a resume, letter, email, or personal document that I need to have edited and proofread.
Select a Service
Prices include your personal % discount.
Prices include % sales tax ( ).
4 Key writing styles and examples of academic writing
Academic writing is an essential part of a researcher’s life; some common examples of academic writing are dissertations, grant proposals, abstracts, and research articles. However, many early career researchers and researchers with English as a second language find themselves struggling with academic writing. Even some native English speakers find it difficult to transition from casual day-to-day writing styles to the more formal, precise, and nuanced writing style expected from students and researchers. In this article, we delve into the most common types and examples of academic writing and the various writing styles employed by researchers and academics.
What is academic writing and how is it different from general writing?
Academic writing is used by scholars and researchers communicate their ideas and findings in academic settings, such as universities and research institutions. It is meant to convey complex ideas and information in a clear, concise, and objective manner, using evidence-based arguments and referencing credible sources. Academic writing samples are characterized by the use of formal language, specialized vocabulary, precision, and strict adherence to specific guidelines, for example, guidelines for citations and referencing.
In contrast, general writing is more informal, the language is often colloquial, and it does not require the same level of precision and accuracy as academic writing. While general writing is common in emails, social media, and personal expression and everyday communication, academic writing is more focused on the presentation of factual information and objective analysis. Academic writing skills are learnt over a period of time through consistent effort and practice. Next, we look at the four common types and examples of academic writing that researchers need to deliver during their academic career.
Types and examples of academic writing
1. Research proposals: A common example of academic writing, research proposals outline a research project that a doctoral candidate or researcher intends to undertake. Since it is usually submitted to funding agencies or academic departments for approval, research proposals must demonstrate why a particular study is needed and highlight key aspects that can increase the chance of securing funds. Typically, research proposals provide a brief overview of the research question or hypothesis, describe the research methodology, and emphasize the intended results. This may also include a literature review and a discussion of the potential significance of the research. As with all other examples of academic writing, researchers must ensure that the research proposal aligns with the guidelines mentioned by universities and funding institutions.
2. Dissertations: A long-form research project, the dissertation is one of the most critical examples of academic writing that PhD students must complete as part of a doctoral program. Dissertations are original research conducted by PhD scholars based on primary or secondary sources and revised and polished based on inputs by faculty experts or doctoral supervisors. Dissertations can span several hundred pages, take several years to complete, and are often published in academic journals or as monographs. Like journal articles, this example of academic writing typically has an introduction, literature review, methodology, results, and discussion, and always follow defined guidelines.
3. Abstracts: Concise summaries of an academic article, book or research project, abstracts are an important example of academic writing. The purpose of an abstract is to provide the audience with a quick understanding of the work’s main ideas and findings, helping them decide whether it is worth going through. Since this short academic text example is usually one of the first glimpses of the book or article’s contents, researchers must spend sufficient time perfecting their abstracts. It is recommended that researchers be aware of the word limits and formats that a journal or an institution has laid down before working on an abstract.
4. Articles: Research articles written for publication in academic journals and publications are probably one of the most common examples of academic writing. Articles are used to communicate specific research findings, theories, and ideas to scholars and researchers around the world and are usually several thousand words long. They also typically follow stipulated formats (e.g., the IMRAD) and guidelines defined by the target publication, so it is critical to know and follow these stringent requirements to a tee. It’s recommended to get your work reviewed by experts, who’ve worked with similar academic writing examples, to ensure the language and structure meet the high standards required for publication.
Familiarize yourself with the different academic writing styles
Good academic writing can be challenging as it requires the right mix of descriptive, analytical, persuasive, and critical writing skills. In fact, for a serious researcher looking to get their articles published in top journals in their field, it is imperative to spend time reading and reviewing different samples of academic writing. Reading the above examples of academic writing, whether focused on general science or their field of research, will offer you valuable insights into how each different piece of academic text is structured and written for the intended audience and purpose. Each of the four academic writing styles has its own unique characteristics and applications.
Descriptive writing is often used in academic writing to help give readers a clear understanding of the research topic. This academic writing style is used to describe and explain different concepts, events, phenomenon, experiments, developments, people, and places, or to simply provide more information or facts about the research. Descriptive writing is often seen in the introductory sections of articles or in literature reviews, which summarize and synthesis existing knowledge on a research topic.
Analytical writing aims to break down complex concepts, events, or phenomenon into its constituent parts and analyze these in detail to identify patterns, relationships, and connections within the topic. The methodology and discussion sections are examples of academic writing where the analytical style is most common; authors must detail the methods used, interpret results in relation to existing knowledge, and corroborate whether the results complement or contradict the research topic.
Persuasive writing aims to convince the reader of the validity of the author’s argument or point of view. It is similar to analytical writing in that it tried to persuade readers to accept the researcher’s stand or argument by emphasizing the evidence and analysis conducted. This academic writing style is often used in the introduction and discussion sections, where authors need to highlight the significance of the research and its contribution to the field. Persuasive writing is also crucial in research proposals, an example of academic writing that helps authors convince funding agencies to support their research.
Critical writing involves the evaluation and analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of an argument or idea; it may result in more than one viewpoint or conclusion based on validated sources. Critical writing helps researchers defend their stand, by identifying biases, assumptions, and logical fallacies in the argument or idea. The most common examples of academic writing that use this style are the literature review and discussion/conclusion sections of a research paper, where authors critically assess existing content and then position their work effectively within the field of study.
In conclusion, every researcher must be aware of and practice these different examples of academic writing. Understanding these diverse academic writing styles and knowing how to tackle different types and samples of academic writing can help research authors tailor their writing effectively to make their work stand out and get noticed.
- Manuscript withdrawal: Reasons, consequences, and how to withdraw submitted manuscripts
- How to write a cover letter for journal submission
- How to write a research paper outline: Simple steps for researchers
- How to identify a predatory journal and steer clear of it
Single vs. double quotation marks: A comparison
Do you keep guessing the right usage of disc vs. disk, you may also like, characteristics of academic writing￼, academic writing groups: 5 benefits for researchers, what is a thesis statement and how to..., how to write a research paper introduction (with..., what is an expository essay and how to..., self-editing: the pros and cons of editing your..., research paper writing: a 15-point academic writing checklist, how to ask a journal editor about manuscript..., how to find the right academic editor and..., supplementary materials in research: 5 tips for authors.
- English English Spanish German French Turkish
4 Common Types of Academic Writing
As a student or anyone in the academic field, you need to know about your text even before you start writing it. In academic writing, there are so many rules, regulations, styles, and guides that you need to follow. Naturally, to write a good piece of work, you need to make sure that you know about what you are writing. Similarly, it is important to know about the different types of academic writing before you get started on it. This guide discusses the various types of scholarly writing.
This brief guide discusses four common types of academic writing. To give you an opportunity to practice proofreading, we have left a few spelling, punctuation, or grammatical errors in the text. See if you can spot them! If you spot the errors correctly, you will be entitled to a 10% discount.
About academic writing
Academic or scholarly writing is a type of writing used in scholarly publications and universities. It is used for writing for any academic topics, including academic journals, books, thesis, research papers, dissertations. When it comes to academic writing, the main point of difference from conventional writing style is its formal and straightforward tone. Therefore, you can distinguish an academic work through its characteristics such as:
Unbiased in nature
Precise, straightforward, and clear
Well-structured and constructed
Factual with properly cited sources.
These are the few characteristics that can help you distinguish academic writing from conventional writing. This writing is strictly used for official and academic works and not for personal or informal content.
The different types of academic writing
Depending on your topic and academic content, you might have to take a different approach to your academic writing. Based on that, academic work can be classified into the following four major types.
1. Descriptive writing
Descriptive writing is one of the simplest and most used academic writing types. The main purpose of descriptive writing is to state facts and inform the audience. So, when you hear these terms in any academic piece — report, summarize, identify, record, define — know that it is descriptive academic writing, which is mostly used for school-level writing and completely theory-based projects.
2. Analytical writing
Analytical writing is the next type of academic writing commonly used in the academic field. When you are working on an academic study, you usually do not only use descriptive writing. You must mix and match different types of writing to convey your message to your target group. Therefore, aside from simply informing, you need to also organize your information in a way that allows your readers to understand the content better. Instead of simply stating your facts and data, you also explain what they are and how they are related to each other. Phrases such as ‘’examine,’’ ‘’compare,’’ ‘’relate,’’ ‘’contrast,’’ and ‘’analyze’’ are the most common words used in analytical writing.
How to get better at analytical writing:
Plan out your data and information before writing.
Try understanding the relationship between your factors before grouping them.
Dedicate one paragraph or section to one analytical category.
Always use a crisp and clear introduction.
3. Persuasive writing
In simple words, persuasive writing involves all the things that an analytical type of writing consists of, with the addition of your opinion — hence, persuasive. Here, along with all facts and information, you derive your opinion out of them. It may be as an interpretation, argument, recommendation, or evaluation of the facts. Whichever it may be, make sure to support your arguments with evidence. Words such as ‘’evaluate,’’ ‘’argue,’’ and ‘’discuss,’’ signify a persuasive form of academic writing.
4. Critical writing
Critical writing is used for advanced pieces and works. This type of critical writing is considered another level in persuasive writing, apart from your opinion, you need to state another viewpoint. Usually used for research, dissertations, reviews, and critical analysis , here you need to talk of your opinion while discussing another viewpoint. For example, for research works, researchers usually discuss existing researchers’ opinions before emphasizing their opinions. Here, phrases such as ‘’evaluate,’’ ‘’debate,’’ ‘’critique,’’ and ‘’disagree’’ denote critical writing.
If you need us to make your manuscript shine, contact us unhesitatingly!
Best Edit & Proof expert editors and proofreaders focus on offering manuscripts with proper tone, content, and style of academic writing, and also provide an upscale editing and proofreading service for you. If you consider our pieces of advice, you will witness a notable increase in the chance for your research manuscript to be accepted by the publishers. We work together as an academic writing style guide by bestowing subject-area editing and proofreading around several categorized writing styles. With the group of our expert editors, you will always find us all set to help you identify the tone and style that your manuscript needs to get a nod from the publishers.
English manuscript formatting service
You can also avail of our assistance if you are looking for editors who can format your manuscript, or just check on the particular styles for the formatting task as per the guidelines provided to you, e.g., APA, MLA, or Chicago/Turabian styles. Best Edit & Proof editors and proofreaders provide all sorts of academic writing help, including editing and proofreading services, using our user-friendly website, and a streamlined ordering process.
Get a free quote for editing and proofreading now!
Visit our order page if you want our subject-area editors or language experts to work on your manuscript to improve its tone and style and give it a perfect academic tone and style through proper editing and proofreading. The process of submitting a paper is very easy and quick. Click here to find out how it works.
Our pricing is based on the type of service you avail of here, be it editing or proofreading. We charge on the basis of the word count of your manuscript that you submit for editing and proofreading and the turnaround time it takes to get it done. If you want to get an instant price quote for your project, copy and paste your document or enter your word count into our pricing calculator.
24/7 customer support | Live support
Contact us to get support with academic editing and proofreading. We have a 24/7 active live chat mode to offer you direct support along with qualified editors to refine and furbish your manuscript.
Stay tuned for updated information about editing and proofreading services!
Follow us on Twitter, LinkedIn, Facebook, Instagram, and Medium .
For more posts, click here.
- Editing & Proofreading
- Citation Styles
- Grammar Rules
- Academic Writing
- Microsoft Tools
- Academic Publishing
- Dissertation & Thesis
- Job & Research Application
How to Determine Central Tendency?
How to Specify Study Variables in Research Papers?
Population vs Sample | Sampling Methods for a Dissertation
How to Ensure the Quality of Academic Writing in a Thesis and Dissertation?
How to Avoid Anthropomorphism in Your Dissertation?
How to Write a Research Methodology Section for a Dissertation and Thesis
How to Write a Theoretical Framework for a Dissertation and Thesis?
How to Write Literature Review for a Dissertation and Thesis
How to Write a Dissertation and Thesis Introduction
How to Write an Abstract for A Dissertation or a Thesis
ANOVA vs MANOVA: Which Method to Use in Dissertations?
7 Issues to Avoid That may Dent the Quality of Thesis Writing
They Also Read
Embarking on an academic work is obligatory for every college student who wants to graduate one day. Such an academic work is considered one of the final and most fundamental practices in the curriculum for college students. Some students who embark on their academic writing projects may not actually be aware of the mistakes (whether trivial or vital) that may delay their graduation or cause them to lose marks, or points in their assignments. So, college students should pay attention to these tips to avoid making the errors herein discussed.
Academic and research works are tenacious studies that include specifics. Therefore, you will come across various terms and phrases that you need to keep in mind while working around. Naturally, it can get overwhelming. However, once you understand the concept, the overall process becomes very easy to work with. This article will focus on dependent and independent variables and discuss what they are, how to determine dependent and independent variables and their uses in academic writing.
Academic writing should be free of all errors and grammatical mistakes to ensure accuracy and professionalism. However, now and then, you come across an error while correcting your work that makes it all extremely difficult — dangling modifiers. What exactly are these, and how can you fix dangling modifiers so that your piece of academic work is perfect in all sense? Don’t worry, as we have the perfect guide to help you through it. In this article, we will cover how you can masterfully eliminate them.
Researchers develop theories to explain phenomena, build connections, and make educated guesses. Therefore, you illustrate the existing ideas supporting your dissertation or thesis in a theoretical framework, depicting that your work has a solid foundation.
We may define a study variable as an attribute of an object of study. Suppose you wish to establish a sound experimental design. In that case, selecting variables to measure is exceedingly crucial.
- Graphic Designers
- Editing Services
- Academic Editing Services
- Admissions Editing Services
- Admissions Essay Editing Services
- APA Style Editing Services
- Application Essay Editing Services
- Book Editing Services
- Business Editing Services
- Capstone Paper Editing Services
- Children's Book Editing Services
- College Application Editing Services
- College Essay Editing Services
- Copy Editing Services
- Developmental Editing Services
- Dissertation Editing Services
- eBook Editing Services
- English Editing Services
- Horror Story Editing Services
- Legal Editing Services
- Line Editing Services
- Manuscript Editing Services
- MLA Style Editing Services
- Novel Editing Services
- Paper Editing Services
- Personal Statement Editing Services
- Research Paper Editing Services
- Résumé Editing Services
- Scientific Editing Services
- Short Story Editing Services
- Statement of Purpose Editing Services
- Substantive Editing Services
- Thesis Editing Services
- Proofreading Services
- Admissions Essay Proofreading Services
- Children's Book Proofreading Services
- Legal Proofreading Services
- Novel Proofreading Services
- Personal Statement Proofreading Services
- Research Proposal Proofreading Services
- Statement of Purpose Proofreading Services
- Graphic Design Services
- Dungeons & Dragons Design Services
- Writing Services
Please enter the email address you used for your account. Your sign in information will be sent to your email address after it has been verified.
A Breakdown of the Four Styles of Academic Writing
Regardless of field of study, academic interests, or grade level, people find themselves writing. Ranging from academic papers in a college-level class to a formal email that a person is sending to a potential employer, there are technical skills that need to be learned to write well. There are four main types of academic writing: descriptive, analytical, critical, and persuasive. To understand what each type of writing requires, let us break these forms down into categories, assign definitions and techniques to each style, and provide examples to provide a better understanding of how these styles are different and how they often interact with each other to create the best writing possible.
Descriptive writing is the most common style of writing, as it appears in academic and non-academic settings regularly. Descriptive writing is based largely on writing statements without providing any explanation. Descriptive writing often answers the basic questions of "who", "what", "when", and "where" to depict people and setting. The key to descriptive writing is to describe and define but not to explain. Unlike in analytical writing, in descriptive writing, there is no argument to be made and no analysis to consider the points that are being stated. In short, there are no answers to the questions "how" or "why".
Some examples of descriptive writing include:
- Summary: A summary of anything (e.g. book chapter, TV episode, article) is considered to be descriptive writing, so long as there is no further explanation or analysis.
- Definition: Defining what an object, event, or place is with no further details.
- Creative writing: The orange and red leaves were rustling in the strong breeze, tree branches snapping and breaking under the force.
- Storytelling: Describing the contents of a dream from last night. These stories include sensory details and a basic plot without analyzing the potential underlying meaning of the dream's content.
An example approach to descriptive writing
Prompt: Summarize the findings of a sociological study done on teen coping methods.
Response: The study surveyed a group of 135 teens, ranging from ages 13 to 18 years of age. The results found that there were five themes of coping: meditation, reflection, avoidance, isolation, and communication. 30% of participants reported having isolated themselves when they were struggling with a problem. Isolation methods were characterized by staying in their bedroom and not attending social gatherings. 5% of participants said that they found solace in meditation characterized by personal quiet time to connect with their surroundings. 40% of participants reported having avoided the problem that they were facing. 10% of teens coped most with reflection, allowing them to think about what was bothering them. 15% of teens coped with communication which was characterized by verbal communication between peers, friends, family, and therapists.
Analytical writing is characterized by the questions "why" and "so what". Although analytical writing and descriptive writing share some similarities, they are not the same. Instead of just stating the facts, like in descriptive writing, analytical writing is all about interpretation of the facts. In analytical writing, there is typically an argument being made, and there is evidence being used to support this argument. Merely stating the facts or an opinion will not work in analytical writing. Organization of thoughts and subsequent evidence is essential to analytical writing. Examples of analytical writing include analytical essays about a specific topic in a novel, the interpretation of results on a sociological study, the interpretation of a historical event and its consequences and impacts on modern society.
Analytical writing is also influenced by the writer, themselves. For example, an environmentalist is going to approach statistical information about environmental concerns and global warming differently than a politician. Depending on the writer's stance, the answers to the "so what" and "what next" questions will vary. To get a better understanding of the process of analytical writing, here is an example model to approach analytical writing.
An example approach to analytical writing
Prompt: A student in a college English course is asked to write an analysis paper on the significance of a small character in the novel that the class just completed.
- Identify the character that you want to write about.
- Identify key characteristics about the character that make him/her stand out from the other characters. These can include physical characteristics, such as habitual body language or appearance, or patterns in behavior.
- Ask yourself these questions: What do these accumulated characteristics tell us about the character? When do they perform certain actions? Who are they with when they perform these actions?
- Compile the evidence and break them down into paragraphs characterized by a specific focus. It is important to not be redundant.
- Analyze the evidence and explain its importance, always going back to supporting your thesis.
- Apply your thesis to the world today. This is the "so what". Why is your argument important, and how does it relate to today's world? What are its modern implications? This is what makes strong analytical writing.
Persuasive writing is like analytical writing, but it is characterized by a person's own point of view on a specific topic or idea. Writers analyze their own argument with the intent to persuade readers to agree with them. It is important to incorporate analysis that answers questions like "why" and "so what". It is more than just stating an original opinion. Just as it is essential to support a thesis or argument with evidence in analytical writing, it is also necessary to provide researched evidence to support a persuasive argument. Persuasive writing requires that the writer evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of his/her own argument. It is important to not come off as biased in the writing, so it is important to acknowledge an opposing viewpoint to the central argument, also providing researched evidence for that contrary argument. This demonstrates that thorough research has been completed and an argument has been chosen and based on concrete reasoning. In doing this, writers can call attention to potential weaknesses of their argument and provide solutions for them, thus answering the "so what" question.
An example approach to persuasive writing
- Argument: Chiropractic care and alternative healing methods are valid forms of healthcare and can supplement traditional medical practices.
- Support: Include research and evidence that supports your argument that alternative forms of healing are legitimate medical practices. Point out the strengths and weaknesses behind your argument.
- Acknowledge the opposing view: Alternative medical practices such as chiropractic care and meditation are not valid forms of healthcare, and traditional medical practices cannot be replaced.
- Support: Provide a piece of research that supports this opposing view.
- Evaluate: Evaluate the potential strengths and weaknesses of the opposing viewpoint.
- Bring it back: Return to your central argument and explain how the opposing viewpoint is weaker than your own. Provide potential solutions to your argument, as this will strengthen your writing and make it more legitimate.
Critical writing is characterized by consideration and critique of multiple sources on a particular argument. Where persuasive writing relies on a central argument and at least one opposing argument, critical writing demands that writers evaluate more than two sources. Research is an important and essential part of critical writing, as it demonstrates the writer's ability to consider and evaluate multiple points of view and then focus on what they believe to be the most accurate argument. This type of writing requires the consideration of the strengths and weaknesses of multiple arguments before the formulation of the writer's idea. Critical writing is largely academic, and the type of sources that will be used and critiqued will depend largely on the background and point of view that a writer is coming from. It is essential to have strong reading comprehension skills, effective reasoning skills, and a strong command of language.
An example approach to critical writing
- Choose a topic: To begin your critical writing journey, select a topic of interest. This should be familiar to the writer or something that the writer wants to explore more in depth.
- Research: Compile a list of academic and researched sources that are relevant to the topic. It is important to include a wide variety of sources with different arguments. This will strengthen the foundation for the writing.
- Evaluate and critique: Once the necessary sources have been gathered, carefully read each argument, and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of them. Consider where these arguments could be strengthened with more research or consideration and consider which parts of the argument are strong and grounded in valid, legitimate evidence.
- Formulate your own argument: Once you have researched and considered multiple resources and their arguments, develop your own stance on the chosen topic.
- Support: Provide evidence and research that supports your informed argument. Like persuasive writing, acknowledging the strengths and weaknesses of your own argument will strengthen the overall writing.
Header photo by Kaitlyn Baker .
APA Citation Examples: All of the Rules You Need To Know
Analytical vs. Descriptive Writing: Definitions and Examples
- Academic Writing Advice
- All Blog Posts
- Writing Advice
- Admissions Writing Advice
- Book Writing Advice
- Short Story Advice
- Employment Writing Advice
- Business Writing Advice
- Web Content Advice
- Article Writing Advice
- Magazine Writing Advice
- Grammar Advice
- Dialect Advice
- Editing Advice
- Freelance Advice
- Legal Writing Advice
- Poetry Advice
- Graphic Design Advice
- Logo Design Advice
- Translation Advice
- Blog Reviews
- Short Story Award Winners
- Scholarship Winners
Need an academic editor before submitting your work?
Have a language expert improve your writing
Run a free plagiarism check in 10 minutes, generate accurate citations for free.
- Knowledge Base
The Beginner's Guide to Writing an Essay | Steps & Examples
An academic essay is a focused piece of writing that develops an idea or argument using evidence, analysis, and interpretation.
There are many types of essays you might write as a student. The content and length of an essay depends on your level, subject of study, and course requirements. However, most essays at university level are argumentative — they aim to persuade the reader of a particular position or perspective on a topic.
The essay writing process consists of three main stages:
- Preparation: Decide on your topic, do your research, and create an essay outline.
- Writing : Set out your argument in the introduction, develop it with evidence in the main body, and wrap it up with a conclusion.
- Revision: Check the content, organization, grammar, spelling, and formatting of your essay.
Table of contents
Essay writing process, preparation for writing an essay, writing the introduction, writing the main body, writing the conclusion, essay checklist, lecture slides, frequently asked questions about writing an essay.
The writing process of preparation, writing, and revisions applies to every essay or paper, but the time and effort spent on each stage depends on the type of essay .
For example, if you’ve been assigned a five-paragraph expository essay for a high school class, you’ll probably spend the most time on the writing stage; for a college-level argumentative essay , on the other hand, you’ll need to spend more time researching your topic and developing an original argument before you start writing.
Here's why students love Scribbr's proofreading services
Discover proofreading & editing
Before you start writing, you should make sure you have a clear idea of what you want to say and how you’re going to say it. There are a few key steps you can follow to make sure you’re prepared:
- Understand your assignment: What is the goal of this essay? What is the length and deadline of the assignment? Is there anything you need to clarify with your teacher or professor?
- Define a topic: If you’re allowed to choose your own topic , try to pick something that you already know a bit about and that will hold your interest.
- Do your research: Read primary and secondary sources and take notes to help you work out your position and angle on the topic. You’ll use these as evidence for your points.
- Come up with a thesis: The thesis is the central point or argument that you want to make. A clear thesis is essential for a focused essay—you should keep referring back to it as you write.
- Create an outline: Map out the rough structure of your essay in an outline . This makes it easier to start writing and keeps you on track as you go.
Once you’ve got a clear idea of what you want to discuss, in what order, and what evidence you’ll use, you’re ready to start writing.
The introduction sets the tone for your essay. It should grab the reader’s interest and inform them of what to expect. The introduction generally comprises 10–20% of the text.
1. Hook your reader
The first sentence of the introduction should pique your reader’s interest and curiosity. This sentence is sometimes called the hook. It might be an intriguing question, a surprising fact, or a bold statement emphasizing the relevance of the topic.
Let’s say we’re writing an essay about the development of Braille (the raised-dot reading and writing system used by visually impaired people). Our hook can make a strong statement about the topic:
The invention of Braille was a major turning point in the history of disability.
2. Provide background on your topic
Next, it’s important to give context that will help your reader understand your argument. This might involve providing background information, giving an overview of important academic work or debates on the topic, and explaining difficult terms. Don’t provide too much detail in the introduction—you can elaborate in the body of your essay.
3. Present the thesis statement
Next, you should formulate your thesis statement— the central argument you’re going to make. The thesis statement provides focus and signals your position on the topic. It is usually one or two sentences long. The thesis statement for our essay on Braille could look like this:
As the first writing system designed for blind people’s needs, Braille was a groundbreaking new accessibility tool. It not only provided practical benefits, but also helped change the cultural status of blindness.
4. Map the structure
In longer essays, you can end the introduction by briefly describing what will be covered in each part of the essay. This guides the reader through your structure and gives a preview of how your argument will develop.
The invention of Braille marked a major turning point in the history of disability. The writing system of raised dots used by blind and visually impaired people was developed by Louis Braille in nineteenth-century France. In a society that did not value disabled people in general, blindness was particularly stigmatized, and lack of access to reading and writing was a significant barrier to social participation. The idea of tactile reading was not entirely new, but existing methods based on sighted systems were difficult to learn and use. As the first writing system designed for blind people’s needs, Braille was a groundbreaking new accessibility tool. It not only provided practical benefits, but also helped change the cultural status of blindness. This essay begins by discussing the situation of blind people in nineteenth-century Europe. It then describes the invention of Braille and the gradual process of its acceptance within blind education. Subsequently, it explores the wide-ranging effects of this invention on blind people’s social and cultural lives.
Write your essay introduction
The body of your essay is where you make arguments supporting your thesis, provide evidence, and develop your ideas. Its purpose is to present, interpret, and analyze the information and sources you have gathered to support your argument.
Length of the body text
The length of the body depends on the type of essay. On average, the body comprises 60–80% of your essay. For a high school essay, this could be just three paragraphs, but for a graduate school essay of 6,000 words, the body could take up 8–10 pages.
To give your essay a clear structure , it is important to organize it into paragraphs . Each paragraph should be centered around one main point or idea.
That idea is introduced in a topic sentence . The topic sentence should generally lead on from the previous paragraph and introduce the point to be made in this paragraph. Transition words can be used to create clear connections between sentences.
After the topic sentence, present evidence such as data, examples, or quotes from relevant sources. Be sure to interpret and explain the evidence, and show how it helps develop your overall argument.
Lack of access to reading and writing put blind people at a serious disadvantage in nineteenth-century society. Text was one of the primary methods through which people engaged with culture, communicated with others, and accessed information; without a well-developed reading system that did not rely on sight, blind people were excluded from social participation (Weygand, 2009). While disabled people in general suffered from discrimination, blindness was widely viewed as the worst disability, and it was commonly believed that blind people were incapable of pursuing a profession or improving themselves through culture (Weygand, 2009). This demonstrates the importance of reading and writing to social status at the time: without access to text, it was considered impossible to fully participate in society. Blind people were excluded from the sighted world, but also entirely dependent on sighted people for information and education.
See the full essay example
The conclusion is the final paragraph of an essay. It should generally take up no more than 10–15% of the text . A strong essay conclusion :
- Returns to your thesis
- Ties together your main points
- Shows why your argument matters
A great conclusion should finish with a memorable or impactful sentence that leaves the reader with a strong final impression.
What not to include in a conclusion
To make your essay’s conclusion as strong as possible, there are a few things you should avoid. The most common mistakes are:
- Including new arguments or evidence
- Undermining your arguments (e.g. “This is just one approach of many”)
- Using concluding phrases like “To sum up…” or “In conclusion…”
Braille paved the way for dramatic cultural changes in the way blind people were treated and the opportunities available to them. Louis Braille’s innovation was to reimagine existing reading systems from a blind perspective, and the success of this invention required sighted teachers to adapt to their students’ reality instead of the other way around. In this sense, Braille helped drive broader social changes in the status of blindness. New accessibility tools provide practical advantages to those who need them, but they can also change the perspectives and attitudes of those who do not.
Write your essay conclusion
My essay follows the requirements of the assignment (topic and length ).
My introduction sparks the reader’s interest and provides any necessary background information on the topic.
My introduction contains a thesis statement that states the focus and position of the essay.
I use paragraphs to structure the essay.
I use topic sentences to introduce each paragraph.
Each paragraph has a single focus and a clear connection to the thesis statement.
I make clear transitions between paragraphs and ideas.
My conclusion doesn’t just repeat my points, but draws connections between arguments.
I don’t introduce new arguments or evidence in the conclusion.
I have given an in-text citation for every quote or piece of information I got from another source.
I have included a reference page at the end of my essay, listing full details of all my sources.
My citations and references are correctly formatted according to the required citation style .
My essay has an interesting and informative title.
I have followed all formatting guidelines (e.g. font, page numbers, line spacing).
Your essay meets all the most important requirements. Our editors can give it a final check to help you submit with confidence.
Open Google Slides Download PowerPoint
An essay is a focused piece of writing that explains, argues, describes, or narrates.
In high school, you may have to write many different types of essays to develop your writing skills.
Academic essays at college level are usually argumentative : you develop a clear thesis about your topic and make a case for your position using evidence, analysis and interpretation.
The structure of an essay is divided into an introduction that presents your topic and thesis statement , a body containing your in-depth analysis and arguments, and a conclusion wrapping up your ideas.
The structure of the body is flexible, but you should always spend some time thinking about how you can organize your essay to best serve your ideas.
Your essay introduction should include three main things, in this order:
- An opening hook to catch the reader’s attention.
- Relevant background information that the reader needs to know.
- A thesis statement that presents your main point or argument.
The length of each part depends on the length and complexity of your essay .
A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . Everything else you write should relate to this key idea.
The thesis statement is essential in any academic essay or research paper for two main reasons:
- It gives your writing direction and focus.
- It gives the reader a concise summary of your main point.
Without a clear thesis statement, an essay can end up rambling and unfocused, leaving your reader unsure of exactly what you want to say.
A topic sentence is a sentence that expresses the main point of a paragraph . Everything else in the paragraph should relate to the topic sentence.
At college level, you must properly cite your sources in all essays , research papers , and other academic texts (except exams and in-class exercises).
Add a citation whenever you quote , paraphrase , or summarize information or ideas from a source. You should also give full source details in a bibliography or reference list at the end of your text.
The exact format of your citations depends on which citation style you are instructed to use. The most common styles are APA , MLA , and Chicago .
Is this article helpful?
Other students also liked.
- How long is an essay? Guidelines for different types of essay
- How to write an essay introduction | 4 steps & examples
- How to conclude an essay | Interactive example
More interesting articles
- Checklist for academic essays | Is your essay ready to submit?
- Comparing and contrasting in an essay | Tips & examples
- Example of a great essay | Explanations, tips & tricks
- Generate topic ideas for an essay or paper | Tips & techniques
- How to revise an essay in 3 simple steps
- How to structure an essay: Templates and tips
- How to write a descriptive essay | Example & tips
- How to write a literary analysis essay | A step-by-step guide
- How to write a narrative essay | Example & tips
- How to write a rhetorical analysis | Key concepts & examples
- How to Write a Thesis Statement | 4 Steps & Examples
- How to write an argumentative essay | Examples & tips
- How to write an essay outline | Guidelines & examples
- How to write an expository essay
- How to write the body of an essay | Drafting & redrafting
- Kinds of argumentative academic essays and their purposes
- Organizational tips for academic essays
- The four main types of essay | Quick guide with examples
- Transition sentences | Tips & examples for clear writing
What is your plagiarism score?
Understanding the 4 Types of Academic Writing
The 4 main types of academic writing are: Descriptive, Persuasive, Expository and Narrative.
When you’re asked to write a paper for high school or university, your professors usually expect you to maintain one of those main types of writing for academic content. You’ll be able to do that when you understand the characteristics of each type, and you learn how to make a difference between them.
That’s what we’re here for today! We’ll define the four main essay types, so you’ll know what expectations you’re dealing with.
1. Descriptive Academic Writing: Definition and Characteristics
Descriptive writing is characterized with descriptions of objects, places, persons, emotions, experiences, situations, and so on. You’re asked to analyze something and paint a picture in words.
The important thing to remember is that you’re not writing for the sake of giving descriptions. You’re supposed to convey a deeper meaning through this type of academic writing .
You need examples? Here is a scene from War and Peace , where Tolstoy used descriptive writing style:
“Down below, the little town could be seen with its white, red-roofed houses, its cathedral, and its bridge, on both sides of which streamed jostling masses of Russian troops.”
You see how the author really paints a picture and makes you imagine the scene in front of your eyes? That’s the effect you want to achieve.
But what is academic writing? Can you get inspired by fiction writers? The good news is that this is one of the most flexible writing types, which gives you a lot of space for artistic freedom.
2. Persuasive (Argumentative) Writing: Convince With Strong Arguments
The persuasive (also known as argumentative) essay is one of the most common genres of academic writing required for school. It’s the type of essay your professors assign when they want you to prove how great you are as an essay writer . It requires you to investigate a topic, form your own opinions, generate evidence in support of those opinions, and convince the reader that you’re making a valid point.
Among all different types of writing, this is the most demanding one, mainly because the requirements for an extensive research process. You have to build your case with strong persuasive essay topic , logic, facts, cases, examples, and expert opinions. Plus, you must present both sides of the argument, so you’ll convince the reader that your stand is the most logical option.
This is the structure for persuasive types of writing paper:
- Introduction with a clearly defined thesis statement
- Body paragraphs with evidential support
- A body paragraph that discusses conflicting opinions
Read more: How to Structure an Essay
3. Expository Academic Text: What Is It?
The expository writing style requires you to investigate an idea, collect and evaluate evidence that supports that idea, expound on it, and provide an argument that involves that idea.
This may be one of the most confusing styles of academic writing, since it’s similar to persuasive style. However, there’s less research involved in expository writing, and this type of essay is usually shorter in length when compared to a persuasive writing project.
This is the proper format to follow:
- An introduction with a clear thesis statement
- Body paragraphs that evaluate evidence
- Conclusion that shows how the evidence proved your thesis statement
4. Narrative Writing: Definition and Format
Narrative style, as one of the most common types of academic writing, requires you to tell a story about a personal experience, anecdote, or a real-life situation. Book reports, which are also considered as narrative projects, do not follow the storytelling pattern, but focus on providing an informative narrative.
When you’re writing a narrative assignment, you must draw the reader into the content. You can achieve such an effect by using vivid language and expressing a clear point of view.
There’s no particular format to follow for a narrative essay, but you still need an introduction, body, and conclusion of the essay.
As a student, you’ll deal with all these assignments sooner or later. Knowing the difference between the main types of academic writing helps you handle the challenge!
- Research Proposal
- Report Writing
- Literature Review
- CDR Writing
- Resume Writing
- IT & Computer Science
- Value Added Services
- Plagiarism Check
- Proofreading & Editing
- Expert Consultation
- Live Session 1-On-1
- Quality Check
- By University
- By Subject Codes
- Reviews 4.5/5
- Help & Support
- Certified Experts
- Our Policies
- Ask your Question
- Request Callback
- Get $50 Off
- Get 500 Words Free
- Premium Membership
- Samples/Resources - e.g. Management Assignment Resources
- Services - e.g. MATLAB Assignment Help
- Questions - e.g. Management Assignment Questions
- Support : FAQs , Policies, Ordering Support
4 Types of Academic Writing: You Must Know
Author : alex, what is academic writing.
Most academic writing follows various specific rules and students are expected to follow them whilst writing at University. It comprises of numerous consistent features such as students are required to avoid colloquial or slang words, include shreds of evidence to prove their claims, etc. Students may feel like the art of academic writing doesn’t come naturally to you because it comprises words we don’t use in our everyday conversation. It is essential to note that the more you read within the context of your discipline, the more familiar it gets, and even if there is any sort of queries being faced, get help from the best academic writing service , ‘myassignmentservices.com’.
Academic writing refers to a style of expression that professionals use for defining the intellectual boundaries of their disciplines and specific areas of expertise. Academic writing has numerous characteristics such as formal tone, use of the third-person rather than first-person perspective (generally), a clear and concise focus on the research queries under investigation, and precise word choice. Specialist languages adopted in numerous other professions such as medicine or medicine, the writing etiquette is designed to convey agreed meaning about complex ideas and notions or concepts for a group of scholarly experts.
There are various kinds of academic writing and if you have been asked to write a personal account or a reflective piece it may not essentially contain all the features aforementioned. That is why it is essential for students to read their assignment guidelines carefully, as the requirements may vary from assessment to assessment.
Types of Academic Writing:
There are 4 types of academic writing and each one of them is unique and used for different purposes. There are high chances that in your education, you will require completing all kinds and you will need to produce dozens of them. Students need not worry if they do not understand at the first instance because professional academic writing service is always available around the corner to help them in writing their assignments. Just visit ‘myassignmentservices.com’ and ask for help.
Descriptive: Provides a summary
It is one of the easiest types of academic writing and is the most common for students to get. It is used whilst writing a summary. These kinds of writing are common in colleges and universities across the globe and they are considered to be the simplest of them all. The fact that the writing involves incorporating facts and pieces of evidence to write a paper, and not requires you to use your emotions or go extremely deep into the analysis, makes it the simplest to write.
Analytical: Involves analysis
Colleges also provide assignments where analysis is required. This type of academic writing is a descriptive paper that comprises a separate touch. Furthermore, students are required to explain their piece of writing and analyse two things separately to supply accurate information. Analytical pieces examine, compare, or contrast two or more things. Students are required to have plenty of ideas and need to incorporate strong arguments for example you may be asked to compare two theories or two ideas. A detailed paper comprising strong arguments for each one is a must.
It is a bit complicated type of academic writing that requires plenty of research. Deep knowledge and critical evaluation are needed to look at something or compare two elements. Students can fail their papers if they write their papers without understanding the etiquettes first because you can’t analyse something and not understand. As such, we recommend you to take help from professional writers from the best academic writing service, ‘myassignmentservices.com’. We can help you in researching all the pros, cons, benefits of a theory, etc. to supply them into your paper.
Do not forget to include a transparent format for your essay. It means that introduction and the sentences must be clear and they must present obvious meanings to the readers. This compels readers to stick to the paper till the end.
Persuasive: Convince your readers
It is interlinked to the analytical paper. It simply means that students do need to analyse an aspect, but with an argument that will convince the readers. Students are supposed to articulate their opinion whilst convincing the readers that it’s true and they should perceive it. It is difficult to write such pieces, after all, the best possible arguments have to be presented to prove your opinion is the best and can be trusted.
Critical: Two perspectives
A critical piece of writing is similar to persuasive because you still need to provide one perspective based on research on a specific topic. The difference here lies in the second part, it supplies your perspective. Besides, students are required to use arguments substantiating both claims. It is important that proper evidence is used to substantiate the claims made and organise them properly. In most cases, you may have to write about the generic perspective and then move to your own.
Place yourself in the shoes of a critic and take a closer look at the topic provided to you. Now write the piece as if you are analysing the subject and would want to influence your readers that your opinion is correct.
These four academic writing are important for students to know as these will be a major part of your education from the very beginning, and will also have a huge impact on your career. ‘Myassignmentservices.com’ wants to confirm that you are always providing the simplest paper, and yet with all the understanding needed for a positive assessment because we are simply the best assignment writing service. We not only provide the help you need round the clock but a premium quality assignment, free sample on our website, on-time delivery, confidentiality agreement, tracking provisions, seamless interface, and many more, the list is endless.
Academic writing plays a significant role in the everyday lives of students at various universities. As per a study, it is one of the skills students find difficult to develop. Even native English-speaking students struggle to maintain academic writing standards. These difficulties arise from a poor understanding of any of these:
- Academic writing structure
- Purpose and different types of academic writing
- Research methods.
If you face challenges with any of the aforementioned aspects, avail help from the experts. Visit ‘ myassiggnmentservices.com ’, it is the best academic writing service for students in need. To students facing problems in these elements, we want to say, you are not alone. We get many queries regarding the etiquette of academic writing because it is a skill that needs to be learned to convey your ideas, thought, and engage in scholarly conversation.
Related Study Materials
- 700210 The Roles of Social Media News Consumption Assignment Sample
- 700210 Unveiling the Dark Side of Social Networking Sites Assignment Sample
- FND101 Procrastination Characteristics Assignment Sample
- 900108 The Impact of Online Social Networking Assignment Sample
- Exams Academic Essay Assignment Sample
- Successful Ageing Assignment Sample
- ENAB0040 Academic Writing Assignment Sample
- Organisation Culture in Two Contrasting Organisations Assignment Sample
- Enterprise Information Systems
- ACF320 Mad Max: Fury Road Review Analysis Assignment Sample
Our Experts can answer your Assignment questions instantly.
Loved reading this Blog? Share your valuable thoughts in the comment section.
About the Author
Hello! I have an interest for writing since my college days and hold a relevant experience of four years in academic writing. I’m passionate about words, grammar, punctuation and style and I’ve been known to engage in lengthy discussions about hyphens and compound modifiers as it actually interests me. People call me enthusiastic, optimistic and outgoing. I believe in helping the students with their lengthy assignments which is one of the reason I’ve been associated with My Assignment Services.
All You Need to Know About Agroforestry and Its Benefits
Ever wondered, why introduction and conclusion are important in assignment writing, related posts.
Best Study Techniques For Students To Get High Grades
December 06, 2021.
You Won’t Believe Changing a Course in Australia is This Easy
December 15, 2021.
How do Indian Students see International Education? - A Western Union Report
January 03, 2022.
Get Assignment done through
Mas certified experts.
How to write a Reflection Paragraph in an Assignment?
Project management assignment sample online, project proposal assignment sample online, impact of western systems and structures on aboriginal and torres strait islander cultures, how to solve cubic equation ax^3+ bx^2+ cx+d = 0, how to write an executive summary (see our sample), best digital marketing assignment sample online, marketing assignment sample online, how to write gibbs reflective cycle, business management assignment sample online, why are ethics important in research, taelln411: address adult language, literacy and numeracy skills assessment answer.
The Student Corner
Subscribe to get updates, offers and assignment tips right in your inbox.
- Assignment Help How to write a Reflection Paragraph in an Assignment? Mike Carey June 16, 2018
- Management Project Management Assignment Sample Online Charles Hill October 04, 2017
- Assignment Help Project Proposal Assignment Sample Online Andy Johnson October 25, 2017
- General Impact of Western Systems and Structures on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cultures Celina January 15, 2020
- Engineering How To Solve Cubic Equation Ax^3+ Bx^2+ Cx+D = 0 Chloe Kirner March 22, 2019
- Marketing How to Write an Executive Summary (See Our Sample) Celina May 11, 2018
Download Guide Book
- Hong kong(+8)
- New zealand(+64)
- Saudi arabia(+966)
- South africa(+27)
- United arab emirates(+971)
- United kingdom(+44)
- United states america(+1)
Searching across 1 Million Resources...
Doing your Assignment with our resources is simple, take Expert assistance to ensure HD Grades. Here you Go....
Today's Special Get Flat 50% OFF *
- Min Wordcount should be 2000 Min deadline should be 3 days Min Order Cost will be USD 10 User Type is All Users Coupon can use Multiple
Coupon Code: SMILE60
Terms and conditions.
- Guide to Types of Academic Writing
What is academic writing?
What are the different types of academic writing, descriptive.
Academic writing has a broad definition. Unlike other types of writing, such as fiction, academic writing and research put great emphasis on the clarity of ideas and the coherence of their presentation. Academic works are judged based on their contribution to the advancement of disciplines and have little or nothing to do with literary creativity.
The key to writing an excellent academic work lies in having a good structure and reasonable facts and arguments. Having a good structure allows you to logically present your ideas. It also allows your readers to better understand the flow and reasoning behind your arguments. Furthermore, reasonable arguments and facts serve as the foundations of your work. These determine whether your work can stand against critics or not.
Given the general idea of what academic works are, there are four types of academic writing. These are descriptive, critical, analytical, and persuasive. This article serves as a practical guide to help you familiarize yourself with these types.
Descriptive academic writing is more straightforward compared to other academic writing types. A descriptive academic paper is aimed at providing information and facts about a given topic. It mainly involves describing certain ideas or events. The significance of this writing type lies in how you can wholly and effectively contextualize these events and ideas for the readers.
The key to writing a good descriptive academic work is being able to clearly and concisely explain the most important parts of events or ideas. This means properly discerning which information of events or ideas should be prioritized. In general, this includes the presentation of data, explanation of methodology, and thorough and objective analysis of the available data.
Although the main task in descriptive writing is describing and explaining, there still must be some critical analysis involved. The important thing is that you present an adequate context and objective account of the topic while avoiding biases as much as possible. An effective descriptive academic work can elicit an experience for the readers as they read your work.
In contrast to descriptive writing, critical academic writing focuses on a critical analysis of a given topic. The emphasis of this type of writing is on the formation and presentation of arguments. Critical writing does not only mean summarizing and reporting on the main ideas and key points of a topic. It also involves the evaluation and critical analysis of these ideas. Writing a good critical paper means engaging both sides of an issue objectively. You must first be able to provide impartial accounts of both sides and only then can you give your analysis.
This type is used often when tackling a specific issue that supports only one side of an argument or debate. This allows you to question and criticize the assumptions and conclusions of one side while presenting arguments in support of the opposing side. This style is often used with regards to writing about controversial issues or when presenting discoveries that are contradictory to the established truths in a discipline.
It’s not enough that you form coherent arguments and have a clear logical structure. You also have to make sure that the assumptions you make are accurate. You might be able to write coherent and compelling arguments, but if they rest on false or questionable assumptions, they may remain untenable.
An academic writing type that’s similar to the critical writing type is persuasive writing. The main difference is that the latter only requires presentation and argument for one particular point of view. The main purpose of persuasive academic writing is to encourage your readers to see your point of view and, if possible, agree with your evaluation.
Your goal when writing a persuasive article should be to evaluate and argue for a certain position that will allow the readers to see where you are coming from. You can achieve this by presenting data and previous studies that will help support your position. Moreover, the use of persuasive language may also be helpful as long as it is backed by facts.
However, avoid cherry-picking data and research because aside from being fallacious, it doesn’t do much for the advancement of a field. It is often better to present studies and data that may counter your original position so that you can present further data and studies that will strengthen your position. In other words, this allows you to present counter-counter arguments, and this can prove very useful in persuading your readers.
Analytical academic writing refers to a type of writing that involves the reorganization of facts and finding their connections. The main emphasis here is on the comprehensive arrangement and presentation of the ideas underlying a given data set.
You can think of it as a descriptive academic work that’s taken to another level. Whereas a descriptive article only provides information and facts about a subject, an analytical article makes sense of these facts and information and discovers or creates ideas based on the analysis of these connections. Moreover, analytic works often help breakdown the facts and arguments in a given topic and present them to the readers in a restructured manner.
An analytical work may also involve contrasting between different ideas and comparing existing facts to other ones. It may also introduce a research problem or present a solution to one.
Some academic works are meant to be easily understandable by the general public, while some use specialized language and words that require a high level of proficiency in a certain field. This means that writing academic articles also varies in the presentation of certain concepts and ideas. This is why it’s very useful to know the different types of academic writing types. Familiarizing yourself with all of these will surely help you improve your academic writing and become a more effective writer.
- Different Types of Essays
- 4 Main Types of Essays in Academic Writing: Key Features and Samples
What Is an Essay
Four main types of essays, expository essay, main features, descriptive essay, narrative essay, persuasive/argumentative essay.
- Bottom line
Frequently Asked Questions
- 1. How do I choose the right type of essay?
- 2. What is a hybrid essay?
Whether you are a high school graduate, a college student, or a passionate writer, it is vital to know how to create different types of essays . Depending on the goal, be it a test or a college application, selecting the right type of essay may significantly increase your chances to succeed . In fact, even great content may fail to communicate the main idea if a writer doesn't integrate essential elements. For this reason, you need to distinguish types of writing styles and formats to address a writing prompt.
While academic writing may encompass a number of essay variations, there are only four basic types of essays that lie at the core . Find out more about each category, its features, and structure. All types of essays are followed by attached examples of excellent academic works.
And remember that you always can count on our essay writing service. All you need is to ask " write my essay for me ", and we will be eager to help you.
An essay is a piece of nonfiction academic writing created to develop a specific idea or support an argument . In general, essays are mainly used to provide some information, share the writer's point of view on a matter, or dispute a thesis statement. Depending on the purpose of writing, the essay tone can be either formal or informal. The essay formatting requirements may also vary – it may be a standard 5-paragraph piece or a lengthy academic work. If you wonder how to write a 5 paragraph essay , read our blog. It has a useful guide to help you with this question.
There is a full array of different types of essays. However, the most common classification includes only four major essay categories :
These types of essays may share similar features. For example, expository and persuasive essays mostly deal with factual information that ensures a clear presentation of ideas. Narrative and descriptive essays are written informally and require a creative approach .
An expository essay is a focused piece of writing designed to explore a particular subject by providing factual information. The primary purpose of expository writing is to analyze a topic without making an argument. Expository essays require a writer to communicate complex information in a simple , easy-to-understand way. Unlike other types of essays, it offers an analysis based on facts. Therefore, a student should use a neutral tone of voice and introduce ideas in a logical order.
This academic assignment tests the student's ability to present a clear explanation of an issue. To create an informative piece, you should refer to statistics and find factual examples. Some of the most common characteristics of expository essays include:
- Instructive: conveys accurate information
- Specific: a clear and precise explanation of facts
- Well-organized: follows the sequence of events
- Semi-formal: doesn't contain first-person nouns
- Objective: informs a reader without presenting any subjective opinions
A standard expository essay structure includes the following sections:
- An introduction presents a topic and gives background information
- Body paragraphs explain the facts
- A conclusion sums up the information
As a rule, expository writing is divided into several sub-categories. Some of the most common variations focus on the following matters:
- A problem and solution essay is a type of expository writing that determines an issue and offers a range of problem-solving solutions. After exploring the matter in detail, a writer investigates the best ways to target an issue and how such methods can be applied efficiently.
- A cause and effect essay explains the way things are interrelated in this world. In this essay type, a writer specifies the reasons why some things happen and discusses possible consequences. This basically means drawing a parallel between specific objects or events. A great example of cause and effect essay can be a piece on the reasons and consequences of the Civil War in the US .
- Compare and contrast essay specifies the similarities and differences between specific subjects, people, locations or events to let the reader compare and contrast things. Comparing refers to finding similarities, while contrasting deals with figuring out the differences. In its essence, compare and contrast essay helps to understand more than one topic at a time.
- A definition essay is a type of essay that provides an accurate definition of a subject and offers a classification. A writer should include both the official definitions from credible sources and personal understanding of a specific concept or thing.
- A process analysis essay explains a specific process step-by-step by providing detailed instructions. Such assignments answer the "how-to" question. The ideas for topics are broad and may focus on any process, such as how the US President is elected or how a chocolate factory makes its best candies.
Below you can view an example of a complete expository essay that has all crucial features and follows a standard structure.
A descriptive essay is a type of writing that provides a detailed description of a chosen literary piece, subject, event, etc. A sensory portrayal, commonly used in descriptive writing, serves two purposes. On the one hand, it helps to visualize things; on the other hand, a detailed description is a tool that allows conveying a deeper meaning. High school and college teachers assign a descriptive essay to improve student's creative skills. In this type of writing, you shouldn't limit your imagination . Instead, you will want to show your creativity and resourcefulness.
Typically, descriptive essays share the features of informal writing. Here are the key characteristics descriptive writing should have:
- Demonstrative: aims to showcase a subject, not just narrate
- Vivid: creates an impression in a reader's mind through descriptive details
- Sensory: the use of expressions that appeal to all human senses
- Figurative language: analogies, metaphors, similes, allegories, and personifications
- Emotional: describes issues of sentimental significance
As a rule, a descriptive essay doesn't have specific requirements to its structure. You are free to leverage your creativity to describe an object in the most unusual manner possible. However, this type of essay should contain the following information to address academic objective:
- A brief introduction of the subject you are going to portray
- A detailed description
- A short summary that offers an insight
Take a look at the attached example to have an idea how a perfect descriptive essay should look like.
A narrative essay, as the name suggests, tells a story significant to the author. Basically, it's a personal narrative created to share a meaningful experience that profoundly impacts a writer. This type of essay explores different challenges a writer has gone through, and that's what makes it so engaging. In a narrative essay, a writer would navigate a reader through a story without persuading or proving any point. However, a personal narrative should include an element of a moral so that the audience can take away some valuable insights. By writing narrative essays, a student learns how to apply a creative approach to express their feelings and emotions. And yet you need to be able to preserve a story's consistency.
It is common to confuse a narrative essay with a short story : they are not quite the same . In a nutshell, the narrative essay has an academic objective, meaning that it should focus on the personal experience that has actually happened. At the same time, narrative essays share some common features with those of a short story. This type of essay typically contains five elements of storytelling :
- Plot: the sequence of events
- Setting: when and where a story takes place
- Character: a protagonist that triggers all events
- Conflict: an issue a protagonist tries to solve
- Theme: a sense of a moral
As well as any other type of academic assignment, narrative essays have peculiar features listed as follows:
- Informative: narrates a story without proving any argument
- Subjective: written in the first person
- Non-fictional: shares the real personal experience
- Conversational: the use of informal and expressive tone of voice
- Organized: introduces people and events in sequential order
Check out a sample of a narrative essay written by the experts in the domain. As you read, pay attention to how a narrative piece should be organized and how to integrate the elements of storytelling into this type of writing.
A persuasive essay is a type of essay where a writer has to persuade a reader to adopt a specific point of view. A persuasive essay is otherwise called an argumentative essay, since it has to convince the reader of the truth presented in the argument. Besides, in a persuasive essay, one would take a firm stance on a matter . A writer should then provide supporting evidence and facts to back up a thesis statement. Argumentative essay writing requires good research and persuasive skills. A college student should be able to communicate their point of view through evidence-driven research. On top of that, it is crucial to refer to the credible sources , otherwise, chances are that a reader will doubt the argument.
To establish a steady stance, a writer need to create persuasive essays with such characteristics in mind:
- Convincing: has a persuasive tone of voice to make a reader agree
- Accurate: provides valid information and current cases or events
- Informative: focuses on facts, statistics, and evidence
- Reader-oriented: conveys information from a reader's perspective
- Arguable: this type of essay has a debatable topic that triggers discussion
Maybe you will need good persuasive essay topics , keep in mind that you will find them here.
Just like any other type of essay, an argumentative essay should be structured according to academic instructions. As a rule, college teachers and university professors require students to include the following parts:
- An introduction that presents a topic and a strong thesis statement
- A body part that includes arguments and supporting evidence
- A conclusion that wraps up the argument and focuses on its significance
The paper attached below is an excellent example of a persuasive essay provided by our proficient writer.
A deep understanding of the reader’s intent helps to write along the right lines. Once you determine which of the four types of essays best addresses your goal, you will be able to create an astounding essay tailored to your writing purpose.
1. How do I choose the right type of essay?
High school and college teachers usually assign a specific type of essay. But sometimes you may be given writing prompts on the basis of which you have to choose an essay type yourself. In such case, you will need to pay attention to the requirements of each assignment - they will give you a hint. For example, the word “convince” means you need to write a persuasive essay, whereas the word “describe” indicates you should create a descriptive essay. The word “tell” suggests you should write a narrative essay.
2. What is a hybrid essay?
A hybrid essay is a unique combination of two or more types of essays. Sometimes you may be required to address two objectives at once, for instance, tell about your previous and current experience and compare them. In this case, you will need to write a narrative essay with the elements of compare-and-contrast essay.
If you want to write an outstanding analytical essay, you need much more than just a good subject to explore. While having a captivating topic is important, your analysis paper also needs to be properly structured and include all key elements in order to stand out. In this article, you will learn ho...
Understanding the basics of writing a personal essay is essential for any student who wants to succeed at college admission. In 99% cases, the applicants enter the colleges of their dreams thanks to a well-crafted admission paper, and a brilliant personal essay is all you need to stand out from the ...
If you are reading this article, you need to write an informative essay. You might have written it before or this might be your first informative paper. The point is that you are looking for some tips and guides on how to write a really good informative essay.That is for sure! Because you want a hig...
Written Communication Guide: Types, Examples, and Tips
The power of words inspires change, evokes emotions, and fosters connections
We live in a world where the words you write hold the key to unlocking new opportunities. It doesn't matter if you're writing formal business correspondence or a personal letter to your best friend, writing has the power to take readers on a profound journey through your thoughts.
The types of written communication are as diverse as the purposes they serve and can allow you to excel at work, engage academically, and be more expressive and eloquent. This written communication guide will lead you down a path to discover different types of written communication and will provide examples and tips to ensure that you write exactly what you mean.
Definition of written communication
At its core, written communication is the art of transmitting messages, thoughts, and ideas through the written word. It serves as a bridge that connects individuals across time and space, allowing for the seamless exchange of information, emotions, and knowledge. Whether etched onto parchment centuries ago or typed onto a digital screen today, written communication has withstood the test of time as a powerful means of expression.
In a fast-paced world where information travels at the speed of light, written communication holds its ground as a tangible record of human interaction. Unlike its oral counterpart , written communication transcends temporal boundaries, leaving an indelible mark that can be revisited and analyzed. It's this permanence that lends written communication a significant place in personal correspondence, professional documentation, and academic discourse.
In personal realms, heartfelt letters and carefully crafted emails capture emotions and sentiments that words spoken aloud might fail to convey
Within professional settings, written communication takes the form of reports, proposals, and emails, each meticulously composed to ensure clarity and precision
Academia finds its treasure trove in research papers, essays, and presentations, where written communication serves as the cornerstone of knowledge dissemination
Yet, amidst this sophistication lies a distinction: written communication lacks the immediate feedback and nuances present in oral discourse. This difference demands attention to detail and precise articulation, to ensure the intended message is accurately received. The immediate feedback present in oral communication allows you to instantly adjust your rhetoric, but that opportunity isn't always present in written communication.
Types of written communication
We've briefly explored the concept that written communication can be found in personal, professional, and academic settings. But its reach extends far beyond those three realms. Each type of written communication wields a unique power, catering to different purposes and audiences. Understanding the four types of written communication – formal, informal, academic, and creative – will empower you to communicate effectively across a wide spectrum of contexts.
1. Formal communication
In the corporate arena, formal written communication is the backbone of professional interactions. This type of writing demands precision, clarity, and adherence to established norms. Written communication in the workplace encompasses emails, memos, reports, and official documents. These documents serve as a lasting record of decisions, proposals, and agreements, emphasizing the need for accuracy and professionalism. Examples of formal written communication include:
Formal business emails: These messages are structured, concise, and adhere to a specific etiquette. For instance, sending a well-constructed email to a prospective client introducing your company's services demonstrates effective formal communication. The tone should remain respectful and informative, reflecting the sender's professionalism.
Office memos: Memos serve as succinct internal communication tools within organizations. These documents address specific topics, provide instructions, or announce updates. An example of formal communication through a memo is when a department head distributes a memo outlining the upcoming changes to company policies.
Business reports: Reports are comprehensive documents that analyze data, present findings, and offer recommendations. A formal business report might involve an in-depth analysis of market trends, financial performance, or project outcomes. Such reports are meticulously structured, featuring headings, subheadings, and references. A quarterly financial report submitted to company stakeholders is an example of formal written communication in the form of a report. The language employed is precise and backed by evidence, maintaining an authoritative tone.
2. Informal communication
Stepping away from corporate rigidity, informal written communication captures the casual essence of everyday life. Informal communication embraces text messages, social media posts, and personal letters. It encourages self-expression and authenticity, enabling individuals to communicate in a more relaxed and relatable manner. Balancing the informal tone while maintaining appropriate communication standards is essential in this type of communication. Some examples of informal communication are:
Text messages: Text messages are characterized by their casual tone, use of abbreviations, and emojis. The language used is relaxed and often mirrors spoken language, fostering a sense of familiarity and ease.
Social media posts: From Facebook statuses to Twitter updates and Instagram captions, these informal writing opportunities allow you to express yourself freely. The language is personal, engaging, and may include humor or personal anecdotes that boost your personal brand .
Personal letters: Although originally rather formal, personal letters have transitioned into the realm of informality. Letters written to friends or family members often showcase a mix of personal anecdotes, emotions, and everyday language. The language is warm, reflective of personal connections, and might include elements of nostalgia or shared experiences.
3. Academic writing
Within educational institutions, academic writing reigns as the conduit of knowledge dissemination. This type of writing includes essays, research papers, and presentations. Academic writing upholds a formal tone, requiring proper citation and adherence to established formats. The objective is to convey complex concepts coherently and objectively, fostering critical thinking and intellectual growth. Here are a few examples of academic writing:
Essays: Essays are fundamental forms of academic writing that require students to analyze and present arguments on specific topics. The essay is structured with an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion, all aimed at conveying a well-organized argument supported by evidence.
Research papers: Research papers dive deeper into specific subjects, often requiring extensive investigation and citation of sources. They should be organized with specific sections such as an introduction, literature review, methodology, findings, and conclusion. This type of academic writing focuses on presenting original insights backed by thorough research.
Presentations: While presentations involve spoken communication, their accompanying slides often feature written content. Academic presentations might include a slide deck explaining the findings of a research study. Each slide contains concise written points that support the speaker's verbal explanations. Effective academic presentation writing ensures clarity and conciseness, to aid the audience's understanding.
4. Creative writing
Creative writing introduces a touch of artistry to written communication. Poetry, short stories, and blog posts exemplify this style. Creative writing explores the depths of human imagination, invoking emotions and vivid imagery. This type of writing encourages personal flair, allowing individuals to experiment with language, style, and narrative structure. While the examples of creative writing are vast, we'd like to share a few examples with you.
Poetry: Poetry is an artistic form of written communication that emphasizes rhythm, imagery, and emotions. In such works, words are carefully chosen to evoke feelings and paint vivid mental pictures, allowing readers to experience a heightened emotional connection.
Short stories: Short stories are concise narratives that capture a moment, an emotion, or a complete tale in a limited space. An example of creative writing as a short story could be a suspenseful narrative that unfolds over a few pages, engaging readers with its characters, plot twists, and resolution. Creative short stories often explore themes of human nature and provide a glimpse into unique worlds or experiences.
Novels: Novels stand as an epitome of creative writing, offering a more extensive canvas for storytelling. Novels delve deep into emotions, relationships, and the complexities of human existence, allowing readers to immerse themselves in fictional realms with remarkable depth.
Tips for improving your written communication skills
Believe it or not, writing is one of those skills that many people struggle with. The question of whether writing is a skill or a talent has long sparked debates among linguists, educators, and writers themselves. Whether effective written communication is something that you're naturally good at or something that you struggle with, everyone can benefit from some tips on being a better writer.
Clarity: Clarity is arguably the cornerstone of good writing. It ensures your message is understood by eliminating ambiguity, confusion, and misinterpretation. Prioritize simplicity over complexity, using clear and concise sentences to deliver your message effectively. Avoid unnecessary jargon and convoluted phrases, aiming to convey ideas in a straightforward manner.
Understand your audience: It's critical to consider who will be reading what you write. Think about their knowledge, interests, and expectations when crafting your message. Adjust your tone, style, and choice of words to resonate with your intended readers. This ensures that your message is relatable and engaging, enhancing its impact.
Grammar and spelling: If there's one thing that will turn people off your writing, it's improper grammar and bad spelling. Maintaining proper grammar and spelling reflects professionalism and attention to detail. Proofread your work meticulously or use online tools to catch errors.
Practice and learn: Even if you're an expert writer, writing is a skill that evolves. Stephen King – the “king of writing” – asserts that every writer should read . Regular reading exposes you to diverse writing styles and perspectives that expand your knowledge of presenting the written word.
Embrace the power of words
Through clear communication, tailored messages, and continuous practice, you can harness the art of written expression to connect, inspire, and leave a lasting impact. The power of words is always within your grasp.
Your resume is another place that requires exceptional writing skills. Let our team of expert resume writers unlock the door to your professional success by showcasing your exceptional writing skills on the most important career marketing tool you have. Send your resume for a free review today !
The Essential Steps of Your Communication Process
4 Types of Communication Style – What's Yours?
Improve your Powers of Persuasion With These Rhetorical Choices!
Don't “Snowplow” Your Kids' Job Search — Set Them Up for Success Instead
What Kind of Job Candidate Are You?
Why December is the Best Time of Year to Look for a Job
See how your resume stacks up.
Share this article:
Let's stay in touch.
Subscribe today to get job tips and career advice that will come in handy.
Thanks! Career advice is on its way.