• Original Article
  • Published: 01 February 2022

Psychosocial Development Research in Adolescence: a Scoping Review

  • Nuno Archer de Carvalho   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0001-6620-0804 1 , 2 &
  • Feliciano Henriques Veiga   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-2977-6238 1 , 2  

Trends in Psychology volume  30 ,  pages 640–669 ( 2022 ) Cite this article

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Erikson’s psychosocial development is a well-known and sound framework for adolescent development. However, despite its importance in scientific literature, the scarcity of literature reviews on Erikson’s theory on adolescence calls for an up-to-date systematization. Therefore, this study’s objectives are to understand the extent and nature of published research on Erikson’s psychosocial development in adolescence (10–19 years) in the last decade (2011–2020) and identify directions for meaningful research and intervention. A scoping review was conducted following Arksey and O’Malley’s framework, PRISMA-ScR guidelines, and a previous protocol, including a comprehensive search in eight databases. From 932 initial studies, 58 studies were selected. These studies highlighted the burgeoning research on Erikson’s approach, with a more significant representation of North American and European studies. The focus of most studies was on identity formation, presenting cross-cultural evidence of its importance in psychosocial development. Most of the studies used quantitative designs presenting a high number of different measures. Regarding topics and variables, studies emphasized the critical role of identity in adolescents’ development and well-being and the relevance of supporting settings in psychosocial development. However, shortcomings were found regarding the study of online and school as privileged developmental settings for adolescents. Suggestions included the need to consider the process of identity formation in the context of lifespan development and invest in supporting adolescents’ identity formation. Overall, conclusions point out Erikson’s relevance in understanding adolescents’ current challenges while offering valuable research and intervention directions to enhance adolescent growth potential.

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The authors thank Conceição Martins and Filomena Covas for their help in assessing methodological options and text revision and Rita Fonseca and Sandra Torres for their advice regarding English accuracy.

This work was supported by the FCT — Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, IP, within the scope of the UIDEF — Unidade de Investigação e Desenvolvimento em Educação e Formação, under the reference UID/CED/04107/2020.

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de Carvalho, N.A., Veiga, F.H. Psychosocial Development Research in Adolescence: a Scoping Review. Trends in Psychol. 30 , 640–669 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s43076-022-00143-0

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Developmental Psychology Topics

Topics for research, papers, and other projects

Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

development research essay

Emily is a board-certified science editor who has worked with top digital publishing brands like Voices for Biodiversity, Study.com, GoodTherapy, Vox, and Verywell.

development research essay

  • Childhood Topics
  • Adolescence Topics
  • Adulthood Topics
  • How to Choose
  • Tips for Students

Are you looking for a developmental psychology topic for a psychology paper , experiment, or science fair project? Topics you might pick can range from prenatal development to health during the final stages of life.

Developmental psychology is a broad topic that involves studying how people grow and change throughout their whole lifetime. Topics don't just include physical growth but also the emotional, cognitive, and social development that people experience at different stages of their lives.

At a Glance

The following are just a few different topics that might help inspire you. Remember, these are just ideas to help you get started. You might opt to explore one of these areas, or you might think of a related question that interests you as well.

Developmental Psychology Topics on Childhood

  • Could packaging nutritious foods in visually appealing ways encourage children to make healthier food choices?
  • Do children who listen to music while studying perform better or worse on exams?
  • Do students who eat breakfast perform better in school than those who do not eat breakfast?
  • Does birth order have an impact on procrastination ? Are first-borns less likely to procrastinate? Are last-borns more likely to put off tasks until the last minute?
  • Does teaching infants sign language help or hinder the language acquisition process?
  • How do parenting styles impact a child's level of physical activity? Are children raised by parents with permissive or uninvolved parents less active than those raised by parents with authoritative or authoritarian styles?
  • How does bullying impact student achievement? Are bullied students more likely to have worse grades than their non-bullied peers?
  • Which type of reinforcement works best for getting students to complete their homework: a tangible reward (such as a piece of candy) or social reinforcement (such as offering praise when homework is completed on time)?

Developmental Psychology Topics on Adolescence

  • What factors tend to influence the onset of depression in teens and young adults?
  • How do peer relationships influence identity formation during adolescence and young adulthood?
  • What impact do parent-child relationships have in predicting substance use among teens and young adults?
  • How does early substance use during adolescence impact impulsivity and risk-taking during early adulthood?
  • How does technology use during adolescence influence social and emotional development?
  • How does social media use influence body image among teens?
  • What factors contribute to success during the transition from the teen years to early adulthood?
  • How do cultural differences impact different aspects of adolescent development?

Developmental Psychology Topics on Adulthood

  • Are older adults who rate high in self-efficacy more likely to have a better memory than those with low self-efficacy?
  • Do the limits of short-term memory change as we age? How do the limits of short-term memory compare at ages, 15, 25, 45, and 65?
  • Do mental games such as word searches, Sudoku, and word matching help elderly adults keep their cognitive skills sharp?
  • How do explanations for the behavior of others change as we age? Are younger adults more likely to blame internal factors for events and older adults more likely to blame external variables?

Choosing Developmental Psychology Topics

Developmental psychology is a huge and diverse subject, so picking a topic isn't always easy. Some tips that can help you choose a good developmental psychology topic include:

  • Focus on a specific topic : Make sure that your topic isn't too broad to avoid getting overwhelmed by the amount of information available
  • Have a clear question or hypothesis : Your research question should be focused and clearly defined
  • Do some background research : Spend some time reviewing the existing literature to get a better idea about what you want to cover with your topic
  • Consider developmental theories : You might consider analyzing your topic through the lens of a particular theory of developmental psychology
  • Check out recent research : Use research databases to find the most recently published research on your topic

Before you start working on any paper, experiment, or science project, the first thing you need to do is understand the rules your instructor has established for the assignment.

Also, be sure to check the official guidelines given by your teacher. If you are not sure about these guidelines, ask your instructor if there are any specific requirements before you get started on your research .

If you are going to actually conduct an experiment , you need to present your idea to your instructor to gain their permission before going forward. In some cases, you might have to also present your plan to your school's Institutional Review Board.

Tips for Researching Developmental Psychology Topics

After you have gotten to move forward with your chosen topic, the next step is to do some background research. This step is essential! If you are writing a paper, the information you find will make up your literature review.

If you are performing an experiment, it will provide background information for the introduction of your lab report . For a psychology science project, this research will help you in your presentation and can help you decide how to best approach your own experiment.

What This Means For You

Choosing a topic for a developmental psychology experiment, paper, or project can be tough! The ideas above can be a great place to start, but you might also consider questions you've had about your own life. Once you have a general idea for your topic, narrow it down, do some background research and talk to your instructor.

Nielsen M, Haun D. Why developmental psychology is incomplete without comparative and cross-cultural perspectives .  Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci . 2016;371(1686):20150071. doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0071

Leite DFB, Padilha MAS, Cecatti JG. Approaching literature review for academic purposes: The Literature Review Checklist .  Clinics (Sao Paulo) . 2019;74:e1403. Published 2019 Nov 25. doi:10.6061/clinics/2019/e1403

Grady C. Institutional review boards: Purpose and challenges .  Chest . 2015;148(5):1148-1155. doi:10.1378/chest.15-0706

Kim WO. Institutional review board (IRB) and ethical issues in clinical research . Korean Journal of Anesthesiology . 2012;62(1):3-12. doi:10.4097/kjae.2012.62.1.3

By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

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A paragraph is a group of related sentences that support one main idea. In general, paragraphs consist of three parts: the topic sentence, body sentences, and the concluding or the bridge sentence to the next paragraph or section. Paragraphs show where the subdivisions of a research paper begin and end and, thus, help the reader see the organization of the essay and grasp its main points.

Arnaudet, Martin L. and Mary Ellen Barrett. Paragraph Development: A Guide for Students of English . 2nd edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents, 1990.

Importance of Constructing Good Paragraphs

Paragraphs are the building blocks of papers . Without well-written paragraphs that flow logically from one idea to the next and that inform and help support in some meaningful way the central research problem being investigated, your paper will not be viewed as credible and, well, you'll probably receive a poor grade.

Here are some suggestions for troubleshooting common problems associated with developing paragraphs:

1.  The paragraph has no controlling idea . Imagine each paragraph as having three general layers of text. The core content is in the middle. It includes all the evidence you need to make the point. However, this evidence needs to be introduced by a topic sentence in some way or your readers don't know what to do with all the evidence you have given them. Therefore, the beginning of the paragraph explains the controlling idea of the paragraph. The last part of the paragraph tells the reader how the paragraph relates to the broader argument and often provides a transition to the next idea. Once you have mastered the use of topic sentences, you may decide that the topic sentence for a particular paragraph really should not be the first sentence of the paragraph. This is fine—the topic sentence can actually go at the beginning, middle, or end of a paragraph; what's important is that it is there to inform readers what the main idea of the paragraph is and how it relates back to the broader thesis of your paper.

2.  The paragraph has more than one controlling idea . This is the most common reason why a paragraph is too long. If a paragraph is more than a page long, it likely contains more than one controlling idea. In this case, consider eliminating sentences that relate to the second idea, with the thought that maybe they don't really inform and help support the central research problem, or split the paragraph into two or more paragraphs, each with only one controlling idea.

3.  Transitions are needed within the paragraph . You are probably familiar with the idea that transitions may be needed between paragraphs or sections in a paper. Sometimes they are also helpful within the body of a single paragraph. Within a paragraph, transitions are often single words or short phrases that help to establish relationships between ideas and to create a logical progression of those ideas in a paragraph. This is especially true within paragraphs that discuss multiple examples or discuss complex ideas, issues, or concepts.

Arnaudet, Martin L. and Mary Ellen Barrett. Paragraph Development: A Guide for Students of English . 2nd edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents, 1990; Paragraph Development: Importance of Constructing Good Paragraphs. AP English Literature and Composition. Edublogs, 2012; Paragraphing. Centre for Applied Linguistics. University of Warwick.

Structure and Writing Style

I.  General Structure

Most paragraphs in an essay parallel the general three-part structure of each section of a research paper and, by extension, the overall research paper, with an introduction, a body that includes facts and analysis, and a conclusion. You can see this structure in paragraphs whether they are narrating, describing, comparing, contrasting, or analyzing information. Each part of the paragraph plays an important role in communicating the meaning you intend to covey to the reader.

Introduction : the first section of a paragraph; should include the topic sentence and any other sentences at the beginning of the paragraph that give background information or provide a transition.

Body : follows the introduction; discusses the controlling idea, using facts, arguments, analysis, examples, and other information.

Conclusion : the final section; summarizes the connections between the information discussed in the body of the paragraph and the paragraph’s controlling idea. For long paragraphs, you may also want to include a bridge sentence that introduces the next paragraph or section of the paper. In some instances, the bridge sentence can be written in the form of a question. However, use this rhetorical device sparingly, otherwise, ending a lot of paragraphs with a question to lead into the next paragraph sounds cumbersome.

NOTE:   This general structure does not imply that you should not be creative in your writing. Arranging where each element goes in a paragraph can make a paper more engaging for the reader. However, do not be too creative in experimenting with the narrative flow of paragraphs. To do so may distract from the main arguments of your research and weaken the quality of your academic writing.

II.  Development and Organization

Before you can begin to determine what the composition of a particular paragraph will be, you must consider what is the most important idea that you are trying to convey to your reader. This is the "controlling idea," or the thesis statement from which you compose the remainder of the paragraph. In other words, your paragraphs should remind your reader that there is a recurrent relationship between your controlling idea and the information in each paragraph. The research problem functions like a seed from which your paper, and your ideas, will grow. The whole process of paragraph development is an organic one—a natural progression from a seed idea to a full-blown research study where there are direct, familial relationships in the paper between all of  your controlling ideas and the paragraphs which derive from them. The decision about what to put into your paragraphs begins with brainstorming about how you want to pursue the research problem . There are many techniques for brainstorming but, whichever one you choose, this stage of paragraph development cannot be skipped because it lays a foundation for developing a set of paragraphs [representing a section of your paper] that describes a specific element of your overall analysis. Each section is described further in this writing guide. Given these factors, every paragraph in a paper should be :

  • Unified —All of the sentences in a single paragraph should be related to a single controlling idea [often expressed in the topic sentence of the paragraph].
  • Clearly related to the research problem —The sentences should all refer to the central idea, or the thesis, of the paper.
  • Coherent —The sentences should be arranged in a logical manner and should follow a definite plan for development.
  • Well-developed —Every idea discussed in the paragraph should be adequately explained and supported through evidence and details that work together to explain the paragraph's controlling idea.

There are many different ways you can organize a paragraph . However, the organization you choose will depend on the controlling idea of the paragraph. Ways to organize a paragraph in academic writing include:

  • Narrative : Tell a story. Go chronologically, from start to finish.
  • Descriptive : Provide specific details about what something looks or feels like. Organize spatially, in order of appearance, or by topic.
  • Process : Explain step by step how something works. Perhaps follow a sequence—first, second, third.
  • Classification : Separate into groups or explain the various parts of a topic.
  • Illustrative : Give examples and explain how those examples prove your point.

Arnaudet, Martin L. and Mary Ellen Barrett. Paragraph Development: A Guide for Students of English . 2nd edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents, 1990; On Paragraphs. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Organization: General Guidelines for Paragraphing. The Reading/Writing Center. Hunter College; The Paragraph. The Writing Center. Pasadena City College; Paragraph Structure. Effective Writing Center. University of Maryland; Paragraphs. Institute for Writing Rhetoric. Dartmouth College; Paragraphs. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Paragraphs. University Writing Center. Texas A&M University; Paragraphs and Topic Sentences. Writing Tutorial Services, Center for Innovative Teaching and Learning. Indiana University; Weissberg, Robert C. “Given and New: Paragraph Development Models from Scientific English.” TESOL Quarterly 18 (September 1984): 485-500.

Writing Tip

Coherence of Ideas is What Matters, Not Length!

Do not think of developing paragraphs in terms of their length. Length and appearance do not determine whether a part in your paper is a paragraph. It is the unity and coherence of ideas represented in a sentence or among sentences that constitutes to a good paragraph.

Bahl, Vik. Paragraph Development. English 127 Research Writing syllabus. Green River Community College.  

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Teaching students about ancient greek theater: medea by euripides, teaching students about immediate family, teaching students about maya and miguel, teaching students about manhattan, new york, teaching students about mogadishu, teaching students about neoclassical art, teaching students about quiet riot, teaching students about the spanish civil war, teaching students about stuttgart: exploring historical and cultural landmarks, most interesting research and development essay topics to write about.

development research essay

Most Interesting Research And Development Topics To Write About

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  • Environmental Research and Development Concerning Air Pollution
  • Stock Returns and Abnormal Research and Development
  • Russian Applied Research and Development: Issues and Prospects
  • Influence Activity and Research and Development Organization
  • The Global Graphene Market Expands with In Development and Research Activities
  • Cereal Crops Academic Research and Development
  • Division of Kilgors Winery: Research and Development and Budgeting
  • Equity Compensation and Research and Development’s Sensitivity to Financial Market Frictions
  • Economic Development, Innovation, and Collaborative R&D Activities
  • Agriculture and Food Security Research and Development and Extension Services
  • Priorities for Future Research and Development in Norovirus Vaccine
  • Canon’s Future Research and Development Strategies

Simple & Easy Research And Development Essay Titles

  • Financing Construction Materials Research and Development Activities
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  • Analysis of Cross-Scheme and Direct Effects in a Research and Development Subsidy Program
  • Fundamental Vertical Market Research and Development
  • Agriculture Research and Development Funding in Rich Countries
  • Environmental Research and Development Incentives: Competitive Pressure and Emissions Taxation
  • Innovation, R&D, and Entrepreneurship in Romanian Businesses
  • Measuring Total Factor Productivity, Technical Change, and the Rate of Returns on R&D
  • Factors Influencing the Location of R&D Activity in Europe
  • Farmer-Entrepreneurs, Agricultural Innovation, and Rapid Research and Development
  • Management of Pension Accruals and Investment in Research and Development
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  • The Process of Knowledge Creation and Research and Development
  • Benefits of Research and Development Throughout the Australian Food Value Chain
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  • Polymer Research and Development for 3D Printing
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The Four Main Types of Essay | Quick Guide with Examples

Published on September 4, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on July 23, 2023.

An essay is a focused piece of writing designed to inform or persuade. There are many different types of essay, but they are often defined in four categories: argumentative, expository, narrative, and descriptive essays.

Argumentative and expository essays are focused on conveying information and making clear points, while narrative and descriptive essays are about exercising creativity and writing in an interesting way. At university level, argumentative essays are the most common type. 

In high school and college, you will also often have to write textual analysis essays, which test your skills in close reading and interpretation.

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Argumentative essays, expository essays, narrative essays, descriptive essays, textual analysis essays, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about types of essays.

An argumentative essay presents an extended, evidence-based argument. It requires a strong thesis statement —a clearly defined stance on your topic. Your aim is to convince the reader of your thesis using evidence (such as quotations ) and analysis.

Argumentative essays test your ability to research and present your own position on a topic. This is the most common type of essay at college level—most papers you write will involve some kind of argumentation.

The essay is divided into an introduction, body, and conclusion:

  • The introduction provides your topic and thesis statement
  • The body presents your evidence and arguments
  • The conclusion summarizes your argument and emphasizes its importance

The example below is a paragraph from the body of an argumentative essay about the effects of the internet on education. Mouse over it to learn more.

A common frustration for teachers is students’ use of Wikipedia as a source in their writing. Its prevalence among students is not exaggerated; a survey found that the vast majority of the students surveyed used Wikipedia (Head & Eisenberg, 2010). An article in The Guardian stresses a common objection to its use: “a reliance on Wikipedia can discourage students from engaging with genuine academic writing” (Coomer, 2013). Teachers are clearly not mistaken in viewing Wikipedia usage as ubiquitous among their students; but the claim that it discourages engagement with academic sources requires further investigation. This point is treated as self-evident by many teachers, but Wikipedia itself explicitly encourages students to look into other sources. Its articles often provide references to academic publications and include warning notes where citations are missing; the site’s own guidelines for research make clear that it should be used as a starting point, emphasizing that users should always “read the references and check whether they really do support what the article says” (“Wikipedia:Researching with Wikipedia,” 2020). Indeed, for many students, Wikipedia is their first encounter with the concepts of citation and referencing. The use of Wikipedia therefore has a positive side that merits deeper consideration than it often receives.

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An expository essay provides a clear, focused explanation of a topic. It doesn’t require an original argument, just a balanced and well-organized view of the topic.

Expository essays test your familiarity with a topic and your ability to organize and convey information. They are commonly assigned at high school or in exam questions at college level.

The introduction of an expository essay states your topic and provides some general background, the body presents the details, and the conclusion summarizes the information presented.

A typical body paragraph from an expository essay about the invention of the printing press is shown below. Mouse over it to learn more.

The invention of the printing press in 1440 changed this situation dramatically. Johannes Gutenberg, who had worked as a goldsmith, used his knowledge of metals in the design of the press. He made his type from an alloy of lead, tin, and antimony, whose durability allowed for the reliable production of high-quality books. This new technology allowed texts to be reproduced and disseminated on a much larger scale than was previously possible. The Gutenberg Bible appeared in the 1450s, and a large number of printing presses sprang up across the continent in the following decades. Gutenberg’s invention rapidly transformed cultural production in Europe; among other things, it would lead to the Protestant Reformation.

A narrative essay is one that tells a story. This is usually a story about a personal experience you had, but it may also be an imaginative exploration of something you have not experienced.

Narrative essays test your ability to build up a narrative in an engaging, well-structured way. They are much more personal and creative than other kinds of academic writing . Writing a personal statement for an application requires the same skills as a narrative essay.

A narrative essay isn’t strictly divided into introduction, body, and conclusion, but it should still begin by setting up the narrative and finish by expressing the point of the story—what you learned from your experience, or why it made an impression on you.

Mouse over the example below, a short narrative essay responding to the prompt “Write about an experience where you learned something about yourself,” to explore its structure.

Since elementary school, I have always favored subjects like science and math over the humanities. My instinct was always to think of these subjects as more solid and serious than classes like English. If there was no right answer, I thought, why bother? But recently I had an experience that taught me my academic interests are more flexible than I had thought: I took my first philosophy class.

Before I entered the classroom, I was skeptical. I waited outside with the other students and wondered what exactly philosophy would involve—I really had no idea. I imagined something pretty abstract: long, stilted conversations pondering the meaning of life. But what I got was something quite different.

A young man in jeans, Mr. Jones—“but you can call me Rob”—was far from the white-haired, buttoned-up old man I had half-expected. And rather than pulling us into pedantic arguments about obscure philosophical points, Rob engaged us on our level. To talk free will, we looked at our own choices. To talk ethics, we looked at dilemmas we had faced ourselves. By the end of class, I’d discovered that questions with no right answer can turn out to be the most interesting ones.

The experience has taught me to look at things a little more “philosophically”—and not just because it was a philosophy class! I learned that if I let go of my preconceptions, I can actually get a lot out of subjects I was previously dismissive of. The class taught me—in more ways than one—to look at things with an open mind.

A descriptive essay provides a detailed sensory description of something. Like narrative essays, they allow you to be more creative than most academic writing, but they are more tightly focused than narrative essays. You might describe a specific place or object, rather than telling a whole story.

Descriptive essays test your ability to use language creatively, making striking word choices to convey a memorable picture of what you’re describing.

A descriptive essay can be quite loosely structured, though it should usually begin by introducing the object of your description and end by drawing an overall picture of it. The important thing is to use careful word choices and figurative language to create an original description of your object.

Mouse over the example below, a response to the prompt “Describe a place you love to spend time in,” to learn more about descriptive essays.

On Sunday afternoons I like to spend my time in the garden behind my house. The garden is narrow but long, a corridor of green extending from the back of the house, and I sit on a lawn chair at the far end to read and relax. I am in my small peaceful paradise: the shade of the tree, the feel of the grass on my feet, the gentle activity of the fish in the pond beside me.

My cat crosses the garden nimbly and leaps onto the fence to survey it from above. From his perch he can watch over his little kingdom and keep an eye on the neighbours. He does this until the barking of next door’s dog scares him from his post and he bolts for the cat flap to govern from the safety of the kitchen.

With that, I am left alone with the fish, whose whole world is the pond by my feet. The fish explore the pond every day as if for the first time, prodding and inspecting every stone. I sometimes feel the same about sitting here in the garden; I know the place better than anyone, but whenever I return I still feel compelled to pay attention to all its details and novelties—a new bird perched in the tree, the growth of the grass, and the movement of the insects it shelters…

Sitting out in the garden, I feel serene. I feel at home. And yet I always feel there is more to discover. The bounds of my garden may be small, but there is a whole world contained within it, and it is one I will never get tired of inhabiting.

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Though every essay type tests your writing skills, some essays also test your ability to read carefully and critically. In a textual analysis essay, you don’t just present information on a topic, but closely analyze a text to explain how it achieves certain effects.

Rhetorical analysis

A rhetorical analysis looks at a persuasive text (e.g. a speech, an essay, a political cartoon) in terms of the rhetorical devices it uses, and evaluates their effectiveness.

The goal is not to state whether you agree with the author’s argument but to look at how they have constructed it.

The introduction of a rhetorical analysis presents the text, some background information, and your thesis statement; the body comprises the analysis itself; and the conclusion wraps up your analysis of the text, emphasizing its relevance to broader concerns.

The example below is from a rhetorical analysis of Martin Luther King Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” speech . Mouse over it to learn more.

King’s speech is infused with prophetic language throughout. Even before the famous “dream” part of the speech, King’s language consistently strikes a prophetic tone. He refers to the Lincoln Memorial as a “hallowed spot” and speaks of rising “from the dark and desolate valley of segregation” to “make justice a reality for all of God’s children.” The assumption of this prophetic voice constitutes the text’s strongest ethical appeal; after linking himself with political figures like Lincoln and the Founding Fathers, King’s ethos adopts a distinctly religious tone, recalling Biblical prophets and preachers of change from across history. This adds significant force to his words; standing before an audience of hundreds of thousands, he states not just what the future should be, but what it will be: “The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges.” This warning is almost apocalyptic in tone, though it concludes with the positive image of the “bright day of justice.” The power of King’s rhetoric thus stems not only from the pathos of his vision of a brighter future, but from the ethos of the prophetic voice he adopts in expressing this vision.

Literary analysis

A literary analysis essay presents a close reading of a work of literature—e.g. a poem or novel—to explore the choices made by the author and how they help to convey the text’s theme. It is not simply a book report or a review, but an in-depth interpretation of the text.

Literary analysis looks at things like setting, characters, themes, and figurative language. The goal is to closely analyze what the author conveys and how.

The introduction of a literary analysis essay presents the text and background, and provides your thesis statement; the body consists of close readings of the text with quotations and analysis in support of your argument; and the conclusion emphasizes what your approach tells us about the text.

Mouse over the example below, the introduction to a literary analysis essay on Frankenstein , to learn more.

Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein is often read as a crude cautionary tale about the dangers of scientific advancement unrestrained by ethical considerations. In this reading, protagonist Victor Frankenstein is a stable representation of the callous ambition of modern science throughout the novel. This essay, however, argues that far from providing a stable image of the character, Shelley uses shifting narrative perspectives to portray Frankenstein in an increasingly negative light as the novel goes on. While he initially appears to be a naive but sympathetic idealist, after the creature’s narrative Frankenstein begins to resemble—even in his own telling—the thoughtlessly cruel figure the creature represents him as. This essay begins by exploring the positive portrayal of Frankenstein in the first volume, then moves on to the creature’s perception of him, and finally discusses the third volume’s narrative shift toward viewing Frankenstein as the creature views him.

If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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At high school and in composition classes at university, you’ll often be told to write a specific type of essay , but you might also just be given prompts.

Look for keywords in these prompts that suggest a certain approach: The word “explain” suggests you should write an expository essay , while the word “describe” implies a descriptive essay . An argumentative essay might be prompted with the word “assess” or “argue.”

The vast majority of essays written at university are some sort of argumentative essay . Almost all academic writing involves building up an argument, though other types of essay might be assigned in composition classes.

Essays can present arguments about all kinds of different topics. For example:

  • In a literary analysis essay, you might make an argument for a specific interpretation of a text
  • In a history essay, you might present an argument for the importance of a particular event
  • In a politics essay, you might argue for the validity of a certain political theory

An argumentative essay tends to be a longer essay involving independent research, and aims to make an original argument about a topic. Its thesis statement makes a contentious claim that must be supported in an objective, evidence-based way.

An expository essay also aims to be objective, but it doesn’t have to make an original argument. Rather, it aims to explain something (e.g., a process or idea) in a clear, concise way. Expository essays are often shorter assignments and rely less on research.

The key difference is that a narrative essay is designed to tell a complete story, while a descriptive essay is meant to convey an intense description of a particular place, object, or concept.

Narrative and descriptive essays both allow you to write more personally and creatively than other kinds of essays , and similar writing skills can apply to both.

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Research and Development

Research and Development

In the developing world of high competition, companies must find different ways of staying on top of the game. In a perfect market, firms would not struggle to gain to positions. There is a perfect flow of information with both consumers and producers well informed of everything happening within the markets. The interaction between consumers and manufacturers completes a market. When one makes a decision, it affects the other to a great extent. And this is why each participant must think carefully about the decisions they make.

One way of doing this is through research . Economic growth does not take place where there is no proper understanding of how systems work. Companies are always looking for new opportunities, and they use the data from their markets and other markets to make this decision. These processes come down to research and Development (R & D). One of the main reasons people open up businesses is so that they can make a profit. And when there is a new venture for investing, they will grab the opportunity and use it to expand their territory. They use research and development approaches for this. The process relies heavily on the availability of data in the markets they operate in.

As a student of economics, research and Development is one of the main topics you will be covering. It comes under firm competition and strategy to help you understand how firms make decisions to improve their market standing and offer better services. Were markets operating under perfect competition, there would be much need for researching. This is because it is such a market; there is perfect information for both consumers and companies, which makes it easy for them to operate seamlessly. But since perfect competition is only theoretical, every company must use different strategies to achieve their goals.

What are research and Development?

Research is what companies and individuals before making decisions. Generally, human beings are regarded as rational decisional makers, though there are times when rational thinking does not have much help. In other words, they need to know the profits that come with taking a certain decision and leaving out the other. If they realize the decision does not have much profit or exposes them to the risk of loss, they avoid it. For instance, when a company wants to increase its products' prices, they need to consider several market factors first. They will often begin with competitor research, to know what the competition is doing, and how much the changes will affect them.

Research and Development are including the activities that firms undertake to innovate and introduce new products in the market. As stated above, firms need good information to make a development decision. R & D is often the first stage in the process of Development. As stated above, a company will not introduce a new product on the market just because they are getting more revenues, or because the market looks promising. They have gone through a proper background check of the market to determine whether or not the consumers are ready for the new product or service. Some of the questions they must answer regards how much of the product is already on the market. And since the idea for research and Development includes adding value to the company's bottom line, they must be careful with every decision they make. 

R & D includes every step and strategies the specific firm takes to reach their goal. This main include, but is not limited to, marketing and advertisement techniques. It is like a trial for a new product to see how they will be received in the market. It is a great route to follow when these firms want to improve their existing offerings. In the case of price increment above, the company looks at how the current prices are performing, and how much the product is on the market. Doing this allows companies to stay ahead of their competition. This is the real essence of imperfect market competition. Those who have the right information stay ahead of others, and they do not easily share the same.

Companies in different industries conduct R & B using a different method. It does not really matter the sectors; the processes are almost the same. Those in pharmaceuticals, semiconductors, and technology field follows fairly the same procedures to get where they need to be. The application of different theories, like the consumer and producer theories, becomes a vital part of making the conclusions. Note that research and Development help companies to either invest in other areas or not to. Also, they do this to gain more market shares, or when they want to work with other companies.

The term R & D has been linked mostly to innovation in the corporate and government realm, as well as the private sector. Any company that wishes to stay relevant, on the modern market, and ahead of everyone else must stay ahead of their company. This means it is one of the most important aspects of a firm's general survival. Without research and Development, it becomes tough for them to survive. In any case, they may have to rely on other innovative ways, such as mergers and acquisitions or partnerships. R & D enables these companies to design new products and improve their existing offering.

Research and Development also help companies to know their future and prepare for conditions that would otherwise cause serious damage to the company in question. During the 2008/2009 financial markets failure that led to the Great Recession, many companies fell because they were not prepared for the uncertainty. It was one of the worst moments for them, and many did not know what to do in the first place. Even some bigger companies could not survive for the same reason of lacking a good strategy to shield themselves from such issues. This is one of the main aims of research and Development. By looking at previous economies, markets can prepare for uncertainties and take necessary measures to protect themselves from the harsh impacts of market failures.

Many people confuse R & D with operational activities performed by a corporation. Even though they seem similar and have the same goals in many cases, certain aspects make them different. For instance, the research and development process is followed, not with the expectation of immediate profit. Instead, the process is expected to contribute to the long-term profitability of the firm. The process may lead to patents, copyrights, and trademarks as companies make new discoveries and create new products. It focuses on the future of the company, not only for more revenue generation but also for its stability.

R & D is not, however, a cheap process. Companies that set up departments to handle R&D commit huge capital to the efforts. They have to estimate the risk-adjusted return on every investment they inject in the process. This inevitably involves the risk of capital, because it does not give immediate payoff, and there is a lot of uncertainty on its return on investment. The level of capital risk increases as more money is invested in research and Development. Other companies that may not have enough money to invest may choose to outsource their R & D for different reasons, including size and cost.

Companies in all sectors undergo activities related to research and Development. Firms and markets experience different growth levels through these processes, as well as the Development of new goods and services. Companies pharmaceuticals, semiconductors, and software/ technology industries tend to be the biggest investor in R & D. In the European market, research and Development are known as research and technical or technological Development. This term indicates the importance of the process and how crucial it is to the Development of the involved companies. The company does not only invest money but time and other resources in the activities.  

What to consider

Research and Development are some of the most important activities any company should get involved with. However, this does not mean the engage just because other companies are doing so. There are certain things to put in mind the success of this process.

Research and Development are beneficial to the company's bottom line, but it is a huge expense that many firms cannot afford. Nevertheless, they still have to somehow find a way around the process. After all, these firms spend huge amounts on research trying to create new products and services. Whenever a company wants to know how the market will receive their products, they must invest in proper research and data acquisition. And every penny spent is reported for accounting purposes. Any basic, and applies research costs must be recorded as used. The cost of Development can be carried forward since the profits are long term.

Many companies spend billions of dollars on R & D to make the newest, most desired products and services. In a recent survey by PriceWaterhouse Cooper, companies that spent the most on innovation and improvements in 2018 include Amazon, Alphabet, Volkswagen, Samsung, Microsoft, and Apple, among others. The largest spender user $22.6 billion, and the least used $11.6 billion.

If a company has to set its own department for R & D must set aside a proper budget. It means hiring new staff and having a long-term budget for them. Such money should be well accounted for, which is why proper accounting must be done.

What are some types of research and development companies apply?

There are various approaches to research and Development, which are required for every company to choose one this is more suitable. In one R & D model, a company may have a department staffed specifically by an engineer who develops new product ideas. This team usually has to go through extensive research. This model does not have any specific goal or application in mind. Research is just done for the sake of research. Yes, it may lead to the production of new products, but this is just one of the many goals of the process. This model is the most commonly applied for large companies and has money to invest.

Another approach involves a department composed of industrial scientists or researchers. The team is tasked with applied research in technical, scientific, and industrial fields. Through this model, the company achieves proper Development of future products, or improvement of the current products and/or operating procedures. This model seeks to establish what makes more profit for the company and how it can be improved to create better products or revenues.

Another approach is the use of incubators and accelerators. In this case, corporates invest in startups and offer funding assistance as well as guidance to entrepreneurs in the hope that these new innovations can be used to their benefits. Many large corporations follow this method because it makes things very easy for them. They do not need to do a lot of work since the smaller company takes care of the ground research.

Business mergers and partnerships are other forms of R & D that companies use to understand the fundamental aspects of a concept or phenomenon.

Applied research

Basic research aims to produce a fuller, more complete understanding of the underlying idea. Gaining the right understanding is the first step in R & D. These activities give companies a foundation of information, even without directed applications towards the products, policies, or operational process. Applied research, on the other hand, aims at acquiring knowledge with a specific goal in mind. The idea may be applied in determining and developing new products, policies, or operational processes. Basic research is a time-consuming process, while applied research is more of painstaking and more costly. It requires lots of detail to get through its complex nature.

Author: James Hamilton

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Development Research Papers Samples For Students

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The Southern and the Northern portions of the United States developed in different fashions. The North developed in the line of industrialization while the Southern section remained predominantly an agrarian economy. This means that there were different beliefs and cultures in the two sections. Disagreements were bound to happen. The disagreements were in the line of tariffs, taxes, federal rights as well as state rights. The civil war was inevitable.

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Top Human Development Topics for Research Paper

Human Development topics

Human development is a field of study that is an offshoot of psychology. It focuses on the psychology and biological evolution of man from infancy to adulthood. Human development is dubbed as psychology development in some schools. It is a comprehensive course of study and involves a handful of researches.

Writing a research paper in human development like every other science course can be tedious. However, research writing challenges are just a step away from being solved when you already have your topic.

Not just any topic though, having the best of topics is equally important. The topic chosen must be relevant and researchable. We have compiled some human growth and development topics you can consider.

How to Get Human Development Paper With Ease

Writing a research paper is not always an easy task, even when writing is your hobby. It requires some systematic steps: topic selection, research activity, analysis, and paper writing. All of these might be a great deal for a student involved in a lot of activities.

Your responsibility becomes more straightforward when you have got the best topic related to human development. Hence, you can brainstorm to gather ideas needed for writing. However, if this still seems to you as a big deal, you can seek the help of professional writers who help with “ write my thesis “, “write my paper” requests. Likewise, you can make use of assignment writing services that can be of help.

Good Research Topics on Human Development in Psychology

Human development and human psychology are two inseparable entities. Writing a research paper on one might imply writing on the other. We have compiled human growth and development research topics related to psychology to aid easy research paper writing. They are as follows;

  • Cartoons and animation: Roles and impact in children learning and unlearning
  • Impact of child abuse on the cognitive ability of a child
  • Research on the connection of sleeping disorders and mental illness
  • Research on the psychology of the aging process
  • Effect of horror movies and violent video games on children’s development

Human Development Research Topics in Philosophy

Human development students might be required to research as it relates to philosophy. Reasoning is part of human life. As such, humans are not out of place if your research is tailored towards philosophy. These are human growth and development research paper topics you may consider;

  • Research on the use of social media and its impact on human behavior and upsurge in case of violence
  • Genius: What the term means, and are they made or born?
  • Research on the definition and the implication of mood-freezing
  • The role of color in human reasoning and its ability to enhance a human’s mood
  • The role of good parenting and child upbringing in curbing serial killing

Some Current Human Growth and Development Topics

Human development has to do with human behavior. Therefore, as man evolves, there are always new things to research and talk about. You might need to focus your research on trending and current events. The following are human development paper topics you can lay your hands on;

  • A study on transgender and its rising campaign among the youth
  • Study on the impact of stress and peer pressure on rising cases of depression among teenagers and students
  • Research on the influence of sexuality on human physical health and mental health
  • Swift personality change: Possibilities and factors responsible in this generation
  • The roles of religion in spiritual and moral development in humans

Some Easy Human Growth and Development Research Topics

No doubt, human development is a broad field of study. At the same time, you can find some human development essay topics that are pretty easy. These are research topics that you can quickly develop without much stress. You find such topics below;

  • Study on the function and dysfunction of the brain when someone is in love
  • Research on how helpful yoga is in human growth and development
  • Dementia: Causes, symptoms, and its remedies
  • The role of divorce in the emotional and behavioral development of a child
  • Introversiveness: Advantage, disadvantage, and general evaluation

Human Lifespan Development Paper Topics

Human development encompasses human life from birth to death. Your research paper might have to deal with the human lifespan. The following are research topics for human development as it relates to lifespan;

  • Research on the relationship between psychology and aging.
  • Is it possible to have an abnormal aging process, and what are the factors responsible?
  • Controlling depression and anxiousness about death
  • Research on the phases of human growth and development.
  • Study on coping mechanisms and managing loneliness through the human lifespan

Human Development Research Paper Topics in Sociology

Society is made up of humans. Hence you can not separate human development and sociology. Studying human development might imply a study of society. It is vital to have some research paper topics and human development thesis topics in sociology.

  • Racism: Effects on the society and the factors responsible for it
  • Study on gender roles in society
  • Homophobia: Definition, psychological aspect, and its effect on society
  • Research on eliminating gender discrimination and enhancing gender equality
  • Bullying and its effect on the social interaction of a child in high school or colleges

Human Development Topics in Biology

You can find some human development topics as it relates to biology. Perhaps you need some human resources development thesis topics about biology. Some of such topics are;

  • The relationship between human physical growth and mental growth
  • Happiness as a genetic condition: Exploration using biological and psychological constructs
  • Research on prenatal memory and child choices while growing.
  • The impact of maternal stress in pregnancy on a child’s cognitive ability
  • Research on hormones responsible for growth, emotion, and aging in humans

Education Topics on Human Development

Writing a research paper might be for education. Generally, every research paper is expected to educate the reader. For the sake of education, the following are human growth and development research paper topics you may want to consider;

  • Autism in human psychology.
  • Memory loss: Causes and when does it happen in the human development phase?
  • Speech disorder and cognitive development in kids: The relationship and the resultant effects
  • Research on the possibility of recovering memory loss.
  • What is attention span, and how does it affect children’s cognitive behavior?

Writing a human development research paper can be hard at first. You will find it easier when you have the best research topic. The next step is to brainstorm ideas necessary to develop your arguments.

Above are human development topics as it relates to many other fields. As such, it is safe to say you have taken a step toward getting a good grade. However, you can get professional help to increase your chances of getting good grades.

At our reputable writing service, we understand the challenges that come with crafting a thesis in the field of human development. That’s why we’re here to offer you expert assistance to help you write your thesis. Our team of experienced writers specializes in human development topics, equipped with in-depth knowledge and a thorough understanding of the subject. When you reach out to us and say, “ Help me write my thesis ” we are ready to guide you through the entire process.

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105 Human Development Essay Topics

🏆 best essay topics on human development, 👍 good human development research topics & essay examples, 🎓 most interesting human development research titles, ❓ human development research questions.

  • Sustainable Human Development Sustainable development is “development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”
  • The Role of the Environment and Genes in Human Development This paper will therefore discuss how both genetics (Nature) and the environment (Nurture) contribute to the development of a person’s personality, behaviour and temperament.
  • Human Development in Zimbabwe The report covers’ human development’, it’s meaning, and measures within the context of Zimbabwe development by incorporating aspects of the United Nations Development Program.
  • Global Social Progress and Human Development The global social progress concept provides an opportunity to look at the development of the humankind as the process enhanced by a combination of multiple factors.
  • Bioecological Model of Human Development Many scholars in the psychology field define child development as biological, psychological and emotional transformation of a child from birth.
  • Technologies Growth: Significance for Human Development Nowadays, various types of technologies are acknowledged to have become an integral part of people’s life. It is reasonable to claim that such progress might have a positive impact.
  • Pregnancy, Human Development and Heredity This paper presents the physiological concepts that revolve around pregnancy and their implication in human development.
  • Art Education and Human Development Arts is a very flexible discipline, this means that there are no definite solutions to problems in art and by extension life.
  • Human Development Psychology Issues This paper summarizes learned information on the development of human, in particular transgender disorders and homosexuality, and personality development.
  • Theories of Charles Horton Cooley and George Herbert Mead about Human Development Charles Horton Cooley thought that interaction was the key factor for building one’s self-image; however, he made emphasis on “a significant other,” being in the position of influence for us.
  • “Lifespan Human Development” by Sigelman, Carol, and Elizabeth Rider In his theory, Jean argues that we absorb information and knowledge according to our brain constructs that are developed from our past experience with certain concepts in the world
  • Human Development Psychology: Stages, Socio-emotional Development, and Emotional Attachment Lifespan development is the growth of the physical, cognitive, and psychosocial changes that incurs throughout life.
  • Adolescence and Human Development Challenges There are various questions about how puberty affects adolescents concerning the fact that not all people are impacted in the same way.
  • Cognitive Changes in Human Development Cognitive development is part of human development and refers to the abilities of individuals to acquire thinking, problem-solving, concept understanding.
  • Global Poverty and Human Development Poverty rates across the globe continue to be a major issue that could impair the progress of humanity as a whole.
  • Human Development: Key Aspects The ecological perspective studies humans from an environmental standpoint, which includes social, emotional, and biological influences.
  • The Impact of Communication on Human Development Human development is a complex and contradictory process initiated by many forces, one of which is communication.
  • Child Labor’s Negative Impact on Human Development This paper argues that child labor is by far the worst form of atrocities because it inhibits positive development by robbing children of the opportunity to gain life skills.
  • Why Adolescents Take Drugs: Human Development Delinquent and irresponsible behaviors such as substance abuse, violence, and unsafe safe practices produce serious social and health implications.
  • Human Development and the Security and Safety Index The objective of this research was to look at the connection between human development and the security and safety index.
  • Human Development Theories: The Science of Learning and Development There are many theories on how human development through different stages of life affects an individual’s life and mental health.
  • Analysis of Human Development Theories The paper focuses on the human development theories, such as classical conditioning, Hierarchy of Needs Theory, and social learning theory.
  • Human Development Psychology The Notebook novel is told in two versions; first, when Noah reads the notebook to a woman by the name Allie. He reads to her how Allie and Noah fall in love young.
  • Research Designs in Human Development Studies This paper analyzes several types of research design, which include observational research technique, longitudinal design, cross-sectional research, and sequential research design.
  • Human Development in Early Adulthood During their life, a person goes through many developmental stages, each associated with specific activities. This paper examines early adulthood.
  • Mobile Phones’ Social Impacts on Sustainable Human Development
  • Addiction and the Effects on Human Development
  • Child Health and Human Development Over the Lifespan
  • Foreign Direct Investment According to Different Countries’ Stages of Human Development
  • Biological and Environmental Factors and Human Development
  • How Nature and Nurture Affect Human Development
  • Corruption and Human Development Correlation in Western Balkan Countries
  • Determining the Relationship Between Happiness and Human Development
  • Psychology and Human Development: Theory of Radical Behaviorism
  • Human Development and Quality of Institutions in Highly Developed Countries
  • Computers and Their Influence on Human Development
  • Economic and Human Development in Global North and Global South
  • Measuring Human Development and Environmental Sustainability in European Countries
  • Developmental Psychology and Human Development
  • Rainbows: Jean Piaget and Human Development
  • Cognitive Development and Erikson’s Stages of Human Development
  • Animal and Human Development Throughout the Ages
  • Human Development and Income Inequality as Factors of Regional Economic Growth
  • Genetic and Environmental Influences on Human Development
  • Economic and Social Determinants of Human Development
  • Capitalism, the State, and the Underlying Drivers of Human Development
  • Human Development and Its Impact on the World
  • Biological Human Development and Its Interaction With Environmental Influences
  • Environmental Degradation and Inclusive Human Development in Sub‐Saharan Africa
  • Civil War and Human Development: Impacts of Finance and Financial Infrastructure
  • Natural Environment and Early Human Development
  • Factors Affecting the Human Development Index
  • Aid, Conflict, and Human Development
  • Comprehensive Human Development: Realities and Aspirations
  • Education and Human Development: How Much Do Parents Matter?
  • Democratization and Human Development
  • Poverty, Human Development, and Growth: An Emerging Consensus
  • Human Development and Regional Disparities in India
  • Ecological System and Its Effects on Human Development
  • Dynamic Linkage Between Economic Growth and Human Development
  • Climate Changes and Human Development
  • Gender and Regional Inequality in Human Development
  • Behaviorism and Human Development
  • Migration, Poverty Reduction Strategies and Human Development
  • Anxiety Disorder, Socialization, and Human Development
  • Circular Migration and Human Development
  • Economic and Human Development Policies Since Independence
  • Gender Codes and the Human Development Indicator
  • Counseling and Human Development in Multicultural Society
  • Global Governance for Human Development
  • Freud’s and Erikson’s Perspectives on Human Development
  • Shaping the Future: How Changing Demographics Can Power Human Development
  • Cultural and Political Influences on Human Development
  • Energy Consumption Transition and Human Development
  • Faith and Successful Human Development
  • What Happens at Each Stage of Human Development?
  • How Have the Natural Characteristics of Melanesia Affected Human Development?
  • How Does Cultural Anthropology Influence Human Development?
  • What Research Designs Are Used to Study Human Development?
  • How Do the Foundations of Human Development Influence the Work of Mental Health Counselors?
  • What Are the Main Theories of Human Development?
  • How Does the Impact of the Human Development Process Differ From Learning?
  • How Does Biology and the Environment Affect Human Development?
  • When Was Sigmund Freud’s Theory on Human Development First Published?
  • How Does Culture Affect Human Development?
  • What Is Human Ecology about Human Development?
  • How Does “Nature vs. Nurture” Influences Human Development?
  • How Did Erik Erikson Apply the Epigenetic Principle to Human Development?
  • How Do Heredity and Environment Interact to Influence Human Development?
  • What Variables Does the Human Development Index Incorporate?
  • Why Do Many Countries With High Gross Domestic Product Have a Low Human Development Index?
  • How Many Stages Does the Human Development Have?
  • Why Lifelong Motor Development Is a Vital Part of Human Development?
  • What Factors Best Explain Human Development?
  • At What Stage During Human Development Does the Lumbar Curve of the Spine Develop?
  • What Does the Science of Human Development Seek to Understand?
  • What Period of Human Development Brings About the Most Rapid Change?
  • What Importance Does Social or Moral Development Have for Human Development?
  • What Is the Critical Period Hypothesis of Human Development?
  • How Do Philosophy, Psychology, and Sociology Each Relate to Human Development?
  • How Does Neuroscience Relate to Human Development?
  • What Makes the Study of Human Development a Science?
  • What Is the Cognitive Domain in Human Development?
  • Is Human Development a “Means” to Achieve Economic Growth?
  • How Does Physical Geography Impact Human Development and Settlement?
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Science And Development Research Paper

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During the past half-century, conventional understandings of science, development, and their relationship have changed radically. Formerly, science was thought to refer to a clear and specific variety of Western knowledge with uniformly positive effects on society. Formerly, development was viewed as a unidirectional process of social change along Western lines. Formerly, science was viewed as a powerful contributor to the developmental process. Each of these ideas has been subjected to insightful criticism. This research paper will examine science and development, concluding that the relationship between the two is problematic, partly because of the complexity of the concepts themselves. Three major theories of development are considered, together with the main types of research institutions in developing areas.

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Much of what is termed science in developing areas is far from what would be considered ‘pure science’ in the developed world. The ‘root concept’ of science involves research, the systematic attempt to acquire new knowledge. In its modern form, this involves experimentation or systematic observation by highly trained specialists in research careers, typically university professors with state-of-the-art laboratory equipment. These scientists seek to contribute to a cumulative body of factual and theoretical knowledge, testing hypotheses by means of experiments and reporting their results to colleagues through publication in peer-reviewed journals.

Yet when a new variety of seed is tested by a national research institute and distributed to farmers in Africa, this is described as the result of ‘science.’ When the curator of a botanical exhibit has a college degree, he or she may be described as ‘the scientist.’ When a newspaper column discusses malaria or AIDS, ‘scientific treatments’ are recommended. Seeds, educated people, and advice are not science in the abstract and lofty sense of the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake or systematically verified facts about the world. But they are science from the standpoint of those who matter—local people who spend scarce resources on their children’s education, development experts who determine how and where to spend funds, politicians who decide whether to open a new university, corporate personnel who open a new factory in a developing region.

Perhaps the most important shift in recent thinking about science is a broadening of the scholarly view to include the ideas of science found among ordinary people. These are often more extended in developing areas, because of the association of science with ‘modern’ things and ideas. ‘Science’ in its extended sense includes technological artifacts, trained expertise, and knowledge of the way the world works. The importance of this point will be clear in the conclusion.

Given the fuzziness of the boundaries that separate science from other institutions, and the dependence of modern research on sophisticated technical equipment, the term ‘technoscience’ is often used to denote the entire complex of processes, products, and knowledge that flows from modern research activities. Even if we recognize that the term ‘science’ has extended meanings, it is useful to draw a distinction between (a) the institutions that produce knowledge and artifacts and (b) the knowledge that is produced. That is, on the one hand, there are organizations, people, and activities that are devoted to the acquisition of knowledge and things that can be produced with knowledge. These constitute the modern organization of research. On the other hand, there are claims involving knowledge and artifacts—often significantly transformed as they leave the confines of the research laboratory. What makes claims and practices ‘scientific’ is their association with scientific institutions.

Modern research capacity is concentrated in industrialized countries. Indeed, with respect to the global distribution of scientific and technical personnel, scientific organizations, publications, citations to scientific work, patents, equipment, and resources, scientific institutions display extremely high degrees of inequality. The most common indicator of scientific output is publications. In 1995, Western Europe, North America, Japan, and the newly industrialized countries accounted for about 85 percent of the world total. Leaving aside countries and allies of the former Soviet Union, developing areas contributed less than 9 percent of the world total. Much the same applies to technological output measured in patents and expenditures on research and development (UNESCO 1998).

Yet if we shift our focus from the question of inequality to the question of diffusion, an entirely different picture arises. To what extent have the idea and practice of research spread throughout the world? The main issues here involve who conducts research, on what subjects, and what happens to the results. Each of these topics is the subject of analysis and controversy.

Scientific research in developing countries began during the pre-independence era with the establishment of universities and research institutes. Research was conducted on crops and commodities for export as well as conditions (e.g., disease) that affected the profits sought by external agents from their control over the land, labor, and property of colonized peoples. Methodologies and organizational models for research were brought by European colonists to Asia, Africa, and Latin America. During the era of independence and throughout the 1970s, number of types of entities engaged in the generation of knowledge multiplied. The main scientific organizations now fall into five main types, or sectors: academic departments, state research institutes, international agencies, private firms and, to a lesser degree, nongovernmental organizations.

2. Development

The concept of development involves several dimensions of transformation, including the creation of wealth (that is, rapid and sustained economic growth) and its distribution in a fashion that benefits a broad spectrum of people rather than a small elite (that is, a reduction in social inequality). Cultural transformation (recognition of and attendant value placed on local traditions and heritage) has also been viewed as an important aspect of the process since the early 1980s. There is general agreement that development in the second half of the twentieth century is not a mere recapitulation of the process of industrialization that characterized Europe and North America in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

Three theoretical perspectives, with many variations, have dominated development studies: modernization, dependency, and institutional. One way of distinguishing these theories is by their position on the ways in which relationships external to a country affect the process of change. Since scientific institutions and knowledge claims are of external origin, each of these perspectives views science and technology as important in the development process, with very different assessments of the costs and benefits.

2.1 Modernization

The oldest approach, sometimes called modernization theory, focused on the shift from a traditional, rural, agricultural society to a modern, urban, industrial form. Transformations internal to a country (such as formal education, a market economy, and democratic political structures) are emphasized, while external relationships are de-emphasized. However, science was the exception to this, available to benefit developing nations through technology transfer from Western sources. This idea relied on two assumptions. One was the ‘hardness’ of technological artifacts—their alleged independence from people and culture, their seeming ability to produce certain effects ‘no matter what.’ The second was the ‘linear model’ of technology development in which the (a) discoveries of basic science lead to the (b) practical knowledge of applied science and finally to (c) technological applications such as new products. In retrospect, both of these assumptions were simplistic in any context, but in the developing world they were especially problematic.

The assumption of ‘hardness’ has been replaced by the generalization that the uses, effects, and even the meanings of technological artifacts are affected by the context of use. First, effective technologies, from automobiles to indoor plumbing, do not typically stand alone, but are embedded in systems that provide infrastructure (roads, sewage treatment) which is often lacking. Second, the provision of artifacts such as buildings and computers is much easier than their maintenance, which requires both resources and knowledge. Third, introduction of new technology involves a multiplicity of consequences—positive and negative, short term and long term, economic and ecological. Many of these consequences are unpredictable, even in those rare cases where such foresight is attempted.

The case of the Green Revolution is illustrative. In the 1960s, widespread food shortages, population growth, and predicted famine in India prompted major international foundations to invest research and technology transfer efforts towards the goals of increasing agricultural productivity and the modernization of technology. What resulted were new kinds of maize, wheat, and rice. These modern varieties promised higher yields and rapid maturity, but not without other inputs and conditions. They were, rather, part of a ‘package’ that required fertilizers as well as crop protection inputs such as pesticides, herbicides, and fungicides—sometimes even irrigation and mechanization. Moreover, seed for these varieties had to be purchased anew each year.

The consequences of the Green Revolution are still debated, and there is little doubt that many of them were positive. Famine in India was averted through increased yields, but the benefits of the technology required capital investments that were only possible for wealthier farmers. Not only did the adoption of new technology increase dependence on the suppliers of inputs, but it was claimed to increase inequality by hurting the small farmer—one intended beneficiary of the technology. The actual complexity of the outcomes is revealed by one of the most sophisticated assessments—modern seed varieties do reach small farmers, increase employment, and decrease food prices, but the benefits are less than expected because the poor are increasingly landless workers or near landless farm laborers (Lipton and Longhurst 1989).

What is important for the question of the relationship between science and development is that the products and practices of the Green Revolution were research-based technology. This technology was often developed in international research institutes funded by multilateral agencies such as the World Bank and bilateral donors such as the US Agency for International Development. Since the combined resources of these donors dwarf those of many poor countries, their developmental and research priorities constitute a broad global influence on the nature of science for development. The largest and most visible of these organizations form a global research network, the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) which grew from 4 to 13 centers during the 1970s as support by donors quadrupled. The influence of this network of donors and international agencies was clearly evident in the early 1990s when environmental concerns led to an emphasis on ‘sustainability’ issues. This led to a change in CGIAR priorities, as the older emphasis on agricultural productivity shifted to the relatively more complex issue of natural resource management.

2.2 Dependency

Modernization theory emphasized internal factors while making an exception of science. Dependency theory and its close relative, world system theory, emphasized the role of external relationships in the developmental process. Relationships with developed countries and particularly with multinational corporations were viewed as barriers. Economic growth was controlled by forces outside the national economy. Dependency theory focused on individual nations, their role as suppliers of raw materials, cheap labor, and markets for expensive manufactured goods from industrialized countries. The unequal exchange relationship between developed and developing countries was viewed as contributing to poor economic growth. World system theory took a larger perspective, examining the wider network of relationships between the industrialized ‘core’ countries, impoverished ‘peripheral’ countries, and a group of ‘semiperipheral’ countries in order to show how some are disadvantaged by their position in the global system. Because of their overspecialization in a small number of commodities for export, the unchecked economic influence of external organizations, and political power wielded by local agents of capital, countries on the periphery of the global capitalist system continue to be characterized by high levels of economic inequality, low levels of democracy, and stunted economic growth.

What is important about the dependency account is that science is not viewed in benign terms, but rather as one of a group of institutional processes that con- tribute to underdevelopment. As indicated above, research is highly concentrated in industrialized countries. Dependency theory adds to this the notion that most research is also conducted for their benefit, with problems and technological applications selected to advance the interests of the core. The literature on technology transfer is also viewed in a different light. The development of new technology for profit is associated with the introduction and diffusion of manufactured products that are often unsuited to local needs and conditions, serving to draw scarce resources away from more important developmental projects. The condition of dependency renders technological choice moot.

This concern with choice, associated with the argument that technology from abroad is often imposed on developing countries rather than selected by them, has resurfaced in many forms. In the 1970s it was behind the movement known as ‘intermediate’ technology, based on the work of E. F. Schumacher, which promoted the use of small-scale, labor-intensive technologies that were produced locally rather than of complex, imported, manufactured goods. These ‘appropriate’ technologies might be imported from abroad, but would be older, simpler, less mechanized, and designed with local needs in mind. What these viewpoints had in common was a critical approach to the adoption of technology from abroad.

By the late 1980s and 1990s even more radical positions began to surface, viewing Western science as a mechanism of domination. These arguments were more closely related to ecological and feminist thought than to the Marxist orientation of dependency theory. Writers such as Vandana Shiva proposed that Western science was reductionist and patriarchal in orientation, leading to ‘epistemic violence’ through the separation of subject and object in the process of observation and experimentation (1991). ‘Indigenous knowledge’ and ‘non-Western science’ were proposed as holistic and sustainable alternatives to scientific institutions and knowledge claims. Such views had an organizational base in nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), which received an increasing share of development aid during this period, owing to donor distrust of repressive and authoritarian governments in developing areas. NGOs have been active supporters of local communities in health, community development, and women’s employment, even engaging in research in alternative agriculture (Farrington and Bebbington 1993).

2.3 Institutional Theory

Institutional theory seeks to explain why nations are committed to scientific institutions as well as what forms these take. The central theme is that organizational structures developed in industrialized countries are viewed by policy makers, donors, and other states as signals of progress towards modern institutional development and hence worthy of financial support. Regardless of the positive or negative consequences of their activities, the introduction and maintenance of certain forms in tertiary education and government serves to communicate this commitment. Institutional theory provides an account of the growth and structure of the academic and state research sectors, as successful organizations in industrialized nations operate as models far from their original contexts.

Academic departments consist of researchers grouped by subject, each of whom is relatively free to select research projects. They bear the closest resemblance to the root concept of science introduced at the beginning of this research paper. But research requires time and resources. In areas such as sub-Saharan Africa, laboratories and fieldwork are poorly funded, if at all, since many institutions can barely afford to pay salaries. Professors teach, consult, and often maintain other jobs. Research is conducted as a secondary activity and professional contacts with other scientists in Europe and the US are few.

Equally important to the scientific establishment are state research institutes. These organizations are agencies of the state, they are charged with performing research with relevance to development, with health and agriculture the two most important content areas. They are linked to ministries, councils, and international agencies as well as systems (such as Extension Services in agriculture) that deliver technology to users—again based on a model from the developed world.

3. Relationships Between Science And Development

The popularity of dependency arguments and the resurgence of interest in indigenous forms of knowledge implies continued competition for older views of the uniformly positive effects of science. Institutional theory provides an alternative account of the spread of science and its organizational forms. But two features of current scholarship may prove more significant in the long run.

First, extreme diversity exists among developing areas in terms of their economic, social, and cultural patterns. It makes decreasing sense to speak of

‘development’ as an area of study. Latin American nations, for example, are generally far better positioned than the nations of sub-Saharan Africa. There is even wide variation within countries, as the case of India makes clear. While much of India qualifies as a developing area, it is among the world’s top producers of scientific work, has a technically skilled, English-speaking labor force second only to the US, and is a leading exporter of computer software for corporations.

Second, ‘science’ is viewed as having many dimensions, many effects, and fuzzy institutional boundaries, but it is always a feature of the modern, industrial, interconnected world. Science cannot be the cause of modernization because, in its diverse institutional articulations and its evolving fit with society, science exemplifies the meaning of modernization itself.


  • Baber Z 1996 The Science of Empire: Scientific Knowledge, Civilization, and Colonial Rule in India. State University of New York Press, Albany, NY
  • Farrington J, Bebbington A 1993 Reluctant Partners: Nongovernmental Organisations, the State, and Sustainable Agricultural Development. Routledge, London
  • Gaillard J 1991 Scientists in the Third World. University of Kentucky Press, Lexington, KY
  • Kloppenburg J 1988 First the Seed: The Political Economy of Plant Biotechnology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK
  • Lipton M, Longhurst R 1989 New Seeds and Poor People. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD
  • Pearse A 1980 Seeds of Plenty, Seeds of Want: Social and Economic Implications of the Green Revolution. Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK
  • Schumacher E F 1973 Small is Beautiful: Economics as if People Mattered. Harper and Row, New York
  • Shahidullah S 1991 Capacity Building in Science and Technology in the Third World. Westview Press, Boulder, CO
  • Shiva V 1991 The Violence of the Green Revolution. Zed Books, London
  • Shrum W, Shenhav Y 1995 Science and technology in less developed countries. In: Jasanoff S, Markle G, Peterson J, Pinch T (eds.) Handbook of Science and Technology Studies. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA
  • Stewart F 1977 Technology and Under-Development. Westview Press, Boulder, CO
  • UNESCO 1998 World Science Report 1998. Elsevier, Paris
  • Yearley S 1988 Science, Technology, and Social Change. Unwin Hyman, London


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315 Child Development Research Topics & Essay Examples

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  • Middle Childhood Cognitive Development and Learning Psychology essay sample: Explanations of the normal growth have been postulated by many theorists. Growth and development in early life is usually described in three main stages.
  • Infant Cognitive Development Stages Psychology essay sample: Each of four stages introduced by Piaget is characterized by the changes in the development of intellect and the mechanisms of cognition.
  • Educative Toys' Role in Child Development Psychology essay sample: The purpose of the study is to affirm the hypothesis that educative toys enhance child development and education. The toys should be given to children according to their age and grade.
  • Psychology: Middle Childhood Development Psychology essay sample: This paper focuses on highlighting some of the hereditary and environmental factors that affect physical, cognitive, and social development in the middle childhood stage.
  • Peers' and Parents' Role in Child's Development Psychology essay sample: This paper provides detailed information on the influence of parents, peers, and other people in the development of a child process.
  • Young Children’s Play and Environment Psychology essay sample: The essay proves that whereas children’s play in early childhood is free and innocent, it`s influenced by some factors that not only define and shape it but also make it complex.
  • Children and Adolescent Development Process Psychology essay sample: The case studies presented are for children or adolescents in school, who develop problems and need intervention. This analysis will integrate case studies and use scholarly research.
  • Child Observation with Piaget's and Freud's Development Theories Psychology essay sample: Jean Piaget developed his cognitive-developmental theory based on the idea that children actively construct knowledge as they explore and manipulate the world around them.
  • Child's Behavior and Developmental Stage Psychology essay sample: The behavior of children at any developmental stage is similar across cultures. The paper analyzes the behavior and the developmental stage of a 9-years child.
  • Pets for Children: Developmental Psychology Study Psychology essay sample: The study of the characteristics of child development is the area of ​​psychology that provides for assessing various aspects, including cognitive, socio-emotional factors.
  • Child Development: Ages One Through Three Psychology essay sample: Babies need high amounts of glucose in order for their brains to properly develop as well as fat in order to help stimulate proper growth and development.
  • Childhood Stages and Development Psychology essay sample: The dynamic systems theory of motor development states that a child’s maturation is tied to the development of gross and fine motor skills.
  • Why Play Is Essential in Cognitive Development Psychology essay sample: The paper is aimed to prove that playing is not an inconsequential activity for children cause it has a pivotal role in their cognitive development.
  • Growth and Development as a Journey Children Go Through Psychology essay sample: Developmental researchers have unearthed a wealth of information on how human beings go through the life span in terms of various developmental aspects
  • How Does Autism Affect the Emotional Development of Children? Psychology essay sample: Discussion of emotional characteristics of autistic children, range of autistic emotional development, supporting emotional development autistic children, treatments.
  • Autism and Emotional Development of Children Psychology essay sample: Parents are considered as the prime carers and educators of their children as well as the major providers of special, love, care, and attention that is normally given to autistic people.
  • Human Cognitive Development Psychology essay sample: Human cognitive development was described in a number of theories, and one of the major contemporary issues in developmental psychology is sociocultural influences on the progress of human mind through the life span.
  • Child Development: The Attachment Theory Psychology essay sample: The process of child development starts with infant-mother interrelation being the background of human inner world formation.
  • Theory of Attachment ​In Adult Psychology essay sample: Attachment development is a behavioral control system that is formed over time when affective, cognitive, and learning abilities are affected by the attachment to a caregiver.
  • Importance of Outdoor Play on Development of Children Psychology essay sample: The research study examines the importance of outdoor play on process of learning, physical improvement, cooperative ability and many other aspects of the child’s development.
  • Cognitive Development Theories in Personal Example Psychology essay sample: Cognitive theories analyze the qualitative and quantitative mental capabilities that occur during cognitive development that are divided into four stages.
  • Play for Young Children Types and Values Psychology essay sample: This research paper will discuss the various types and values of play for young children and how they help in impacting positive values in the children.
  • Development of the Cognitive Process Psychology essay sample: The process of cognitive development involves various changes in the thinking process, which begin at infancy and improve progressively as an individual develops.
  • Human Growth and Development Psychology essay sample: This paper seeks to determine the number of principles that briefly characterize human Growth and development.
  • Psychology. Ecological System Theory Psychology essay sample: Literature in early childhood is on the increasing end due to the early experiences and recognition of theories supporting human development.
  • How Childhood Trauma Affects Health Across a Lifetime Psychology essay sample: Being a teacher requires a specific set of communication skills, and improving these skills could positively affect parent-teacher relationships.
  • Impact of Early Childhood Experience on the Development of the Personality Psychology essay sample: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the level of impact of early childhood on the life of a human and compare it to other youthful stages.
  • Professional Preparation: Promoting Child Development Psychology essay sample: The purpose of the present paper is to identify and explore one of the NAEYC early childhood professional preparation standards to enhance one’s knowledge in the field.
  • Childhood to Adulthood Developmental Analysis : Personal Experiences Psychology essay sample: In today's technology world, it takes longer for youths to gain adequate training, get employment, and become financially independent.
  • On the Formation of Prosocial Behavior in Children Psychology essay sample: This article discusses the importance of the environment in shaping prosocial behavior and the impact of the environment on interactions between children.
  • Physical Education Impact on Child Development Psychology essay sample: Inadequate physical activity hampers psychosocial health in children and elevates the risk of cardiometabolic disorders.
  • Preschool Program for Children from Birth to Eighteen Months Psychology essay sample: The main thing that infants demand during the period from birth to eighteen months is the adult's attention for emotional, social, and cognitive development.
  • Usage-Based Approach to Determine the Theory of Mind in Infants Psychology essay sample: Theory of mind (ToM) is the psychological explanation of the intellectual abilities that facilitate the understanding that other people have desires, plans, beliefs, and hopes.
  • Behavior Problems of Middle Childhood by Peterson Psychology essay sample: This document is intended to provide a critical review of a journal article, Behavior problems of middle childhood, authored by Donald Peterson of the University of Illinois.
  • Day Care and Child Mental Health/Cognitive Functioning Psychology essay sample: The study partially supported the hypothesis that early parental employment has a positive effect on children's development by increasing family income.
  • The Child Growth and Development Psychology essay sample: Children play an active role in such areas as self-understanding and self-efficacy. Childhood experiences have a significant impact on mental and social development.
  • Children Are Not Born With Prejudices - They Learn Them Psychology essay sample: Children tend to mimic the behavior, habits, and communication models from their caregivers, which consequently shape the child’s personal beliefs and character.
  • Middle and Late Childhood Developmental Needs Psychology essay sample: A child's mental, behavioral, and social developmental outcomes, as well as physical health, are determined by socioeconomic circumstances.
  • Early Childhood Sleep: Its Types and Consistent Routine Psychology essay sample: Sleep in early childhood begins the process of remodeling learned memories, which may be sufficient to provide short-term benefits in regulating mood and emotions.
  • Resilience After Trauma: From Surviving to Thriving Psychology essay sample: Resilience may be seen as minimized anguish from a stressful situation and the ability to manage a stressful ordeal with a lowered impact on a person's daily life and development.
  • How Culture Influences a Child’s Development Psychology essay sample: The goal of this paper is to analyze the role of culture as one of the main sources of influence on a child’s early development.
  • Classical Music in Children’s Development and Behavior Psychology essay sample: Western classical music, often referred to as simply classical music, is often considered highly beneficial to children’s education and associated with a variety of advantages.
  • The Impact of Dyslexia on Child Development Psychology essay sample: A society that views a person who has dyslexia as ordinary will also encourage the person to see themselves the same way.
  • Personal and Social Development of Children Psychology essay sample: Bringing up children and fostering their personal and social development is a complicated process requiring significant efforts from their parents and caregivers.
  • How Stress Affects Child Brain Development Psychology essay sample: Stress is an unavoidable and important part of any child’s life. Depending on how significant it is it can have a positive or negative effect on the child’s development.
  • Developmental Psychology: Early Childhood and Infancy Stages Psychology essay sample: The essay concerns the two stages of child and adolescent psychological development, considering the value of play, attachment, and bonding during these years.
  • Physical and Cognitive Development of Early Childhood Psychology essay sample: Before the age of six, the brain's growth continues, the development of the frontal lobes, which allows children to acquire the ability to control attention by school age.
  • Developmental Assessment of School-Aged Children Psychology essay sample: This essay discusses the physical assessment of school-aged children and typical developmental stages for children of this age.
  • Human Development: Preschool Children Psychology essay sample: The rate of development during the preschool years is contingent on both hereditary and environmental factors.
  • Analysis of Go-Go Caterpillar and Its Influence on Development Psychology essay sample: Go Caterpillar is a toy designed for toddlers aged from 9 months to approximately three years. The toy is not gender-specific, so it is equally suitable for girls and boys.
  • Child Birth and Development in Infancy Psychology essay sample: Physical and cognitive development in such an essential period of human life as infancy is critical to the quality of people’s lives.
  • Child Language Development Discussion Psychology essay sample: Language development is a course during which a child learns to communicate and understand speech during childhood.
  • The Analysis of the School-Aged Children’ Needs Psychology essay sample: School-aged children lack the knowledge about bodies and have limited capacity to evaluate the serious consequences of a particular illness or injury.
  • Developmental Psychology: The Developement of Logical Thinking at the Age of Six and Fourteen Psychology essay sample: In the paper, the author outlines the experience of trying to learn a complex physics concept at the age of six and fourteen that illustrates the development of logical thinking.
  • Developmental Theories for Children Psychology essay sample: Stages of development are useful in monitoring and measuring the growth of a child. This discussion aims at evaluating the best technique useful for children aged seven years.
  • Adolescent Risk Behaviors. Child Development Influences Psychology essay sample: Adolescence is one of the most challenging periods in the life of every individual because they go though in an understanding of life, establishing a personality.
  • Child Development Theories Psychology essay sample: The paper has discussed a case of a 4-year old Melissa, who is at risk due to her developmental stage, using Erikson’s and Piaget’s theories.
  • Development in Early Childhood and Early Adulthood Psychology essay sample: This paper aims to highlight social, emotional, physical and cognitive development in early childhood and early adulthood, as well as trends and theories of development.
  • Infancy to Late Childhood Development Psychology essay sample: This paper aims at reviewing information regarding the growth and development of children between birth and 11 years of age, from infancy to late childhood.
  • Developmental Assessment and the School-Aged Child Psychology essay sample: When conducting a medical assessment of a school-aged child, a medical professional must evaluate their cognitive, physical, social, language, and learning development.
  • Cognitive Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood Psychology essay sample: The cognitive development of infants and toddlers is associated with the acquisition of basic knowledge and skills that enables the child to become comparatively independent.
  • Play in the Lives of Young Children Psychology essay sample: Childhood games are fundamental activities that support young ones' cognitive, emotional, physical, and social development.
  • Infant Physical and Cognitive Development Psychology essay sample: The cognitive and physical development of infants has been an object of research since the XX century. Its conventions were set by Jean Piaget.
  • Teaching a Child Table Manners Through Operant Conditioning Psychology essay sample: When teaching table manners, parents should give praise to children right away instead of waiting for them to exhibit the behaviors that are expected from them.
  • The 10-Month-Old Child: Developmental Information Psychology essay sample: This paper discusses the observations made from the video by reviewing existing literature on developmental skills among 10 months old infants.
  • The Formation and Development of Empathy in Children Psychology essay sample: The paper is relevant for the research as it contains resources that will help to explain the formation and factors that influence the development of a child’s empathy.
  • Biopsychosocial Analysis: Behavior and Social Environment Psychology essay sample: The development of a child through various milestones is dependent on various biological, psychological, and social factors.
  • The Early Childhood Stage Psychology essay sample: The early childhood stage is important because it determines the effectiveness in cognitive, social, and emotional development in a child.
  • Naturalistic Observation of Children's Behavior Psychology essay sample: To receive more evidences related to the behavior of children, it is important to observe the definite age groups in the situation and surroundings which are typical and familiar for them.
  • Managing Behaviour in Young Children Psychology essay sample: The paper discusses what tools and techniques are likely or unlikely to work in a particular case study. The strategy focuses on the family and interventions.
  • The Factors of the Child’s Healthy Development Psychology essay sample: Social and emotional development cannot exist within the framework of the healthy functioning of an individual from a young age.
  • Mental Health: Case Study of S. Psychology essay sample: This paper is devoted to the case of a woman I know personally. S. is a 31-year-old single mother with a family history of anxiety disorders.
  • Infant Temperament: A Longitudinal Study Psychology essay sample: The New York Longitudinal Study data reveals an impressive level of stability in temperament both within and between periods of childhood.
  • Connection Between Screen Time and Child Development Psychology essay sample: Toddlers who spend a considerable amount of time in front of screens demonstrate “poorer performance on developmental screening tests later in childhood”.
  • Child Development Psychology: Pregnancy Trimesters Psychology essay sample: During prenatal development, all three trimesters are very important and any kind of psychological or medical condition the mother undergoes, the child is equally affected.
  • Child Development Overview Psychology essay sample: This paper details the varied factors that impact child development, including the environment, cultural differences, attachment styles, and development stages.
  • Developmental Milestones in Infants and Toddlers Psychology essay sample: Concerning physical activity, a child should be able to keep his head at the age of two months and move across the bed at the age of six months.
  • Stages of Cognitive Development in Children Psychology essay sample: This paper explains the five stages of cognitive development which begin in infancy, early childhood, middle childhood, early adolescence, and ends with late adolescence.
  • Growth and Development of the School-Age Child Psychology essay sample: The school-age children are aware of the human body, and they begin acceptation their own through the changes it experiences.
  • Child Care and Behavior Concerns Psychology essay sample: Early child care interaction is also associated with increased exposure to peers at a young age and potential effects on early peer qualifications.
  • Child Growth and Development: Attachment Theories Psychology essay sample: Since growth and development are a broad and rich subject, several theorists have come together to help understand why and how people learn, grow, and act.
  • Socioemotional Development in Infancy Psychology essay sample: The psychological formation of infants is based on interaction with others, relationships, awareness of their feelings. This paper discusses socioemotional development in infancy.
  • Development of the Brain at Early Childhood Psychology essay sample: In conclusion, brain development starts after conception and continues after birth. Both biological and environmental factors influence the development of the brain.
  • Fundamental of Psychology: Attachment Theory Psychology essay sample: The concept behind attachment theory is that a child needs to develop a strong bond with at least one primary caregiver.
  • Bowlby’s Attachment Theory and Its Impact on Human Life Psychology essay sample: This paper aims at analyzing Bowlby’s attachment theory and its application in childhood, adulthood, romantic life, and the choice of parenting styles.
  • Interview and Observation: A Case Study on Child Development Psychology essay sample: Teddy is the patient that this case targets to study. Teddy is eight years old, he has been developing physically at a regular rate, and he does not have known physical health issues
  • John Watson and Child Behaviorism Psychology essay sample: To prove this point, Watson turned to studying the behavior of infants and came to the conclusion that children are capable of producing a small number of simple reactions.
  • Child’s Living Conditions and Attachment Development Psychology essay sample: The paper states that the experience of raising a child in an orphanage can cause atypical behavior in situations of social interaction.
  • Aspects of Child Development Psychology essay sample: The development of the child is influenced by external factors including the neighbors and their actions, and the personality characteristics of the child.
  • Bowlby’s Attachment Theory Points Psychology essay sample: John Bowlby, a psychoanalyst born in 1907 believed that behavioral and mental health problems were a result of a person's early childhood.
  • Child Observation Assessment: Development Psychology essay sample: The interview was with the caregiver, who said that Laura is an extremely playful and jovial girl, who cries only when she is wet or hungry.
  • Cognitive Development During Childhood Psychology essay sample: The cognitive development of children is a key aspect of their growth, especially in their formative years. Children are born with cognitive abilities.
  • Children’s Oral Language Development (Preschool) Psychology essay sample: The infant’s speech develops faster and better when adults talk to them a lot, not just talk, but specifically communicate.
  • Cognitive Development in Early and Middle Childhood Psychology essay sample: The Early Childhood stage of development lasts from 3 to 5 years. During this period, children are already ready to master complex skills, such as riding a two-wheeled bicycle
  • How Childhood Development Stages Affect Adult Life Psychology essay sample: While upbringing ordeals one undergoes when growing up characterize the childhood memories, they play an important role in the later lives.
  • Overcoming Separation Anxiety in Children Psychology essay sample: Most children quickly stop experiencing separation stress, but if this is not the case, the caregiver can support the parent by explaining how to behave with the child.
  • Child Psychology: Children's Behavior and Communication Style Psychology essay sample: The methods allow for identifying a child's communication style. This helps in finding a specific approach for each kid and indicating their weak spots.
  • Child Development and Environmental Influences Psychology essay sample: This paper is an annotated bibliography that aims to conduct an analysis of the child development theme from several sources.
  • Family Survey for Development of Children Psychology essay sample: This paper contains a letter with the family survey that was created with a request for family support in the understanding and development of children.
  • Personal Development From Childhood Through Present Age Psychology essay sample: The personal development of an individual occurs throughout life. Personality is one of those phenomena that is rarely interpreted in the same way by two different authors.
  • Children’s Books in Various Therapies Psychology essay sample: The paper discusses children's books in therapy. It includes Adlerian Play Therapy, Jungian Analytical Play Therapy, Psychodynamic Play Therapy, etc.
  • Observed Behaviors of 10-Year Old Children and Supporting Theories Psychology essay sample: This paper explains Erikson’s psychosocial, Freud’s psychosexual, Piaget’s cognitive developmental theories, Bandura’s social learning, Kohlberg’s moral development perspectives.
  • Developmental Psychology in Parenting Psychology essay sample: The paper describes attachment parenting, supportive education items, and governmental and non-governmental transformative intervention in parenting.
  • Effects of Socioeconomic Inequalities on Child Health and Wellness Psychology essay sample: Socioeconomic inequalities have a significant impact on the children’s cognitive and social-emotional behavior, as well as health outcomes.
  • The Relationship Between Income and Childhood Brain Development Psychology essay sample: Dr. Noble's talk on the connection between income and cognitive development is scientifically accurate and proven.
  • Child Development Assessment Tools Psychology essay sample: To clarify the ideas about the development of children, I also included a conversation as a more effective method that revealed the individual characteristics of each kid.
  • Development. “Baby Milestones: 24–36 Months” Psychology essay sample: The investigation of behavior in this essay will provide an analysis of the development and behavior of a two to a three-year-old child based on the video “Baby Milestones”.
  • Piaget’s Work and Legacy in Child Development Psychology essay sample: Piaget has been very influential and effective on the topic of understanding childhood development. His researched the differences that occur in child development.
  • Pretend Play Importance for the Child’s Development Psychology essay sample: Pretend play is immeasurably significant for a child's development; it has a positive impact on learners' literacy, mathematical thinking, and language and scientific skills.
  • Colour Psychology and its Effects on the Early Years’ Learning Environment Psychology essay sample: Colour can affect a child’s perception of the environment, and this process can alter the development of personality, which includes mental development.
  • Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s Theories in Childhood Quantitative Cognitive Development Psychology essay sample: Lev Vygotsky and Jean Piaget largely contributed to developmental psychology and education, notably exploring children's learning styles and mental abilities.
  • Developmental Analysis: Personal Introduction of Childhood – Adolescence Psychology essay sample: This paper presents a personal introduction of childhood – adolescence, and theoretical perspectives of development (Freud’s, Erikson’s, Piaget’s theories).
  • Jean Piaget’s Infant Development Theory Psychology essay sample: The author of the paper agrees with Jean Piaget's theory of intellectual development since it focuses on cognitive processes throughout a particular period.
  • Importance of Play in Child’s Development Psychology essay sample: During the game process, a child’s will, emotions, cognitive processes, and interests interact and cooperate, as a result, positive changes in the personality of the child emerge.
  • Stages of Child Development Psychology essay sample: Egocentrism - the inability or unwillingness of a person to look at what is happening from the point of view of other people, to put himself in the place of another person.
  • Children’s Development Process Psychology essay sample: Parents, guardians, and professionals should incorporate children's observation programs for facilitating and enhancing children's development.
  • Initiative and Guilt Stage of Child’s Psychological Development Psychology essay sample: Initiative and guilt are the third stage of psychological development which happens between the ages of three to five in the child's life.
  • A Child's Development and Its Basic Elements Psychology essay sample: The issue of the development of a child is relevant and vital nowadays. There is a necessity to figure out all the basic elements of the process.
  • Jean Piaget’s Approach and Theory of Cognitive Development Psychology essay sample: Jean Piaget, is mostly famous for his multiple innovative theories and ideas on the development of cognitive functions of children in the process of growing.
  • How a Person Develops and the Factors That Influence the Growth Psychology essay sample: Child development is the individual progress from dependency to independence between birth and adolescence, which entails emotional and psychological changes.
  • Child Temperament and Life-Span Development Psychology essay sample: Temperament is a psychological term that refers to the combination of behaviors and attitudes an individual demonstrates.
  • Freud’s and Vygotsky's Theories of Child Development Psychology essay sample: The subject of psychoanalytic theory is human emotions and interpersonal relationships. This paper analyzes Sigmund Freud’s theory and Vygotsky's cultural-historical theory.
  • Temperament and Behavior in Young Children Psychology essay sample: Various factors regarding temperament and behavior in young children can affect their academic performance at an early age.
  • Formal Operational Stage of Cognitive Development of Children Psychology essay sample: As outlined by Jean Piaget, the formal operational stage of cognitive development considers children from the age of 12 years and above.
  • Analysis of Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development Psychology essay sample: Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality and development states that body parts are sensitive to sexual or erotic stimulation during the childhood development phases.
  • Parental Stresses and Child’s Emotional Development Psychology essay sample: Raising a child as a head of a single-parent family is associated with various challenges. Firstly, a single-parent family may be struggling to afford even the basic needs.
  • Personal Development Due to Erikson’s Scale Psychology essay sample: Erikson’s theory of people’s psychosocial development is helpful for psychology. It helps doctors cope with their patient’s mental health issues.
  • Benefits of Educational Sensory Toys for Children Psychology essay sample: Educational toys assist children in attaining problem-solving skills even at a young age, which is suitable for their development.
  • Why Parents Matter More Than Peers in Children’s Development Psychology essay sample: This paper argues that parents' impact on their children's life surpasses peers' influence and cannot be overlooked when education issues are concerned.
  • Lack of Physical Development in Preschool Children Psychology essay sample: Physical development is an important aspect of growth in children and has been determined to enhance their social and language development.
  • The Influence of Parents on the Psychoemotional Development of Children Psychology essay sample: In the context of the influence of parents on the psychoemotional development of children, such aspects as parenting style, emotion regulation, and parental distress.
  • Insecure-Avoidant Attachment Style in Childhood Psychology essay sample: Childhood plays a critical role in developing personality. This paper aims to present the case of a child with an insecure-avoidant attachment style.
  • Child’s Development Analysis and Potential Interventions Psychology essay sample: In the case of the child described in the paper, there was a normal transition – she started studying in kindergarten and a non-normal one – she experienced her parents' divorce.
  • Mother’s Influence on Child’s Development Psychology essay sample: Undoubtedly, each individual has their own sources that contribute to a certain degree of intensity to the formation of a person as an individual, man or woman.
  • Child Maltreatment Factor of Personality Formation Psychology essay sample: This research aims to analyze the external factors involved in developing personality formation, particularly race and ethnicity.
  • Childhood: The Social and Cultural Concept Psychology essay sample: Childhood is neither timeless nor universal: it is not determined only by age or biological and psychological factors.
  • Child's Language and Literacy: The Role of Parents Psychology essay sample: Parents are children’s first teachers because they are primarily responsible for developing children’s basic literacy and language skills.
  • Speech Delay in a 32 Months-Old Child Psychology essay sample: Speech delay among 32 months-old children is a phenomenon that can sometimes occur in the early phases of development due to many reasons.
  • How Can Attachment Styles Influence Children's Development Psychology essay sample: From a psychological standpoint, it is thought that the child's attachment style has a substantial impact on his or her development.
  • Nature and Nurture Theories of Child Development Psychology essay sample: The paper discusses the nature and nurture theories debate. They relate to two different perceptions or approaches to child development.
  • Stages of Intellectual and Social Development Psychology essay sample: This work reviews the many stages of the intellectual and social development of people. It is important to understand the stages of development.
  • Development Through the Lifespan Psychology essay sample: Influences are felt already in early childhood, in the narrow family circle, and then among other children in kindergartens and schools.
  • Development of Emotions and Temperament During Infancy Psychology essay sample: The paper states that the development of emotions and temperament is a gradual process and depends on the level of development of children.
  • Researching of Piaget’s Four Stages of Cognitive Development Psychology essay sample: Each stage is age-specific and marked by major hallmarks that indicate the development of specific thought-processing abilities.
  • Parental and Psychotherapeutic Role in Development of Children With Autism Psychology essay sample: Parents have a significant role in developing and preparing an autistic child for future life, and in such cases, the work of a psychotherapist with the whole family is important.
  • Child Development Issue and Its Management Psychology essay sample: This paper is a case study of the development issues of a four-year-old Chinese child; essentially, the child acted more like a 2-year-old.
  • Cognitive Development During the First Three Years of Life Psychology essay sample: With the help of external orientation actions, the child correlates and compares the external properties of objects, highlighting permanent ones by the end of 3 years of life.
  • Cognitive and Psychosocial Development of a Child Psychology essay sample: In the case reviewed in the paper, the child has not formed the concept of ownership and politeness, which is not the norm for this age.
  • Children's Toys and Their Influence on Development Psychology essay sample: Educational toys tend to help children to develop problem-solving skills, understand the causes and impacts, and resolve conflicts.
  • The Real Impact Separated Siblings Have on Individual Child Development Psychology essay sample: Sibling relationships within families have received increased attention over the past few years, pointing to the potential protective role that these relationships can play.
  • Early Childhood Development: The Nurturing Care Psychology essay sample: The child’s changing cognitive and socio-emotional needs encourage regular nurturing-related adjustments initiated by both parents and child development professionals.
  • Aspects of Lifespan Development
  • Developmental Theories: Social Competence as a Young Child
  • Babies’ Early Language Development
  • Maria Montessori's View on Children's Education
  • “Exploring Lifespan Development”: Theories in the Textbook and Infant Development
  • Piaget’s Theory and Preoccupation Children
  • Effects of Kindergarten Activities on Cognitive Development
  • Divisive Politics and Child Development
  • Self-Regulation Abilities in Children
  • Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
  • The Ways in Which Childhood Is Represented Within the U.K.
  • The Way Experience Affects the Development of the Baby’s Brain
  • A Unique Process of a Child’s Very Early Years
  • The Early Growth and Development Study
  • Infant's Lifespan Development: The Case Analysis
  • Skinner and Chomsky on Nature vs. Nurture
  • Cognitive Development in Children
  • Vygotsky's and Piaget's Views on Cognitive Development
  • Socioeconomic Status and Child’s Sharing Tendency
  • Aspects of Comprehensive Child Report
  • Toddler Observation and Piaget's Theory Application
  • The Process of Toddler Development
  • Piaget’s Development Stages Theory in Child Assessment
  • Erik Erikson’s and Sigmund Freud’s Psychological Theories Comparison
  • Problem-Solving Skill in Child Development
  • Arts and Play in Early Childhood Development
  • Child Development During COVID-19 Pandemic
  • Direct Assessment of Cognitive Development in Children
  • Toddler Observation and Assessment
  • Philosophy as a Driver of Proper Social Development
  • Human Development from Infancy to Death
  • Child’s Social and Emotional Development
  • Children’s Internet Use and Developmental Effects
  • Freud's Child Development Theory
  • Child Psychology: Peer and Parents Influence
  • Impact of Children’s Toys on Development
  • Parent Education and Family Life Education Fields
  • The Cognitive Development of a Children
  • My Virtual Child Examination of Child Development
  • Developmental Stages: The Early Childhood Developmental Stage
  • Developmental Stages from Piaget's Perspective
  • Language and Cognitive Developments in Infants
  • Products Promoting Infant Development
  • Middle Childhood Moral Dilemma Assignment
  • The Influence of the External Environment on Child Development
  • Children's Cognitive Development in Jean Piaget's Theory
  • Analyzing the Role of Developmental Factors in Two Families
  • Childhood Developmental Theories
  • Factors Affecting Child Development
  • Influences on Early Development
  • Children's Development Affected by Environment
  • Childhood Fame and Adulthood: Developmental Science
  • Attachment Theory and Developmental Psychology in Early Childhood
  • The Brain Development in Children
  • The Development of Siyasanda Discussion
  • The Infant and Toddler Development
  • Child Development and Social Learning Theories
  • Play, Social-Emotional Development and Theory of Mind: Three Important Aspects in Child Development
  • Child Development and Learning Gender Differences In-Play
  • Child Development and the Ecological Theory
  • Child Development and Education: Physical Exercise Human development refers to the process of growing to maturity. A child needs to have good physical activities, in order to develop to a healthy adult
  • The Psychological and Biological Changes of Child Development
  • Developmental Psychology and Child Development
  • Child Development and Learning Theories
  • Psychology and Self Esteem in Child Development.
  • Children’s Early Learning and Development The traditional approach to early childhood learning and development entails teachers’ typical use of themes to plan and generate the curriculum.
  • Personal Philosophy: Child Development and Teaching
  • Same-Sex Parenting and Child Development
  • Child Development and Maturation: Language and Cognitive
  • Relationship Between Paternal Absence and Child Development
  • Video Gaming Impact on Middle Childhood Development Previous studies found that playing computer games significantly affects a child’s cognitive development, but the results are contradictory.
  • Child Development and Maternal Depression
  • Parental Stress and Child Development
  • Mental Retardation and Child Development
  • Psychoanalytic Theory of Child Development and Social Learning
  • Infancy and Early Childhood Development This essay assesses different parenting styles and their impact on children in infancy and early childhood, and their impact on cognitive development.
  • Child Development and the Effects of Television Violence
  • Child Development and Sexual Behavior
  • Evolutionary Psychology and Child Development
  • Child Development and the Effects of Spanking
  • Biological Factors Impact on Children’s Development Biological factors that can affect a child’s growth include several elements, for example, genetic influences, the level of nutrition, exposures during the prenatal period.
  • Positive and Negative Impact on Child Development
  • Child Development Theories Within the Field of Psychology
  • Child Development and the Importance of First Relationship
  • Children’s Development and Domestic Violence The purpose of this paper is to prove that even when children are not at home, domestic violence can have significant effects on them.
  • The Separation Individuation Theory of Child Development
  • Mental Health, Abuse, and Child Development
  • The Personal Identity and the Psychology for the Child Development
  • Mental Health Around Pregnancy and Child Development From Early Childhood to Adolescence
  • Concrete Operational Stage of Child Development The task of parents is not only to feed and clothe children but also to educate them as independent, responsible, active, competent, and confident people in their capabilities.
  • Child Development and the Effects of the Internet
  • Developmental Differences Between Autistic Children and Normal Child Development
  • The Correlation Between Mental Health and Child Development
  • Attachment and Its Role in Child Development Rapid brain development occurs during the first three years of life, and a child’s attachment to the caregiver or parent significantly affects this domain.
  • Child Development and the Montessori Method
  • Child Development and Blended Families
  • The Role of Play: Child Development and the Process of Learning
  • Child Development and Fussy Baby at the Age of Two Months
  • Child Development From Birth to Three Years and the Role of Adults The period between 0 and 3 years is one of the most influential times for a child’s growth, development, and understanding of life basics.
  • Child Development and Early Learning: Educational Readiness
  • Background Influences That Affect Child Development
  • Attachment Theory and Child Development
  • Child Development and Attachment Theory
  • Child Development and Learning Focusing on Language Development
  • What Are the Major Domains of Child Development, and How Do They Interact?
  • Is a Father Figure Important for a Child’s Development?
  • What Are the Main Theories That Help Us Understand Child Development?
  • How Do Early Experiences Shape Child Development Outcomes?
  • What Are the Critical Milestones in Emotional Development During Child Development?
  • How Does Parent-Child Attachment Impact Child Development?
  • What Role Does Nature (Genetics) Play in Child Development?
  • How Does Child Development Research Contribute to Effective Parenting Strategies?
  • What Is the Most Important Stage of Child Development?
  • Is There a Critical Period for Language Acquisition in Child Development?
  • How Does Socioeconomic Status Affect Child Development Outcomes?
  • What Is Child Development Concept and Stages of Development?
  • Why Is Early Childhood Attachment Crucial for Healthy Child Development?
  • Does Access to Quality Early Childhood Education Influence Future Academic Success?
  • What Are the Best Parenting Approaches for Child Development?
  • How Do Children Develop Their Social Skills During Child Development?
  • What Are the Potential Effects of Exposure to Digital Devices on Child Development?
  • How Do Children Develop Their Moral and Ethical Values During Child Development?
  • What Is the Role of Play and Imaginative Activities in Child Development?
  • Are There Gender-Based Differences in Child Development Milestones?
  • How Does Peer Influence Contribute to Child Development Outcomes?
  • What Are the Core Principles of Child Development?
  • How Do Executive Functions Contribute to Cognitive Development in Child Development?
  • What Role Does Nutrition Play in Shaping Physical Development During Child Development?
  • How Do Children Develop Their Language Skills During Child Development?
  • Why Is Child Development So Important in Early Years?
  • How Does Autism Affect Child Development?
  • What Does the Cognitive Process in Early Child Development Focus On?
  • How Does Child Development Theory Inform Early Childhood Education Practices?
  • What Are the Factors That Influence Child Development?
  • How Can Disability Effect Child Development?
  • How Animals Benefit Child Development?
  • What Are the Significant Child Development Psychosocial Theories?
  • How Developmental Psychologists Think About Family Process and Child Development in Low-Income Families?
  • How Does Early Childhood Attachment Affect Child Development?
  • Are Fathers Crucial for Child Development?
  • How Art Affects Child Development?
  • Early Child Care and Child Development: For Whom It Works and Why?
  • How Media Impacts Child Development – Special Focus On Cartoons?
  • How Does Stress Affect Child Development?
  • How Fairy Tales Affect Child Development?
  • How Parenting Styles Affect Child Development?
  • How Families Influence Child Development?
  • How Personal Choices Affect Child Development?
  • Why Psychologists Conduct Research on Child Development?
  • How Has the Princess Culture Affected Child Development?
  • What Are the Three Stages of Child Development?
  • What Matter for Child Development?
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86 Human Development Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

🏆 best human development topic ideas & essay examples, 👍 good essay topics on human development, ❓ essay questions about human development, 💯 free human development essay topic generator.

  • First Look into Human Development in United Arab Emirates The Prime Minister of the UAE is in charge of all activities of the government. The UAE has a diverse and multicultural society and the influence of Islam is evident in its development.
  • Cognitive Growth Stages: Piaget & Freud The pre-operational stage: At the pre-operational stage, the child learns to exercise language and to characterize things by words and images. At this stage of development, the anus acts as the centre of attraction of […]
  • Theory, Methodology and Human Development: HIV/AIDS and Education in African Countries This is correct despite advances of remarkable nature in our comprehension of the virus’s molecular biology and its effects on the body; advances that have resulted to therapeutic findings in the second decade of the […]
  • The Bioecological Model of Human Development The aspects related to the school attended by a child have also been observed to have impacts on the performance of the child and the general development of the child.
  • The Effect of Emotions and Desires on Individual Development As a result, the urges and the desires are forced into the unconscious mind in order to stop any damage of the individual.
  • Human Development: Adolescence as the Most Important Age Range The stage is therefore very important in understanding the behavior of an individual. This is a stage when the life of an individual is either made or destroyed.
  • Human Development: Nature or Nurture? With studies and theories carried out to examine the impact of nature on the personal development and personality traits, heredity is an important factor in the development.
  • Critically Discussion: Nature is Solely Responsible for Human Development Human development is influenced in a great way by nature, but this is not to say that nature is solely responsible for human development.
  • Human development index It is important to note that the origin and development of the human development index is closely linked to the United Nations, to be more precise, to the United Nations Development Program’s annual development reports.
  • Contrasts and similarities of Indonesia and Brazil’s human development condition Human development in Brazil over the last ten years is a clear indication to other countries of the world that economic growth is possible despite lack of expansive economic level. The crises led to increased […]
  • Human Development and Learning: Analysis of the Lesson For instance, in the video the teacher asked a student to remind who can talk to her and talk to the messenger instead of talking to her.
  • Human Development and Learning A teacher can ask students that lack social skills to monitor the class activities and report about those in the end of every day.
  • Theories of Human Development Essay The ability of a child to act on the effects of his/her surrounding has significant implications on other aspects of development, and each and every accomplishment enhances the child’s level of independence.
  • Gender specific health issues in Medium Human Development Countries Gender issues in health between women and men are different and there is a disparity in how the health systems respond to men and women issues.
  • Whether China Has Done a Good Job Promoting Human Development and Well Being Since 1949 This era was marred with challenges such as domestic wars among the communities in china, international feuds in Asia and the world at large, economic challenges like the great depression of the 1920s and the […]
  • Incorporating Human development theory It is understandable to establish various components of human development in the realms of drug abuse, addiction, and other relevant provisions applicable in this context.
  • Human Development. Role of Agriculture. Importance of Technology and Foreign Aid in Mozambique The access to wage labor, which enhances the state of agriculture and the whole country, depends on the people’s education. The rapid development of the agriculture is connected with foreign investments and earnings, as they […]
  • Human Development Theories: Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget Much attention should be paid to the way in which these psychologists explain the role of culture that includes a set of values, beliefs, and attitudes that shape the behavior of an individual.
  • Nurture and Human Development It is notable that parents are the ones who are normally the closest people to their offspring during the processes of early growth and development.
  • Lifespan Perspectives on Human Development This makes it necessary for individuals to understand the human development process, a function that they can achieve using the human lifespan perspective. Finally, because the context of occurrence of different activities is important in […]
  • Human Development Index: Limitations and Benefits The development of education in the country is based on the mean of years among adults aged 25 years and the expected schooling duration of children at the time of schooling age.
  • Human Development: Democratization and Economy’ Relations Economic development refers to the increase in the wellbeing of a society both qualitatively and quantitatively. In a nutshell, democratization and economic development are complementary issues in the process of human development.
  • Human Development: Sexual Behaviors Among Adolescents The independent variable of the research is the age of the participants, while the dependent variables are different social environments that children derive sexual information that influences their sexual development.
  • Stress Impacts on the Human Development To narrow down on the diverse nature of stress, this paper will focus on one of the mechanism that has been identified as a possible solution of controlling stress levels in individuals.
  • Human Development Index in Economic Measuring The study had several objectives, including classifying the scientific approaches to the formation and development of human potential, determining the core of the HDI in a system of quantitative and qualitative economic parameters, and determining […]
  • Freud’s Theory as to Human Development In the beginning, a person is driven primarily by the id or the part of the psyche that focuses on instinctive needs and desires.
  • Measuring Economic Development: Human Development Index This paper discusses the economic development of China and India on the basis of the Human Development Index. The purpose of this paper is to compare the economic development of India and China.
  • Technology and Human Development This paper discusses video games as learning tools to highlight the kind of knowledge that they present to learners and their effectiveness in enabling people to acquire the knowledge.
  • Human Development Theories: Adolescence and Adulthood In the growth and development stage of a human being, the adolescent period has been considered to be a natural stage found between childhood and adulthood.
  • Social Psychology Role: Self-Esteem and Human Development The relation between the concepts and the response is closely analyzed to determine the most important criteria people’s actions can be judged by. A person is stereotyped and the thinking leads to over-generalize towards others.
  • Wellbeing and Human Development While assessing the wellbeing of people in a country, a person should look at a series of indicators that can throw light on the degree of human development in a certain region or state.
  • Nature vs. Nurture Factors of Human Development Advocates of the nurture concept believe strongly that the natural environment reshapes the behaviors of many people. That being the case, people should consider the role played by the environment towards reshaping their experiences and […]
  • Human Development in the Ecological Context Though I spent the most of my life in boarding schools, my caregivers provided me with the required portion of support and understanding.
  • Human Development and Groundwater Sustainability The experiment aims to address the impact of human development on the sustainability of groundwater. This aggregation of waste to the landfill is a threat to groundwater and the environment.
  • Erikson’s Theory of Human Development and Its Impact on My Life The criticism and the thin skin aspects became evident to me in my adolescence when I was looking for an explanation of my issues with establishing social relationships.
  • The Psychological Aspects of Human Development Despite the possibility of analyzing human aggression in the context of several areas of psychology, the social sphere is the most suitable for integrated assessment and work.
  • Human Development In Different Ways Using Theories He is the one who has sent us in this world to live and to do various types of activities so that we can understand that what actually life means. And the answer is that […]
  • Social-Emotional Learning in Human Development This paper analyzes the skills, or personal capabilities, that contribute to positive social development in children, addressing the school and the family environment qualities that encourage or inhibit this development. A Teacher’s Use of the […]
  • Human Development: Term Definition According to Kohlberg’s gender identity development theory, “young children learn to understand about their gender and the meaning of being that gender in their each and everyday life”.
  • Human Development and Issues in Clinical Practice At the same time, Ego views it as a matter of consideration for the social worker only as of the one who is interested in the efficiency of his work and fulfills all the ethical […]
  • Erik Erikson Human Development Theory Eriksson’s concept is simple and neat, however, it is very sophisticated, and the concept is a base for extensive or complex discussion and examination of personality and behavior. This is the infant stage; the infant […]
  • “Eight Stages of Human Development” by Erik Erikson This is important because it helps the child to develop essential skills of the will. It is not surprising therefore that the crucial relationship at this stage is with buddies and marital partners.
  • Elementary Education, Human Development and Learning In a classroom environment, it is normally important that the teacher helps the learners to develop high self esteem. The introduction of competition in the groups is a motivating factor that will boost the learners’ […]
  • Human Development: A Life-Span Approach The motor activities of a child also represent his mental growth and development. The other important element to know is the factors affecting the development- the environment of the child.
  • Jigsaw Model: Human Development and Learning The steps of jigsaw include; The teacher creating groups and giving an assignment on the following topic; salt marshes Each learner should get a sub-topic on the salt marshes.
  • Learning and Cognition: The Purpose of Human Development Visual learning is a type of learning that involves the use images to pass on information and ideas to the learner.
  • The Human Development and Political Indexes The Brand Development Index for this product can be calculated by dividing the number of brand sales by that of households in countries A and B.
  • The Relationship Between Human Development Index and Socio-Economic Variables The HDI is derived from or directly linked to the life expectancy of people and the gross national income of the county’s population.
  • Human Development in the Elderly Phase Therefore, the elderly are in need of a sense of love and belonging from their friends and family members. The community and the church have a role in providing older adults with avenues to meet […]
  • Discussion of Human Development Human development refers to individuals’ social, psychological, physical, and cognitive development throughout their lifespan, from prenatal development to late adulthood. Physical development includes growth in motor skills and brain, body, sense, and health development.
  • Human Development in Evidence-Based Psychotherapy Indeed, information from a mental status exam can be combined with that of family and individual historical background help in the establishment of timely assistance to be accorded to the patient.
  • Faith and Other Areas of Human Development From my point of view, there is undoubtedly a certain kind of connection between the development of faith and other areas of human development.
  • The “Human Development and Faith” Book by Kelcourse The authors who provided their essays to this editor also have a religious or psychology work background.”Human Development and Faith” by Kelcourse help one explore the context of human development, the specifics of each stage […]
  • New Theories of Human Development At the beginning of the course, it seemed quite natural to measure development by a degree of rational thinking and independent analysis. Overall, the hierarchical model seems to be largely irrelevant in the context of […]
  • Aspects of Lifespan Human Development Thus, I decided not to stop there and continue to build my life in a way that would make my grandmother proud of me.
  • Auditory and Vestibular Systems in Human Development A specific feature of the vestibular system is that a significant part of the sensory information processed in it is used for the automatic regulation of functions performed without conscious control.
  • Can Only Democracies Enhance “Human Development”?
  • Can Relationships Affect Human Development?
  • Does Diversity Impair Human Development?
  • Does Economic Freedom Promote Human Development?
  • Does Global Fertility and Cultural Transition Affect Human Development?
  • Does Human Development Index Provide Rational Development Rankings?
  • Does Human Development Influence Women’s Labour Force Participation Rate?
  • Does Infrastructure Affect Human Development?
  • Does Political Competition Influence Human Development?
  • Does the World Bank Have an Impact on the Human Development of the Poorest Countries?
  • How Does Culture Affect Human Development?
  • How Does Eye Development Affect Human Development?
  • How Should Human Development Research Inform Educational?
  • How Nature and Nurture Affect Human Development?
  • How Psychologists Integrate the Study of Human Development With Theories?
  • How Are Relationships Important for Human Development and Growth?
  • How Do Theories and Perspectives Inform Our Thinking About Human Development?
  • What Can Psychology Teach Us About Human Development?
  • What Does the Human Development Index Tell Us About Convergence?
  • What Drives Human Development in Nigeria?
  • What Makes the Study of Human Development a Science?
  • Education and Human Development: How Much Do Parents Matter?
  • How Human Development During Trauma and Does Spirituality Help?
  • Human Development Index: Are Developing Countries Misclassified?
  • What Are the Five Main Stages of Human Development?
  • What Is the Importance of Human Development?
  • What Is an Example of Human Development?
  • What Are the Four Principles of Human Development?
  • What Is the Meaning of Human Development?
  • What Is the Most Important Aspect of Human Development?
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Title: foundational competencies and responsibilities of a research software engineer.

Abstract: The term Research Software Engineer, or RSE, emerged a little over 10 years ago as a way to represent individuals working in the research community but focusing on software development. The term has been widely adopted and there are a number of high-level definitions of what an RSE is. However, the roles of RSEs vary depending on the institutional context they work in. At one end of the spectrum, RSE roles may look similar to a traditional research role. At the other extreme, they resemble that of a software engineer in industry. Most RSE roles inhabit the space between these two extremes. Therefore, providing a straightforward, comprehensive definition of what an RSE does and what experience, skills and competencies are required to become one is challenging. In this community paper we define the broad notion of what an RSE is, explore the different types of work they undertake, and define a list of fundamental competencies as well as values that define the general profile of an RSE. On this basis, we elaborate on the progression of these skills along different dimensions, looking at specific types of RSE roles, proposing recommendations for organisations, and giving examples of future specialisations. An appendix details how existing curricula fit into this framework.

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To write a paper on development, you need to find a source of inspiration because such a piece of writing can be a daunting task. Fortunately, many areas present potential and interesting development topics to talk about.

When about to create an outstanding development essay, consider the opportunity to learn from the experience of others. WePapers.com presents a directory with free paper samples. Here you can find a good development essay example that can be a model to follow for you. Development essay samples written by experts can serve as a guide for you in terms of outlining, structuring, selecting a topic, etc. Browse our directory and get inspired by exciting paper examples. In case you haven't found the essay example you've been looking for, keep checking our catalog because new essay samples will be added soon.

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  • 23 November 2023

‘Treasure trove’ of new CRISPR systems holds promise for genome editing

  • Sara Reardon

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A computer generated molecular structure of the CRISPR–Cas9 protein using a guide RNA sequence to cut DNA.

The CRISPR–Cas9 system (pictured) is used to find and cut specific DNA sequences. Credit: Carlos Clarivan/Science Photo Library

CRISPR–Cas9 is best known as a laboratory tool for editing DNA, but its natural function is as part of the immune system that helps certain microorganisms to fight off viruses. Now, researchers have used an algorithm to sort through millions of genomes to find new, rare types of CRISPR system that could eventually be adapted into genome-editing tools.

“We are just amazed at the diversity of CRISPR systems,” says Feng Zhang, a biochemist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge and co-author of a 23 November paper in Science that describes the systems 1 . “Doing this analysis kind of allows us to kill two birds with one stone: both study biology and also potentially find useful things.”

development research essay

Trove of CRISPR-like gene-cutting enzymes found in microbes

Single-celled bacteria and archaea use CRISPR systems to defend themselves against viruses known as bacteriophages. The systems generally have two parts: ‘guide RNA’ molecules that recognize and bind to phage DNA or RNA, and enzymes that cut or otherwise interfere with the genetic material at the site indicated by the guide RNA.

Until now, researchers had identified six types of CRISPR system, designated I–VI. These have different properties, including the type of enzyme they use and how they recognize, bind to and cut RNA or DNA. The CRISPR–Cas9 system commonly used for genetic engineering is classed as type II, but the characteristics of other CRISPR types could make them useful for other applications.

Similar sequences

To find diverse CRISPR systems in nature, Zhang, MIT bioengineer Han Altae-Tran and their colleagues developed an algorithm called FLSHclust, which analyses genetic sequences in public databases. These databases contain hundreds of thousands of genomes from bacteria and archaea, hundreds of millions of sequences that haven’t been linked to a particular species and billions of genes that encode proteins. FLSHclust found CRISPR-associated genes by looking for similarities between genetic sequences and grouping them into about 500 million clusters.

By looking at the predicted function of the clusters, the researchers found around 130,000 genes associated in some way with CRISPR, 188 of which had never been seen before, and tested several in the lab to find out what they do. Their experiments reveal various strategies that CRISPR systems use to attack bacteriophages, including unwinding the DNA double helix, and cutting DNA in ways that allow genes to be inserted or deleted. They also identified ‘anti-CRISPR’ fragments of DNA that might help a phage to escape bacterial defences.

development research essay

Is CRISPR safe? Genome editing gets its first FDA scrutiny

Among the new genes was the code for an entirely unknown CRISPR system that targets RNA, which the team dubbed type VII. Co-author Eugene Koonin, a biologist at the National Center for Biotechnology Information in Bethesda, Maryland, says that it's increasingly hard to find new CRISPR systems. Type VII — and any other types that haven’t yet been identified — must be extremely rare in nature, he adds. “It will probably take monumental efforts to find the next type.”

It’s hard to know whether certain types of CRISPR system are rare because they are not generally useful to microorganisms or whether they are specifically adapted to an organism that lives in a particular environment, says Christine Pourcel, a microbiologist at Paris-Saclay University. She adds that because the genetic databases used in the study include fragments of genomes that aren’t linked to specific organisms, it will be difficult to study the roles of some of the new systems.

Impressive haul

The algorithm itself is a major advance, in that it will allow researchers to look for other types of protein across species, says Chris Brown, a biochemist at the University of Otago in Dunedin, New Zealand. “I’m impressed with what they could do,” he says.

“It’s a treasure trove for biochemists,” agrees Lennart Randau, a microbiologist at the University of Marburg in Germany. The next step, he says, will be to work out the mechanisms through which the enzymes and systems work, and how they could be adapted for biological engineering. Brown says that some CRISPR proteins chop up DNA at random and are useless for engineering. But they are so precise at detecting DNA or RNA sequences that they might make good diagnostic or research tools.

It’s too soon to say whether type VII CRISPR systems or any of the other genes identified by FLSHclust will be helpful for genetic engineering, says Altae-Tran, but they have some properties that could be useful. Type VII, for instance, involves only a very few genes that could easily fit in a viral vector and be delivered into cells. By contrast, some of the other systems the team found contain very long guide RNAs, potentially allowing them to target particular genetic sequences with unprecedented accuracy.

doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-023-03697-w

Altae-Tran, H. et al. Science 382 , eadi1910 (2023).

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development research essay

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  • Autumn Statement 2023 Research and Development Tax Reliefs Reform
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Technical note on changes to research and development tax reliefs at Autumn Statement 2023

Published 22 November 2023

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© Crown copyright 2023

This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: [email protected] .

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1. Introduction

This note provides detail on the reforms to the research and development ( R&D ) reliefs from April 2024 which were announced at Autumn Statement 2023. It provides businesses with additional information before the Autumn Finance Bill 2023 is published later this year. It sets out the main changes to the policy design of the proposed merged research and development expenditure credit ( RDEC ) and the small and medium-sized enterprise ( SME ) intensives scheme which was announced at Budget 2023 as a result of the technical consultation.

The government recognises the important role that R&D plays in driving innovation and economic growth as well as the benefits it can bring for society. The UK’s R&D tax reliefs have a key role to play in supporting R&D investment in a fiscally sustainable way. This is why at Autumn Statement the government announced reforms to the R&D tax reliefs to simplify and improve the system, as well as a package of spending measures to support our scientists and researchers.

Merging schemes will be a significant tax simplification. These include having a single set of qualifying rules and being able to remove the list of qualifying bodies, which companies in RDEC are currently allowed to claim for contracted R&D costs to.

The government has carefully considered both the evidence and stakeholder views in designing the merged scheme. By taking the best of both schemes, the merged RDEC scheme, along with the SME intensive scheme, will provide the best incentives and support to businesses innovating in the areas of science and technology.

At Spring Budget 2021, the government launched a review of R&D tax reliefs to ensure the UK remains a competitive location for cutting edge research, the reliefs continue to be fit for purpose and taxpayer money is effectively targeted. The government is now concluding that review with the announcement of the merged scheme. Further action may needed to reduce the unacceptably high levels of non-compliance in the R&D reliefs, and HMRC will be publishing a compliance action plan in due course. The government will also continue working with industry to develop the enhanced support for R&D intensive SMEs , and consider further simplifications.

2. The merged scheme

Contracted out r&d.

The objective of the R&D reliefs is to increase the overall levels of R&D in the UK economy to generate productivity growth by reducing the cost of investing in R&D , counteracting the market failure from the risk that arises from investing in R&D . Therefore, it is important that the company making the decision to do the R&D and bearing the risk gets the relief. Allowing the decision maker to claim for R&D contracted out aligns the relief better with the company that holds the risk.

Academic evidence also suggests that relief for R&D subcontracting should result in increased collaboration and therefore knowledge sharing and spillovers, which are crucial for economic growth. This was also the preferred option among stakeholders in response to the consultation earlier this year.

For these reasons, in the draft legislation published in July, the government proposed adopting a position on subcontracting where the decision maker is allowed to claim for contracted out R&D .

The government also stated it wanted further discussions with industry to understand how a potential merged scheme could distinguish between ‘contracts for services’ and ‘contracted out  R&D ’ so that those undertaking qualifying  R&D  are able to claim relief, whilst avoiding double claims. Following engagement over the summer, the government will legislate for the approach outlined below in the Autumn Finance Bill 2023.

Where a company with a valid R&D project contracts a third party to undertake some of the (qualifying) work connected with their R&D project, the company may claim the relevant (qualifying) costs of that contract. The company contracted to do that work may not claim for R&D activities which delivers the project outcome for another company’s project.

If a company is contracted to do work for another company, but the work does not form part of R&D for the customer and was instead initiated by the contractor, then the contractor may be able to claim relief for their work, if they meet the requirements of having valid R&D which is otherwise eligible for tax relief. This is considered an essential element.

Moving the claim to the company making the decision to do the R&D will result in more R&D getting relief. In certain cases currently in RDEC there are companies conducting subcontracted work as part of another company’s R&D project whose work is ‘routine’ (not R&D ) in isolation so that neither company can receive R&D relief. Allowing the decision maker to claim for R&D contracted out should resolve this issue. For example, where a company contracts out qualifying activities to a contract research organisation, such as a clinical trial, the company will be able to claim for the costs of that contract.

As set out in the draft legislation in July, contracted R&D carried out by subcontractors who are working for non-UK corporation taxpayers, such as overseas companies, will continue to qualify for relief.

However, if a company is contracted to provide a product or service which is not R&D , such as constructing a building or a software product, if they undertake R&D in delivering that product or service, they would be able to claim relief even though they are undertaking R&D on an activity contracted to them. The exact details of who should claim the relief will depend on the specific contract.

To ensure consistency across the regime, for accounting periods beginning on or after 1 April 2024 these rules will also apply to R&D intensive SMEs .

Subsidised expenditure

The intended operation of the contracted-out  R&D  rules set out above means that rules relating to subsidised expenditure in the existing SME scheme are no longer relevant, so these sections will be removed from the legislation for the merged scheme before it is published in the Autumn Finance Bill 2023.

For example, if a company receives a grant that covers part of the cost of its R&D , or if the cost of the R&D is otherwise met by another person, then (subject to the contracting out rules above) this will not reduce the amount of support available under the merged scheme.

Externally provided workers

The government recognises that the draft clauses published in July suggested that there would be a double restriction on externally provided workers ( EPWs ). This is not the intention and final legislation will ensure that the rule operates correctly to simply remove overseas expenditure.

Step 2 reduction

As with the existing RDEC , payments of the merged scheme will be reduced via a notional tax, for loss-makers so that the amount of benefit is similar for loss-makers as for profit-makers, with companies being able to off-set the amount withheld against tax in future years.

This will be done by calculating the net amount at Step 2 using the rate applicable to the taxpayer (either the small profits rate ( SPR ) – currently 19% – or the main rate (25%)), but applying the SPR to loss makers.

This change will ensure that loss-making companies receive more cash benefit upfront, compared to the position set out in July.


All changes will come into effect in respect of accounting periods starting on or after 1 April 2024. For the majority of current RDEC claimants, who are most affected by this change, this is a delay compared to the draft legislation published in July which would have applied the changes to expenditure incurred on or after 1 April 2024.

This change will give businesses more time using the existing RDEC and SME rules depending on when their accounting period starts and ends, allowing them to get up to speed with the changes and it will simplify claims by removing the need to claim under different regimes for an accounting period that straddles 1 April 2024.

For accounting periods beginning on or after 1 April 2024 there will only be 2 R&D schemes available:

  • the merged scheme
  • SME intensive scheme

3. Additional tax relief for R&D intensive SMEs

The ‘ SME intensive scheme’, for the most R&D intensive loss-making SMEs was announced at Spring Budget 2023 for R&D expenditure from 1 April 2023. As announced a company was considered R&D intensive where its qualifying R&D expenditure is 40% or more of its total expenditure.

At the Autumn Statement the Chancellor has confirmed the threshold to be considered  R&D  intensive will be reduced from 40% to 30% of total expenditure. The Autumn Finance Bill 2023 will contain the final clauses to bring this into effect.

During the technical consultation stakeholders flagged concerns about items of exceptional spending which might skew a SME ’s intensity ratio for a year and lead to businesses moving into and out of the intensive SME regime creating uncertainty. To address this, we are introducing provisions to enable an intensive SME which has made a valid claim in the Intensive regime in one year to claim the intensive relief in year two.

To protect the R&D intensive scheme for genuine loss-making R&D intensive companies, rules will be introduced to prevent businesses from manipulating their intensity by using short APs.

The government will also legislate so that the rule that treats any expenditure as met directly or indirectly as subsidised will also be removed from the intensive scheme. Therefore, for accounting periods beginning on or after 1 April 2024, this legislation will no longer apply in the R&D credits which should simplify the overall process of making an R&D tax claim further.

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Before Altman’s Ouster, OpenAI’s Board Was Divided and Feuding

Sam Altman confronted a member over a research paper that discussed the company, while directors disagreed for months about who should fill board vacancies.

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Sam Altman, wearing a dark suit, appears on a blue stage.

By Cade Metz ,  Tripp Mickle and Mike Isaac

Reporting from San Francisco

Before Sam Altman was ousted from OpenAI last week, he and the company’s board of directors had been bickering for more than a year. The tension got worse as OpenAI became a mainstream name thanks to its popular ChatGPT chatbot.

At one point, Mr. Altman, the chief executive, made a move to push out one of the board’s members because he thought a research paper she had co-written was critical of the company.

Another member, Ilya Sutskever, thought Mr. Altman was not always being honest when talking with the board. And some board members worried that Mr. Altman was too focused on expansion while they wanted to balance that growth with A.I. safety.

The news that he was being pushed out came in a videoconference on Friday afternoon, when Mr. Sutskever, who had worked closely with Mr. Altman at OpenAI for eight years, read him a statement. The decision stunned OpenAI’s employees and exposed board members to tough questions about their qualifications to manage such a high-profile company.

Those tensions seemingly came to an end late Tuesday when Mr. Altman was reinstated as chief executive. Mr. Sutskever and others critical of Mr. Altman were jettisoned from the board, whose members now include Bret Taylor, an early Facebook officer and former co-chief executive of Salesforce, and Larry Summers, the former Treasury Department secretary. The only holdover is Adam D’Angelo, chief executive of the question-and-answer site, Quora.

The OpenAI debacle has illustrated how building A.I. systems is testing whether businesspeople who want to make money from artificial intelligence can work in sync with researchers who worry that what they are building could eventually eliminate jobs or become a threat if technologies like autonomous weapons grow out of control.

OpenAI was started in 2015 with an ambitious plan to one day create a superintelligent automated system that can do everything a human brain can do. But friction plagued the company’s board, which hadn’t even been able to agree on replacements for members who had stepped down.

Before Mr. Altman’s return, the company’s continued existence was in doubt. Nearly all of OpenAI’s 800 employees had threatened to follow Mr. Altman to Microsoft, which asked him to lead an A.I. lab with Greg Brockman, who quit his roles as OpenAI’s president and board chairman in solidarity with Mr. Altman.

The board had told Mr. Brockman that he would no longer be OpenAI’s chairman but invited him to stay on at the company — though he was not invited to the meeting where the decision was made to push him off the board and Mr. Altman out of the company.

OpenAI’s board troubles can be traced to the start-up’s nonprofit beginnings. In 2015, Mr. Altman teamed with Elon Musk and others, including Mr. Sutskever, to create a nonprofit to build A.I. that was safe and beneficial to humanity. They planned to raise money from private donors for their mission. But within a few years, they realized that their computing needs required much more funding than they could raise from individuals.

After Mr. Musk left in 2018, they created a for-profit subsidiary that began raising billions of dollars from investors, including $1 billion from Microsoft. They said that the subsidiary would be controlled by the nonprofit board and that each director’s fiduciary duty would be to “humanity, not OpenAI investors,” the company said on its website.

Among the tensions leading up to Mr. Altman’s ouster and quick return involved his conflict with Helen Toner, a board member and a director of strategy at Georgetown University’s Center for Security and Emerging Technology. A few weeks before Mr. Altman’s firing, he met with Ms. Toner to discuss a paper she had co-written for the Georgetown center.

Mr. Altman complained that the research paper seemed to criticize OpenAI’s efforts to keep its A.I. technologies safe while praising the approach taken by Anthropic, a company that has become OpenAI’s biggest rival, according to an email that Mr. Altman wrote to colleagues and that was viewed by The New York Times.

In the email, Mr. Altman said that he had reprimanded Ms. Toner for the paper and that it was dangerous to the company, particularly at a time, he added, when the Federal Trade Commission was investigating OpenAI over the data used to build its technology.

Ms. Toner defended it as an academic paper that analyzed the challenges that the public faces when trying to understand the intentions of the countries and companies developing A.I. But Mr. Altman disagreed.

“I did not feel we’re on the same page on the damage of all this,” he wrote in the email. “Any amount of criticism from a board member carries a lot of weight.”

Senior OpenAI leaders, including Mr. Sutskever, who is deeply concerned that A.I. could one day destroy humanity , later discussed whether Ms. Toner should be removed, a person involved in the conversations said.

But shortly after those discussions, Mr. Sutskever did the unexpected: He sided with board members to oust Mr. Altman, according to two people familiar with the board’s deliberations. The statement he read to Mr. Altman said that Mr. Altman was being fired because he wasn’t “ consistently candid in his communications with the board .”

Mr. Sutskever’s frustration with Mr. Altman echoed what had happened in 2021 when another senior A.I. scientist left OpenAI to form Anthropic. That scientist and other researchers went to the board to try to push Mr. Altman out. After they failed, they gave up and departed, according to three people familiar with the attempt to push Mr. Altman out.

“After a series of reasonably amicable negotiations, the co-founders of Anthropic were able to negotiate their exit on mutually agreeable terms,” an Anthropic spokeswoman, Sally Aldous, said. In a second statement, Anthropic added that there was “no attempt to ‘oust’ Sam Altman at the time the founders of Anthropic left OpenAI.”

Vacancies exacerbated the board’s issues. This year, it disagreed over how to replace three departing directors: Reid Hoffman, the LinkedIn founder and a Microsoft board member; Shivon Zilis, director of operations at Neuralink, a company started by Mr. Musk to implant computer chips in people’s brains; and Will Hurd, a former Republican congressman from Texas.

After vetting four candidates for one position, the remaining directors couldn’t agree on who should fill it, said the two people familiar with the board’s deliberations. The stalemate hardened the divide between Mr. Altman and Mr. Brockman and other board members.

Hours after Mr. Altman was ousted, OpenAI executives confronted the remaining board members during a video call, according to three people who were on the call.

During the call, Jason Kwon, OpenAI’s chief strategy officer, said the board was endangering the future of the company by pushing out Mr. Altman. This, he said, violated the members’ responsibilities.

Ms. Toner disagreed. The board’s mission was to ensure that the company creates artificial intelligence that “benefits all of humanity,” and if the company was destroyed, she said, that could be consistent with its mission. In the board’s view, OpenAI would be stronger without Mr. Altman.

On Sunday, Mr. Sutskever was urged at OpenAI’s office to reverse course by Mr. Brockman’s wife, Anna, according to two people familiar with the exchange. Hours later, he signed a letter with other employees that demanded the independent directors resign. The confrontation between Mr. Sutskever and Ms. Brockman was reported earlier by The Wall Street Journal .

At 5:15 a.m. on Monday, he posted on X , formerly Twitter, that “I deeply regret my participation in the board’s actions.”

Cade Metz is a technology reporter and the author of “Genius Makers: The Mavericks Who Brought A.I. to Google, Facebook, and The World.” He covers artificial intelligence, driverless cars, robotics, virtual reality and other emerging areas. More about Cade Metz

Tripp Mickle reports on Apple and Silicon Valley for The Times and is based in San Francisco. His focus on Apple includes product launches, manufacturing issues and political challenges. He also writes about trends across the tech industry, including layoffs, generative A.I. and robot taxis.  More about Tripp Mickle

Mike Isaac is a technology correspondent for The Times based in San Francisco. He regularly covers Facebook and Silicon Valley. More about Mike Isaac


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