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MLA In-Text Citations

An in-text citation is a reference to a source that is found within the text of a paper ( Handbook 227). This tells a reader that an idea, quote, or paraphrase originated from a source. MLA in-text citations usually include the last name of the author and the location of cited information.

This guide focuses on how to create MLA in-text citations, such as citations in prose and parenthetical citations in the current MLA style, which is in its 9th edition. This style was created by the Modern Language Association . This guide reviews MLA guidelines but is not related directly to the association.

Table of Contents

Here’s a quick rundown of the contents of this guide on how to use in-text citations.

Fundamentals

  • Why in-text citations are important
  • Prose vs parenthetical in-text citation differences
  • Parenthetical citation reference chart

In-text citation examples

  • In-text citation with two authors
  • In-text citation with 3+ authors
  • In-text citation with no authors
  • In-text citation with corporate authors
  • In-text citation with edited books and anthologies
  • In-text citation with no page numbers and online sources
  • Citing the same sources multiple times
  • Citing 2+ sources in the same in-text citation
  • Citing multiple works by the same author in the same in-text citation
  • Abbreviating titles
  • Citing religious works and scriptures
  • Citing long or block quotes

Why are in-text citations important?

In-text citations

  • Give full credit to sources that are quoted and paraphrased in a work/paper.
  • Help the writer avoid plagiarism.
  • Are a signal that the information came from another source.
  • Tell the reader where the information came from.

In-text citation vs. in-prose vs. parenthetical

An in-text citation is a general citation of where presented information came from. In MLA, an in-text citation can be displayed in two different ways:

  • In the prose
  • As a parenthetical citation

While the two ways are similar, there are slight differences. However, for both ways, you’ll need to know how to format page numbers in MLA .

Citation in prose

An MLA citation in prose is when the author’s name is used in the text of the sentence. At the end of the sentence, in parentheses, is the page number where the information was found.

Here is an example

When it comes to technology, King states that we “need to be comfortable enough with technology tools and services that we can help point our patrons in the right direction, even if we aren’t intimately familiar with how the device works” (11).

This MLA citation in prose includes King’s name in the sentence itself, and this specific line of text was taken from page 11 of the journal it was found in.

Parenthetical citation

An MLA parenthetical citation is created when the author’s name is NOT in the sentence. Instead, the author’s name is in parentheses after the sentence, along with the page number.

Here is an MLA parenthetical citation example

When it comes to technology, we “need to be comfortable enough with technology tools and services that we can help point our patrons in the right direction, even if we aren’t intimately familiar with how the device works” (King 11).

In the above example, King’s name is not included in the sentence itself, so his name is in parentheses after the sentence, with 11 for the page number. The 11 indicates that the quote is found on page 11 in the journal.

Full reference

For every source that is cited using an in-text citation, there is a corresponding full reference. This allows readers to track down the original source.

At the end of the assignment, on the MLA works cited page , is the full reference. The full reference includes the full name of the author, the title of the article, the title of the journal, the volume and issue number, the date the journal was published, and the URL where the article was found.

Here is the full reference for King’s quote

King, David Lee. “Why Stay on Top of Technology Trends?” Library Technology Reports , vol. 54, no. 2, Feb.-Mar. 2018, ezproxy.nypl.org/login?url=//search-proquest-com.i.ezproxy.nypl.org/docview/2008817033?accountid=35635.

Readers can locate the article online via the information included above.

Citation overview

mla-in-text-citations-reference-overview

The next section of this guide focuses on how to structure an MLA in-text citation and reference in parentheses in various situations.

A narrative APA in-text citation and APA parenthetical citation are somewhat similar but have some minor differences. Check out our helpful guides, and others, on EasyBib.com!

Wondering how to handle these types of references in other styles? Check out our page on APA format , or choose from more styles .

Parenthetical Citation Reference Chart

Sources with two authors.

There are many books, journal articles, magazine articles, reports, and other source types written or created by two authors.

When a source has two authors, place both authors’ last names in the body of your work ( Handbook 232). The last names do not need to be listed in alphabetical order. Instead, follow the same order as shown on the source.

In an MLA in-text citation, separate the two last names with the word “and.” After both authors’ names, add a space and the page number where the original quote or information is found on.

Here is an example of an MLA citation in prose for a book with two authors

Gaiman and Pratchett further elaborate by sharing their creepy reminder that “just because it’s a mild night doesn’t mean that dark forces aren’t abroad. They’re abroad all of the time. They’re everywhere” (15).

Here is an example of an MLA parenthetical citation for a book with two authors

Don’t forget that “just because it’s a mild night doesn’t mean that dark forces aren’t abroad. They’re abroad all of the time. They’re everywhere” (Gaiman and Pratchett 15).

If you’re still confused, check out EasyBib.com’s MLA in-text citation generator, which allows you to create MLA in-text citations and other types of references in just a few clicks!

If it’s an APA book citation you’re looking to create, we have a helpful guide on EasyBib.com. While you’re at it, check out our APA journal guide!

Sources With Three or More Authors

There are a number of sources written or created by three or more authors. Many research studies and reports, scholarly journal articles, and government publications are developed by three or more individuals.

If you included the last names of all individuals in your MLA in-text citations or in parentheses, it would be too distracting to the reader. It may also cause the reader to lose sight of the overall message of the paper or assignment. Instead of including all last names, only include the last name of the first individual shown on the source. Follow the first author’s last name with the Latin phrase, “et al.” This Latin phrase translates to “and others.” Add the page number after et al.

Here’s an example of an MLA parenthetical citation for multiple authors

“School library programs in Croatia and Hong Kong are mainly focused on two major educational tasks. One task is enhancing students’ general literacy and developing reading habits, whereas the other task is developing students’ information literacy and research abilities” (Tam et al. 299).

The example above only includes the first listed author’s last name. All other authors are credited when “et al.” is used. If the reader wants to see the other authors’ full names, the reader can refer to the final references at the end of the assignment or to the full source.

The abbreviation et al. is used with references in parentheses, as well as in full references. To include the authors’ names in prose, you can either write each name out individually or, you can type out the meaning of et al., which is “and others.”

Here is an acceptable MLA citation in prose example for sources with more than three authors

School library programming in Croatia and Hong Kong is somewhat similar to programming in the United States. Tam, Choi, Tkalcevic, Dukic, and Zheng share that “school library programs in Croatia and Hong Kong are mainly focused on two major educational tasks. One task is enhancing students’ general literacy and developing reading habits, whereas the other task is developing students’ information literacy and research abilities” (299).

If your instructor’s examples of how to do MLA in-text citations for three or more authors looks different than the example here, your instructor may be using an older edition of this style. To discover more about previous editions, learn more here .

Need some inspiration for your research project? Trying to figure out the perfect topic? Check out our Dr. Seuss , Marilyn Monroe , and Malcolm X topic guides!

Sources Without an Author

It may seem unlikely, but there are times when an author’s name isn’t included on a source. Many digital images, films and videos, encyclopedia articles, dictionary entries, web pages, and more do not have author names listed.

If the source you’re attempting to cite does not have an author’s name listed, the MLA in-text citation or parenthetical citation should display the title. If the title is rather long, it is acceptable to shorten it in the body of your assignment. If you choose to shorten the title, make sure the first word in the full citation is also the first word used in the citation in prose or parenthetical citation. This is done to allow the reader to easily locate the full citation that corresponds with the reference in the text.

If, in the Works Cited list, the full reference has the title within quotation marks, include those quotation marks in the in-text citation or reference in parentheses. If the title is written in italics in the full reference, use italics for the title in the in-text citation or reference in parentheses as well.

Parenthetical Citations MLA Examples

The example below is from a poem found online, titled “the last time.” the poem’s author is unknown..

“From the moment you hold your baby in your arms you will never be the same. You might long for the person you were before, when you had freedom and time and nothing in particular to worry about” (“The Last Time”).

The example below is from the movie, The Englishman Who Went Up a Hill But Came Down a Mountain .

“Perhaps it would have been different if there hadn’t been a war, but this was 1917, and people were exhausted by loss. Those that were allowed to stay manned the pits, mining the coal that would fuel the ships. Twenty-four hours a day they labored” ( Englishman ).

Notice the shortened title in the above reference. This allows the reader to spend more time focusing on the content of your project, rather than the sources.

If you’re looking for an MLA in-text citation website to help you with your references, check out EasyBib Plus on EasyBib.com! EasyBib Plus can help you determine how to do in-text citations MLA and many other types of references!

Corporate Authors

Numerous government publications, research reports, and brochures state the name of the organization as the author responsible for publishing it.

When the author is a corporate entity or organization, this information is included in the MLA citation in prose or parenthetical citation.

“One project became the first to evaluate how e-prescribing standards work in certain long-term care settings and assessed the impact of e-prescribing on the workflow among prescribers, nurses, the pharmacies, and payers” (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality 2).

If the full name of the organization or governmental agency is long in length, it is acceptable to abbreviate some words, as long as they are considered common abbreviations. These abbreviations should only be in the references with parentheses. They should not be used in citations in prose.

Here is a list of words that can be abbreviated in parentheses:

  • Department = Dept.
  • Government = Govt.
  • Corporation = Corp.
  • Incorporated = Inc.
  • Company = Co.
  • United States = US

Example of a shortened corporate author name in an MLA parenthetical citation

“Based on our analysis of available data provided by selected states’ departments of corrections, the most common crimes committed by inmates with serious mental illness varied from state to state” (US Govt. Accountability Office 14).

Here is how the same corporate author name would look in an MLA citation in prose

The United States Government Accountability Office states, “Based on our analysis of available data provided by selected states’ departments of corrections, the most common crimes committed by inmates with serious mental illness varied from state to state” (14).

Remember, citations in prose should not have abbreviations; other types of references can.

Looking for more information on abbreviations? Check out our page on MLA format.

Edited Books and Anthologies

Edited books and anthologies often include chapters or sections, each written by an individual author or a small group of authors. These compilations are placed together by an editor or a group of editors. There are tons of edited books and anthologies available today, ranging from ones showcasing Black history facts and literature to those focusing on notable individuals such as scientists like Albert Eintein and politicians such as Winston Churchill .

If you’re using information from an edited book or an anthology, include the chapter author’s name in your MLA citation in prose or reference in parentheses. Do not use the name(s) of the editor(s). Remember, the purpose of these references is to provide the reader with some insight as to where the information originated. If, after reading your project, the reader would like more information on the sources used, the reader can use the information provided in the full reference, at the very end of the assignment. With that in mind, since the full reference begins with the author of the individual chapter or section, that same information is what should be included in any citations in prose or references in parentheses.

Here is an example of an MLA citation in prose for a book with an editor

Weinstein further states that “one implication of this widespread adaptation of anthropological methods to historical research was the eclipse of the longstanding concern with “change over time,” and the emergence of a preference for synchronic, rather than diachronic, themes” (195).

Full reference at the end of the assignment

Weinstein, Barbara. “History Without a Cause? Grand Narratives, World History, and the Postcolonial Dilemma.” Postcolonial Studies: An Anthology , edited by Pramod K. Nayar, Wiley-Blackwell, 2015, p. 196. Wiley , www.wiley.com/en-us/Postcolonial+Studies%3A+An+Anthology-p-9781118780985.

Once you’re through with writing and citing, run your paper through our innovative plagiarism checker ! It’s the editor of your dreams and provides suggestions for improvement.

Sources Without Page Numbers and Online Sources

When a source has no page numbers, which is often the case with long web page articles, e-books, and numerous other source types, do not include any page number information in the body of the project. Do not estimate or invent your own page numbering system for the source. If there aren’t any page numbers, omit this information from the MLA in-text citation. There may, however, be paragraph numbers included in some sources. If there are distinct and clear paragraph numbers directly on the source, replace the page number with this information. Make it clear to the reader that the source is organized by paragraphs by using “par.” before the paragraph number, or use “pars.” if the information is from more than one paragraph.

Here is an example of how to create an MLA parenthetical citation for a website

“She ran through the field with the wind blowing in her hair and a song through the breeze” (Jackson par. 5).

Here’s an example of an MLA citation in prose for a website

In Brenner’s meeting notes, he further shared his motivation to actively seek out and secure self help resources when he announced, “When we looked at statistical evidence, the most commonly checked out section of the library was self-help. This proves that patrons consistently seek out help for personal issues and wish to solve them with the help of the community’s resources” (pars. 2-3).

Here’s another MLA in-text citation example for a website

Holson writes about a new mindful app, which provides listeners with the soothing sound of not only Bob Ross’ voice, but also the “soothing swish of his painter’s brush on canvas.”

In above example, the information normally found in the parentheses is omitted since there aren’t any page, parentheses, or chapter numbers on the website article.

Looking for APA citation website examples? We have what you need on EasyBib.com!

Need an in-text or parenthetical citation MLA website? Check out EasyBib Plus on EasyBib.com! Also, check out MLA Citation Website , which explains how to create references for websites.

Citing the Same Source Multiple Times

It may seem redundant to constantly include an author’s name in the body of a research project or paper. If you use an author’s work in one section of your project, and the next piece of information included is by the same individual(s), then it is not necessary to share in-text, whether in prose or in parentheses, that both items are from the same author. It is acceptable to include the last name of the author in the first use, and in the second usage, only a page number needs to be included.

Here is an example of how to cite the same source multiple times

“One of the major tests is the Project for Standardized Assessment of Information Literacy Skills. This measurement was developed over four years as a joint partnership between the Association of Research Libraries and Kent State University” (Tong and Moran 290). This exam is just one of many available to measure students’ information literacy skills. It is fee-based, so it is not free, but the results can provide stakeholders, professors, curriculum developers, and even librarians and library service team members with an understanding of students’ abilities and misconceptions. It is not surprising to read the results, which stated that “upper-level undergraduate students generally lack information literacy skills as evidenced by the results on this specific iteration of the Standardized Assessment of Information Literacy Skills test” (295).

The reader can assume that the information in the second quote is from the same article as the first quote. If, in between the two quotes, a different source is included, Tong and Moran’s names would need to be added again in the last quote.

Here is the full reference at the end of the project:

Tong, Min, and Carrie Moran. “Are Transfer Students Lagging Behind in Information Literacy?” Reference Services Review , vol. 45, no. 2, 2017, pp. 286-297. ProQuest , ezproxy.nypl.org/login?url=//search-proquest-com.i.ezproxy.nypl.org/docview/1917280148?accountid=35635.

Citing Two or More Sources in the Same In-text Citation

According to section 6.30 of the Handbook , parenthetical citations containing multiple sources in a single parenthesis should be separated by semicolons.

(Granger 5; Tsun 77) (Ruiz 212; Diego 149)

Citing Multiple Works by the Same Author in One In-text Citation

Just as you might want to cite two different sources at the same time, it can also be useful to cite different works by the same author all at once.

Section 6.30 of the Handbook specifies that “citations of different locations in a single source are separated by commas” (251).

(Maeda 59, 174-76, 24) (Kauffman 7, 234, 299)

Furthermore, if you are citing multiple works by the same author, the titles should be joined by and if there are only two. Otherwise, use commas and and .

(Murakami, Wild Sheep Chase and Norwegian Wood ) (Murakami, Wild Sheep Chase , Norwegian Wood , and “With the Beatles”)

Abbreviating Titles

When listing the titles, be aware that long titles in parenthetical citations can distract the reader and cause confusion. It will be necessary to shorten the titles appropriately for in-text citations. According to the Handbook , “shorten the title if it is longer than a noun phrase” (237). The abbreviated title should begin with the word by which the title is alphabetized.

Best practice is to give the first word the reference is listed by so the source is easily found in the works cited. Omit articles that start a title: a, an, the. When possible, use the first noun (and any adjectives before it). For more on titles and their abbreviations, head to section 6.10 of the Handbook .

  • Full title :  The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time 
  • Abbreviated: Curious
  • Full title:  The Disreputable History of Frankie Landau-Banks 
  • Abbreviated:  Disreputable History

Religious Works and Scriptures

There are instances when religious works are italicized in the text of a project, and times when it is not necessary to italicize the title.

If you’re referring to the general religious text, such as the Bible, Torah, or Qur’an, it is not necessary to italicize the name of the scripture in the body of the project. If you’re referring to a specific edition of a religious text, then it is necessary to italicize it, both in text and in the full reference.

Here are some commonly used editions:

  • King James Bible
  • The Orthodox Jewish Bible
  • American Standard Bible
  • The Steinsaltz Talmud
  • The Babylonian Talmud
  • New International Bible

When including a reference, do not use page numbers from the scripture. Instead, use the designated chapter numbers and verse numbers.

MLA example of an in-text citation for a religious scripture

While, unacceptable in today’s society, the Bible is riddled with individuals who have two, three, and sometimes four or more spouses. One example in the King James Bible , states that an individual “had two wives, the name of the one was Hannah, and the name of the other Peninnah. Peninnah had children, but Hannah had no children” (1 Sam. 1.2)

The only religious scripture that is allowed to be in the text of a project, but not in the Works Cited list, is the Qur’an. There is only one version of the Qur’an. It is acceptable to include the name of the Qur’an in the text, along with the specific chapter and verse numbers.

If you’re attempting to create a reference for a religious work, but it’s not considered a “classic” religious book, such as a biography about Mother Teresa , or a book about Muhammed Ali’s conversion, then a reference in the text and also on the final page of the project is necessary.

If you’re creating an APA bibliography , you do not need to create a full reference for classic religious works on an APA reference page .

For another MLA in-text citation website and for more on the Bible and other source types, click here .

Long or Block Quotes

Quotes longer than four lines are called, “block quotes.” Block quotes are sometimes necessary when you’re adding a lengthy piece of information into your project. If you’d like to add a large portion of Martin Luther King ’s “I Have a Dream” speech, a lengthy amount of text from a Mark Twain book, or multiple lines from Abraham Lincoln ’s Gettysburg Address, a block quote is needed.

MLA block quotes are formatted differently than shorter quotes in the body of a project. Why? The unique formatting signals to the reader that they’re about to read a lengthy quote.

Block quotes are called block quotes because they form their own block of text. They are set apart from the body of a project with different spacing and margins.

Begin the block quote on a new line. The body of the full project should run along the one inch margin, but the block quote should be set in an inch and a half. The entire quote should be along the inch and a half margin.

If there aren’t any quotation marks in the text itself, do not include any in the block quote. This is very different than standard reference rules. In most cases, quotation marks are added around quoted material. For block quotes, since the reader can see that the quoted material sits in its own block, it is not necessary to place quotation marks around it.

Here is an MLA citation in prose example of a block quote

Despite Bruchac’s consistent difficult situations at home, basketball kept his mind busy and focused:

When I got off the late bus that afternoon, my grandparents weren’t home. The store was locked and there was a note from Grama on the house door. Doc Magovern had come to the house because Grampa was “having trouble with his blood.” Now they were off to the hospital and I “wasn’t to worry.” This had happened before. Grampa had pernicious anemia and sometimes was very sick. So, naturally, it worried the pants off me. I actually thought about taking my bike down the dreaded 9N the three miles to the Saratoga Hospital. Instead, I did as I knew they wanted. I opened the store and waited for customers. None came, though, and my eye was caught by the basketball stowed away as usual behind the door. I had to do something to take my mind off what was happening to Grampa. I took out the ball and went around the side. (13)

Notice the use of the colon prior to the start of the block quote. Do not use a colon if the block quote is part of the sentence above it.

Here is an example of the same block quote, without the use of the colon:

Despite Bruchac’s consistent difficult situations at home, it was clear that basketball kept his mind busy and focused when he states

When I get off the late bus that afternoon, my grandparents weren’t home…

If two or more paragraphs are included in your block quote, start each paragraph on a new line.

Looking for additional helpful websites? Need another MLA in-text citation website? Check out the style in the news . We also have other handy articles, guides, and posts to help you with your research needs. Here’s one on how to write an MLA annotated bibliography .

Visit our EasyBib Twitter feed to discover more citing tips, fun grammar facts, and the latest product updates.

Overview of MLA in-text citation structures

If you’re looking for information on styling an APA citation , EasyBib.com has the guides you need!

MLA Handbook . 9th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2021.

Published October 31, 2011. Updated July 5, 2021.

Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Elise Barbeau. Michele Kirschenbaum is a school library media specialist and the in-house librarian at EasyBib.com. Elise Barbeau is the Citation Specialist at Chegg. She has worked in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing.

MLA Formatting Guide

MLA Formatting

  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Block Quotes
  • et al Usage
  • In-text Citations
  • Paraphrasing
  • Page Numbers
  • Sample Paper
  • Works Cited
  • MLA 8 Updates
  • MLA 9 Updates
  • View MLA Guide

Citation Examples

  • Book Chapter
  • Journal Article
  • Magazine Article
  • Newspaper Article
  • Website (no author)
  • View all MLA Examples

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In MLA style, if multiple sources have the same author , the titles should be joined by and if there are only two. Otherwise, use commas and and .

  • In-text citation: (Austen Emma and Mansfield Park )
  • Structure: (Last name 1st Source’s title and 2nd Source’s title )
  • In-text citation: (Leung et al. 58)

If the author is a corporate entity or organization, included the name of the corporate entity or organization in the in-text citation.

  • In-text citation: (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality 2)

Yes, there’s an option to download source citations as a Word Doc or a Google Doc. You may also copy citations from the EasyBib Citation Generator and paste them into your paper.

Yes! Whether you’d like to learn how to construct citations on your own, our Autocite tool isn’t able to gather the metadata you need, or anything in between, manual citations are always an option. Click here for directions on using creating manual citations.

An in-text citation is a shortened version of the source being referred to in the paper. As the name implies, it appears in the text of the paper. A works cited list entry, on the other hand, details the complete information of the source being cited and is listed within the works cited list at the end of the paper after the main text. The in-text citation is designed to direct the reader to the full works cited list entry. An example of an in-text citation and the corresponding works cited list entry for a journal article with one author is listed below:

In-text citation template and example:

Only the author surname (or the title of the work if there is no author) is used in in-text citations to direct the reader to the corresponding reference list entry. For citations in prose, use the first name and surname of the author for the first occurrence. In subsequent citations, use only the surname. In parenthetical citations, always use only the surname of the author. If you are directly quoting the source, the page number should also be included in the in-text citation.

Citation in prose:

First mention: Christopher Collins ….

Subsequent occurrences: Collins ….

Parenthetical:

….(Collins)

….(Collins 5)

Works cited list entry template and example:

The title of the article is in plain text and title case and is placed inside quotation marks. The title of the journal is set in italics.

Surname, F. “Title of the Article.” Journal Title , vol. #, no. #, Publication Date, page range.

Collins, Christopher. “On Posthuman Materiality: Art-Making as Rhizomatic Rehearsal.” Text and Performance Quarterly , vol. 39, no. 2, 2019, pp. 153–59.

Note that because the author’s surname (Collins) was included in the in-text citation, the reader would then be able to easily locate the works cited list entry since the entry begins with the author’s surname.

An in-text citation is a short citation that is placed next to the text being cited. The basic element needed for an in-text citation is the author’s name . The publication year is not required in in-text citations. Sometimes, page numbers or line numbers are also included, especially when text is quoted from the source being cited. In-text citations are mentioned in the text in two ways: as a citation in prose or a parenthetical citation.

Citations in prose are incorporated into the text and act as a part of the sentence. Usually, citations in prose use the author’s full name when cited the first time in the text. Thereafter, only the surname is used. Avoid including the middle initial even if it is present in the works-cited-list entry.

Parenthetical

Parenthetical citations add only the author’s surname at the end of the sentence in parentheses.

Examples of in-text citations

Here are a few tips to create in-text citations for sources with various numbers and types of authors:

Use both the first name and surname of the author if you are mentioning the author for the first time in the prose. In subsequent occurrences, use only the author’s surname. Always use only the surname of the author in parenthetical citations.

First mention: Sheele John asserts …. (7).

Subsequent occurrences: John argues …. (7).

…. (John 7).

Two authors

Use the first name and surname of both authors if you are mentioning the work for the first time in the prose. In subsequent occurrences, use only the surnames of the two authors. Always use only the authors’ surnames in parenthetical citations. Use “and” to separate the two authors in parenthetical citations.

First mention: Katie Longman and Clara Sullivan ….

Subsequent occurrences: Longman and Sullivan ….

…. ( Longman and Sullivan).

Three or more authors

For citations in prose, use the first name and surname of the first author followed by “and others” or “and colleagues.” For parenthetical citations, use only the surname of the first author followed by “et al.”

Lincy Mathew and colleagues…. or Lincy Mathew and others ….

…. (Mathew et al.).

Corporate author

For citations in prose, treat the corporate author like you would treat the author’s name. For parenthetical citations, shorten the organization name to the shortest noun phrase. For example, shorten the Modern Language Association of America to Modern Language Association.

The Literary Society of Malaysia….

…. (Literary Society).

If there is no author for the source, use the source’s title in place of the author’s name for both citations in prose and parenthetical citations.

When you add such in-text citations, italicize the text of the title. If the source title is longer than a noun phrase, use a shortened version of the title. For example, shorten the title Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them to Fantastic Beasts .

Knowing Body of Work explains …. (102).

….( Knowing Body 102).

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Using In-text Citation

Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list.

MLA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the page number from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken, for example: (Smith 163). If the source does not use page numbers, do not include a number in the parenthetical citation: (Smith).

For more information on in-text citation, see the MLA Style Center .

Example paragraph with in-text citation

A few researchers in the linguistics field have developed training programs designed to improve native speakers' ability to understand accented speech (Derwing et al. 246; Thomas 15). Their training techniques are based on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech. Derwing and others conducted their training with students preparing to be social workers, but note that other professionals who work with non-native speakers could benefit from a similar program (258).

Works Cited List

Derwing, Tracey M., et al. "Teaching Native Speakers to Listen to Foreign-accented Speech." Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, vol. 23, no. 4, 2002, pp. 245-259.

Thomas, Holly K.  Training Strategies for Improving Listeners' Comprehension of Foreign-accented Speech. University of Colorado, Boulder, 2004.

Citing Web Pages In Text

Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author if known. If the author is not known, use the title as the in-text citation.

Your in-text citation should lead your reader to the corresponding entry in the reference list. Below are examples of using in-text citation with web pages.

Entire website with author: In-text citation Parents play an important role in helping children learn techniques for coping with bullying (Kraizer).

Works cited entry Kraizer, Sherryll. Safe Child. Coalition for Children, 2011, www.safechild.org.

Web page with no author: In-text citation The term Nittany Lion was coined by Penn State football player Joe Mason in 1904 ("All Things Nittany").

Works cited entry "All Things Nittany." About Penn State. Penn State University, 2006, www.psu.edu/ur/about/nittanymascot.html.

General Guidelines

In MLA style the author's name can be included either in the narrative text of your paper, or in parentheses following the reference to the source.

Author's name part of narrative:

Gass and Varonis found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic (163).

Author's name in parentheses:

One study found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic (Gass and Varonis 163).

Group as author: (American Psychological Association 123)

Multiple works: (separate each work with semi-colons)

Research shows that listening to a particular accent improves comprehension of accented speech in general (Gass and Varonis 143; Thomas 24).

Direct quote:

One study found that “the listener's familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (Gass and Varonis 85).

Gass and Varonis found that “the listener’s familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (85).

Note: For quotations that are more than four lines of prose or three lines of verse, display quotations as an indented block of text (one inch from left margin) and omit quotation marks. Place your parenthetical citation at the end of the block of text, after the final punctuation mark.

In addition to awareness-raising, practicing listening to accented speech has been shown to improve listening comprehension. This article recommends developing listening training programs for library faculty and staff, based on research from the linguistics and language teaching fields. Even brief exposure to accented speech can help listeners improve their comprehension, thereby improving the level of service to international patrons. (O'Malley 19)

Works by Multiple Authors

When citing works by multiple authors, always spell out the word "and." When a source has three or more authors, only the first one shown in the source is normally given followed by et al.

One author: (Field 399)

Works Cited entry: Field, John. "Intelligibility and the Listener: The Role of Lexical Stress." TESOL Quarterly , vol. 39, no. 3, 2005, pp. 399-423.

Two authors: (Gass and Varonis 67)

Works Cited entry: Gass, Susan, and Evangeline M. Varonis. "The Effect of Familiarity on the Comprehensibility of Nonnative Speech." Language Learning , vol. 34, no. 1, 1984, pp. 65-89.

Three or more authors: (Munro et al. 70)

Works Cited entry: Munro, Murray J., et al. "Salient Accents, Covert Attitudes: Consciousness-raising for Pre-service Second Language Teachers." Prospect , vol. 21, no. 1, 2006, pp. 67-79.

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MLA Citation Guide (MLA 9th Edition): In-Text Citation

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In-text citations are inserted in the body of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information. 

  • In-text citations in MLA style follow the general format of author's last name followed by a page number enclosed in parentheses. Here is an example: "Here's a direct quote" (Smith 8).
  • If the author's name is not given, use the first word (or words) of the title. Follow the same formatting that is used in the works-cited list, such as quotation marks. Here is an example: This is a paraphrase ("Trouble" 22).
  • If the source does not have page numbers (for example, some online articles, websites and e-books), only include the author's name for the in-text citation. Do not estimate or make up page numbers.  
  • In-text citations point the reader to the works-cited list, which is located at the end of your paper, for more complete bibliographic information.

Repeated Use of Sources

If you use information from a single source more than once in succession (i.e., no other sources referred to in between), you can use a simplified in-text citation. Here is an example:

Cell biology is an area of science that focuses on the structure and function of cells (Smith 15). It revolves around the idea that the cell is a "fundamental unit of life" (17).

  Note: If using this simplified in-text citation creates ambiguity regarding the source being referred to, use the full in-text citation format.

In-Text Citation Formatting and Examples

Format:  (Author's Last Name Page Number)

Example: (Hunt 358)

Two Authors

Format:  (Author's Last Name and Author's Last Name Page Number)

Example: (Case and Daristotle 57)

Three or More Authors

Format:   (Author's Last Name et al. Page Number)

Example: (Case et al. 57)

Unknown Author

Where you would normally put the author's last name, instead use the first one, two, or three words from the title. Do not use  initial articles such as "A", "An" or "The". Provide enough words to clarify which sources from your works-cited list that you are referencing. 

Follow the formatting of the title. For example, if the title in the works-cited list is in italics, italicize the words from the title in the in-text citation, and if the title in the works-cited list is in quotation marks, put quotation marks around the words from the title in the in-text citation.

Format: (Title Page Number)

Examples : 

( Cell Biology 12)

("Nursing" 12)

Multiple Sources

To cite more than one source when you are paraphrasing, separate the in-text citations with a semi-colon.

Format: (Author's Last Name Page Number; Author's Last Name Page Number).

(Smith 42; Bennett 71). 

( It Takes Two ; Brock 43).

 Note: In MLA style, the sources within the in-text citation do not need to be in alphabetical order.

Works Quoted in Another Source

Sometimes an author of a book, article or website will mention another person's work by using a quotation or paraphrased idea from that source. (This may be a secondary source.) For example, the Kirkey article you are reading includes a quotation by Smith that you would like to include in your essay. The basic rule is that in both your Works-Cited List and in-text citation you will still cite Kirkey. Kirkey will appear in your Works Cited list – NOT Smith. Add the words "qtd. in" to your in-text citation.

Examples of in-text citations:

According to a study by Smith (qtd. in Kirkey) 42% of doctors would refuse to perform legal euthanasia.

Smith (qtd. in Kirkey) states that “even if euthanasia was legal, 42% of doctors would be against this method of assisted dying” (A.10).

Example of Works Cited List citation:

Kirkey, Susan. "Euthanasia."   The Montreal Gazette , 9 Feb. 2013, p. A.10. Canadian Newsstand Major Dailies.

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About in-text citations, no known author, quoting directly, paraphrasing, no page numbers, repeated use of sources, in-text citation for more than one source, long quotations, quoting and paraphrasing: what's the difference, signal phrases, avoiding plagiarism when using sources.

T here are two ways to integrate others' research into your assignment: you can paraphrase or you can quote.

Paraphrasing  is used to show that you understand what the author wrote. You must restate the meaning of the passage, expressing the ideas in your own words and voice, and not just change a few words here and there. Make sure to also include an in-text citation.

Quoting  is copying the wording from someone else's work, keeping it exactly as it was originally written. When quoting, place quotation marks (" ") around the selected passage to show where the quote begins and where it ends. Make sure to include an in-text citation.

If you refer to the author's name in a sentence you do not have to include the name again as part of your in-text citation. Instead include the page number (if there is one) at the end of the quotation or paraphrased section. 

Hunt explains that mother-infant attachment has been a leading topic of developmental research since John Bowlby found that "children raised in institutions were deficient in emotional and personality development" (358).

In MLA, in-text citations are inserted in the body of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information. Brief in-text citations point the reader to more complete information in the Works Cited list at the end of the paper.

When a source has no known author, use the first one, two, or three words from the title instead of the author's last name. Don't count initial articles like "A", "An" or "The". You should provide enough words to make it clear which work you're referring to from your Works Cited list.

If the title in the Works Cited list is in italics, italicize the words from the title in the in-text citation.

( Cell Biology  12)

If the title in the Works Cited list is in quotation marks, put quotation marks around the words from the title in the in-text citation.

("Nursing" 12)

When you quote directly from a source, enclose the quoted section in quotation marks. Add an in-text citation at the end of the quote with the author name and page number, like this:

"Here's a direct quote" (Smith 8).

"Here's a direct quote" ("Trouble" 22).

  Note: The period goes outside the brackets, at the end of your in-text citation.

Mother-infant attachment has been a leading topic of developmental research since John Bowlby found that "children raised in institutions were deficient in emotional and personality development" (Hunt 358).

When you write information or ideas from a source in your own words, cite the source by adding an in-text citation at the end of the paraphrased portion, like this:

​This is a paraphrase (Smith 8).

This is a paraphrase ("Trouble" 22).

Mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental research following the publication of John Bowlby's studies (Hunt 65).

  Note: If the paraphrased information/idea summarizes several pages, include all of the page numbers.

Mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental research following the publication of John Bowlby's studies (Hunt 50, 55, 65-71).

When you quote from electronic sources that do not provide page numbers (like webpages), cite the author name only. If there is no author, cite the first word or words from the title only. 

"Three phases of the separation response: protest, despair, and detachment" (Garelli).

"Nutrition is a critical part of health and development" ("Nutrition").

Sources that are paraphrased or quoted in other sources are called indirect sources. MLA recommends you take information from the original source whenever possible. 

If you must cite information from an indirect source, mention the author of the original source in the body of your text and place the name of the author of the source you actually consulted in your in-text citation. Begin your in-text citation with 'qtd. in.' 

Kumashiro notes that lesbian and bisexual women of colour are often excluded from both queer communities and communities of colour (qtd. in Dua 188).

(You are reading an article by Dua that cites information from Kumashiro (the original source))

  Note: In your Works Cited list, you only include a citation for the source you consulted, NOT the original source.

In the above example, your Works Cited list would include a citation for Dua's article, and NOT Kumashiro's.

If you're using information from a single source more than once in a row (with no other sources referred to in between), you can use a simplified in-text citation. The first time you use information from the source, use a full in-text citation. The second time, you only need to give the page number.

Cell biology is an area of science that focuses on the structure and function of cells (Smith 15). It revolves around the idea that the cell is a "fundamental unit of life" (17). Many important scientists have contributed to the evolution of cell biology. Mattias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, for example, were scientists who formulated cell theory in 1838 (20). 

 Note: If using this simplified in-text citation creates ambiguity regarding the source being referred to, use the full in-text citation format.

If you would like to cite more than one source within the same in-text citation, simply record the in-text citations as normal and separate them with a semi-colon.

(Smith 42; Bennett 71). 

( It Takes Two ; Brock 43).

 Note: The sources within the in-text citation do not need to be in alphabetical order for MLA style.

What Is a Long Quotation?

If your quotation is longer than four lines, it is a considered a long quotation. This can also be referred to as a block quotation.

Rules for Long Quotations

There are 4 rules that apply to long quotations that are different from regular quotations:

  • Place a colon at the end of the line that you write to introduce your long quotation.
  • Indent the long quotation 0.5 inches from the rest of the text, so it looks like a block of text.
  • Do not put quotation marks around the quotation.
  • Place the period at the end of the quotation  before  your in-text citation instead of  after , as with regular quotations.

Example of a Long Quotation

Vivian Gornick describes the process of maturing as a reader as a reckoning with human limitations:

Suddenly, literature, politics, and analysis came together, and I began to think more inclusively about the emotional

imprisonment of mind and spirit to which all human beings are heir. In the course of analytic time, it became apparent

that—with or without the burden of social justice—the effort required to attain any semblance of inner freedom was

extraordinary. Great literature, I then realized, is a record not of the achievement, but of the effort. 

With this insight as my guiding light, I began to interpret the lives and work of women and men alike who had

spent their years making literature. (x-xi)  

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In-text citation

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The MLA 9th style uses author-date in-text citations, used when quoting or paraphrasing people’s work. 

Two types of in-text citations

1. author prominent format .

Use this format if you want to emphasise the author. Their name becomes part of your sentence.

"It was the best of times, it was the worst of times," wrote Charles Dickens of the eighteenth century (5).

2. Information prominent format

Use this format if you want to emphasise the information. It cites the author’s name, typically at the end of a sentence.

as demonstrated in the opening line, "it was the best of times, it was the worst of times" (Dickens 5).

Examples of in-text citations

Less than three lines of text.

If a prose quotation is no more than four lines and does not require special emphasis, put it in quotation marks and incorporate it into the text. Include the page number(s) in brackets.

"It was the best of times it was the worst of times" wrote Charles Dickens of the eighteenth century (5).

  • See Plays and Poetry sections below for how to cite these in-text.

More than three lines of text

If a quotation is longer than three lines, set it off from your text by beginning a new line, indenting half an inch from the left margin. Quotation marks around the text are not required. Introduce the quotation with a colon. Place the parenthetical reference after the last line. For example, the above discusses John Corner in his book, The Art of Record: A Critical Introduction to Documentary , which refers to Brian Winston's revaluation of the documentary tradition in the writings of John Grierson.

Winston's reassessment of Grierson finds the play-off between creativity and realness unconvincing: Grierson's taxonomic triumph was to make his particular species of non-fiction film, the non-fiction genre while at the same time allowing the films to use the significant fictionalising technique of dramatisation. (Winston 103)

This is a usefully provocative point, though agreement with it will largely rest on certain, contestable ideas about 'fictionalisation' and 'dramatisation'. The issue is dealt with directly in Chapter Two, as part of considering the debate around drama-documentary forms, and it occurs in relation to specific works throughout this book.

Two authors

In prose, the first time the two authors are mentioned, use both first and second names. In a parenthetical citation use 'and', not '&' to connect the two surnames.

Others, like Cheryl Brown and Laura Czerniewicz argue that the idea of a generation of ‘digital natives’ is flawed (359). The Brown and Czerniewicz article focuses on…

(Brown and Czerniewicz 359)

Three or more authors

When citing a source with three or more authors in prose you only refer to the first coauthor and can follow the additional authors by “and others“ or “and colleagues.” A parenthetical citation requires the first author's surname, followed by et al.

Laura Czerniewicz and colleagues argue…

(Czerniewicz et al. 53)

Different authors, same surname

If you use works from more than one author with the same last name, eliminate any ambiguity by including the author's first initial as well (or if the initial is also the same, the full first name).

(N. Palmer 45)

(N. Palmer 45; M. Palmer 102)

Citing more than one author

If you are citing more than one source at the same point, place them in the same parentheses, separated by a semi-colon.

(Jackson 41; Smith 150)

Same author, two or more works

If you cite multiple works by the same author, include a shortened title in each in-text citation to establish which work you are referring to. To avoid overly lengthy in-text citations, shorten the title to a simple noun phrase, or a few words.

The first example references Said's book, so the title is italicised. The second example references Said's journal article, so it is in quotation marks.

For more tips on how to abbreviate titles of sources, see 6.10 of the MLA Handbook .

..."the Orient was a scholar's word, signifying what modern Europe had recently made of the still peculiar East" (Said, Orientalism 92).

..."there is something basically unworkable or at least drastically changed about the traditional frameworks in which we study literature" (Said, "Globalizing Literary Study" 64).

Anonymous or no author

For works that are anonymously authored, or have no author, include a shortened version of the title in the in-text citation (do not list the author as "anonymous", nor as "anon.").

It has been argued that the hat symbolised freedom (Wandering Merchant 157).

Corporate author

Abbreviate terms that are commonly abbreviated (e.g. Department becomes Dept.), so as to not disrupt the flow of your text with overly long in-text citations.

If the corporate author is identified in the works-cited list by the names of administrative units separated by commas, give all the names in the parenthetical citation.

The Australian Research Council found that there are limited policies and procedures in place to manage foreign interference (4).

(Monash University 176)

Citing an author within another source

An indirect source is a source that is cited in another source. To quote this second-hand source, use “qtd. in” (quoted in), and then include the information of the source you actually consulted. Similarly, for the reference list use the source that you actually consulted (i.e. the indirect source). Keep in mind that it is good academic practice to seek out and use the original source, rather than the second-hand one, however this is not always possible.

For the below example, the student is using Petrarch's quote which is found in Hui. The page number refers to the source actually consulted (Hui), and the reference list would only list Hui, as shown below:

Hui, Andrew. The Poetics of Ruins in Renaissance Literature. Fordham UP, 2016.

For more information, see section 6.77 of the MLA Handbook .

Petrarch laments that Cicero’s manuscripts are “in such fragmentary and mutilated condition that it would perhaps have been better for them to have perished” (qtd. in Hui 4).

Author in a translation

If you think your audience would require a translation for your quoted material, then provide one. Give the source of the translation, as well as the source of the quote.

If you did the translation yourself, then insert my trans. where you would usually put the translation source, as shown in the example above.

If you're quoting in a language that does not use the Latin alphabet (Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, etc.), then consistently use the original writing system for your quotes or romanisation. Note that proper nouns are usually romanised.

For more information, see 6.75 Translations of Quotations in the MLA Style Guide .

Mme d'Aulnoy's heroine is "la chatte blanche" ("the white cat"; my trans.; 56)

Poetry - Short quotations

Quotations from poetry from part of a line up to three lines in length, which do not need particular emphasis, may be added, placed in quotation marks, within your text as part of a sentence. Use a slash with a space on either side ( / ) to indicate a new line of poetry.

If the poem you are referencing has line numbers, then omit page numbers all-together and cite by line number instead. Do not use the abbreviation l. or ll. , but instead in your first citation, use the word line, or lines as shown in the example below. After the first citation, it can be assumed that the numbers refer to lines, so you can include the numbers alone.

More's distress that she had not written about the problems of the slave trade earlier are expressed in the poem: "Whene'er to Afric's shores I turn my eyes, / Horrors of deepest, deadliest guilt arise" (line 5).

Poetry - Block quotations

When quoting a block of poetry, introduce it in the same manner as a prose block quotation, i.e. begin the quote on a new line and indent each line as below. There is no need to add quotation marks. A reference to the page or line number should be included in parenthesis at the end of the last line. If the original text is creatively spaced or indented, then try to replicate the original as best you can.

Judith Wright 's poetry explores the Australian environment:

And have we eaten in the heart of the yellow wheat the sullen unforgetting seed of fire? And now, set free by the climate of man's hate, that seed sets time ablaze (14)

If you quote the lines of more than one actor or if the piece you are quoting is long, the quotation should not be integrated into your text. The rules in MLA for presenting this text are:

  • Leave a line between your text and the quotation
  • Begin each part of the dialogue with the character's name, indented half an inch from the margin, in upper case and with a full-stop, e.g. BODYGUARDS.
  • Start dialogue after full-stop or match spacing shown in original source
  • Indent all dialogue an additional amount, as shown below
  • End each piece of dialogue with a full-stop
  • End the last line of the quotation with a full-stop and then add the section and line numbers in parentheses.

For more information, see section 6.40 of the MLA 9th Handbook .

TARTUFFE. Yes, my brother, I am a sinner, a guilty man. An unhappy sinner full of iniquity. (III. vi.)

In-text citation general checklist

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In-Text Citation

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Key Elements (p. 3)

When you use others' ideas and quotes, cite your source by including:

  • Author's Last Name
  • Page Number of Cited Material

In-text citations direct the reader to the full citation on the Works Cited list -- i.e., (see page 214 of the work authored by the Modern Language Association) -- and the Works Cited list will have the full publication details.

Ex. "Usually the author's last name and a page reference are enough to identify the source and the specific location from which you borrowed material" (Modern Language Association 214).

When you must cite the title, italicize book titles and put quotes around article, video, poem, play, and web page titles.

To maximize the effectiveness of your writing, you are encouraged to word your in-text citations in several ways.

  • Author's last name and page number in parentheses at the end of the sentence.

Ex. "When his father told him that he was to go back to school again, Charles's eyes filled with tears of gratitude" (Hibbert 83).

  • Author's name in the text and page number in parentheses  at the end of the sentence.

Ex. According to Andrea Tone, President John F. Kennedy took up to eight medications a day to treat illness and stress (112).

  • With no page numbers (ex. Web pages), give as much information about the source as possible in the sentence.

Ex. Copyright scholar Lawrence Lessig noted in his well-regarded blog that, as of March 2009, over 100 million photos on Flickr were licensed through Creative Commons.

One Author: Direct Quotes (p. 3)

Include the author's last name and page number.

Ex.  "When his father told him that he was to go back to school again, Charles's eyes filled with tears of gratitude" ( Hibbert  83).

One Author: Paraphrasing (p. 9)

Cite the author and paraphrased page numbers.

Ex. Many insects and animals have a larger spectrum of color vision than humans, including ultraviolet and infrared (Kimura 163-65).

Two Authors (p. 116)

Include each author's last name followed by the page number.

Ex. Facebook's influence over online privacy standards reaches far beyond its 500 million users; its privacy policies, "more than those of any other company, are helping to define standards for privacy in the Internet age" (Helft and Wortham B1).

Three or More Authors (p. 116)

Give the first author's last name followed by "et al," which means "and others."

Ex. Part of the problem, one study asserts, is people "might not realize the potential consequences of publishing personal information for public view in an online social networking community" (Foulger et al. 1-2).

Works Cited

Foulger, Teresa S., et al. "Moral Spaces in MySpace: Preservice Teachers' Perspectives About Ethical Issues in Social Networking." Journal of Research on Technology in Education 42.1 (2009): 1-28. Academic OneFile. Web. 29 July 2010.​

No Author (p. 117)

When the citation has no author, use its title in place of the author. Include page numbers when available. The title in the in-text citation should match the title in the Works Cited list.

Ex. Although many online social networking services are free to users, "they are run by commercial enterprises that want, quite reasonably, to make money. Since they cannot charge entry fees, they harvest data" ("Online Privacy" 28).

If you abbreviate a long title, make sure the first word of the abbreviated title matches the first word of the title on the Works Cited list.

Ex. Abbreviate "Oil Spill in the Gulf Coast" as "Oil Spill," not "Gulf Coast."

No Page Numbers (p. 123)

In the text, include as much information as possible, including title, author, website, etc. Cite the chapter when available.

Ex. Kurosawa's  Throne of Blood  adapts Shakespeare's "MacBeth" to the Japanese audience (Evans).

Has Volume (p. 119)

Only cite the volume number in the in-text citation when you use two volumes of the same set. If you only cite one volume, just include that information in the Work's Cited. Include the author, volume number, and page number.

Ex. Hemingway's tight and straightforward prose style that so heavily influenced modern writing is best exemplified in  The Sun Also Rises  and  The Old Man and the Sea  (Aviero 3: 23-5).

Ex. Raymond Bradbury's short story "I Sing the Body Electric!" takes its name from the title of a Walt Whitman poem (Wyland, vol. 1)

Common Literature with Many Editions (p. 120)

Include the author, page number, and chapter number.

Ex. Julia is foreshadowed in Winston's dream as a dark-haired girl: "Her body was white and smooth, but it aroused no desire in him, indeed he barely looked at it." (56; ch. 3)

Video (p. 57)

Since videos do not have page numbers, include the time stamp.

Ex. Cheetahs can reach "0 to 60 in three seconds, or three strides" (Smithsonian Channel 0:45).

Play (p. 80)

Cite the act, scene, and line number not page number.

  • Go from the broadest division (usually act) to the smallest (usually scene or line).
  • Separate each division with a period.
  • If the author's name is elsewhere in your paper, do not include it. Instead, include the first significant word of the title.

One Character

Incorporate the quote into the body of the text.

Ex. Nora's epiphany occurs when she realizes her husband will never reciprocate the sacrifices she's made to protect his pride. She finally stands up to Helmer, telling him, "You neither think nor talk like the man I could join myself to" ( Doll act 3). (Note: Ibsen's  A Doll House  is divided by act only, so this is the only division you can cite.)

Ex. Although Oedipus blames the gods for his tragic fate, he admits that his latest misfortune is his own doing when he cries, "But the blinding hand was my own! How could I bear to see when all my sight was horror everywhere?" ( Oedipus Exodus.2.114-16). (Note:  Oedipus Rex  is broken into numerous divisions; all available divisions are included in the citation.)

Two or More Characters

  • Begin the quotation on a new line, indent 1 inch from the margin, and double-space
  • If a character's speech continues onto the next line of your paper, indent these lines another 1/4 inch
  • Write the characters' names in capital letters followed by a period
  • Do not use quotation marks

OEDIPUS. Ah, what net has God been weaving for me?

IOCASTÊ. Oedipus! What does this trouble you?

OEDIPUS. Do not ask me yet. First, tell me how Laïos looked, and tell me how old he was.

IOCASTÊ. He was tall, his hair just touched with white; his form was not unlike your own.

OEDIPUS. I think that I myself may be accursed by my own ignorant edict. ( Oedipus  2.2.211-16)

Shakespearean Play (p. 121)

Abbreviate the title of a work if you cite it frequently in your paper.  Use the full title when first mentioned in your text with the abbreviation in parentheses, then use the a bbreviation in l ater  references to the title . Cite the line numbers.

ex. In All's Well That Ends Well (AWW), Helena believes she is the master of her own fate, saying "Our remedies oft in ourselves do lie, / Which we ascribe to heaven" ( AWW , 1.1.199-200).

See the document below for commonly-used Shakespearean play abbreviations.

  • Abbreviations for Shakespeare Plays

Poem (p. 121)

Cite line numbers.No line numbers? If only one page, don't cite any number. If more than one page, cite page numbers.

3 Lines or Fewer

Incorporate the quotation into the body of your text.

  • Use quotation marks
  • Use slashes (/) to show line breaks and keep all punctuation as it appears in the poem
  • If the author's name is elsewhere in your paper, do not include it . Instead, include the first significant word of the poem's title.
  • If the title of the poem is in the sentences immediately before the  quotation, cite the line number only.

Ex. In "Hands,"  Jeffers  humanizes prehistoric cave drawings by giving the drawers a voice: "Look: we also were human; we had hands, not paws" (line 10)

Ex. Eliot immediately engages the reader with his use of the second person in the opening lines: "Let us go then, you and I / When the evening is spread out against the sky" ("Prufrock" 1-2).

Four or More Lines

Start the quotation on a new line.

  • Do not use quotation marks unless they are used in the poem
  • Indent each line 1 inch from the left margin and double-space

Ex. Yeats, an Irish nationalist himself, knew several of the Easter Monday rebels personally, and he mentions them by name in his poem. He even notes his former nemesis, Major John MacBride, who was briefly married to Yeats's love, Maude Gonne. Though he acknowledges MacBride's heroism, he does so begrudgingly:

A drunken, vainglorious lout

He had done most bitter wrong

To some who are near my heart

Yet I number him in the song; ("Easter" 31-34)

Quoting a Quote (p. 124)

Start with "qtd. in," which means quoted in, and cite the author of the text that the quote is in and the page number.

Ex. Despite several dalliances, Anders claims "Gala was secure in her role as Dali's primary lifelong partner and muse" (qtd. in Chahine 13).

Two Citations in One Sentence (p. 58)

Include both authors and page numbers.

Ex. Eating a vegetarian or vegan diet has been linked to many health benefits; however, eating a diet of primarily fresh foods is too expensive for most poor people (Nejem 12; McRay 153).

Web Resource

Use the same rules as print resources. URLs are not used for in-text citation in MLA.

Ex. As creative entrepreneurship and networking become increasingly important to artistic success, the new paradigm is becoming “the displacement of depth by breadth" ( Deresiewicz ).

Ex. The Hövding is a new type of bicycle helmet which is worn like a collar and “protects even more of the head than traditional helmets” (“This Invisible”).​

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Using MLA in-text citations

General information about parenthetical citations

How do I cite sources in my paper?

The following instructions are basically the same for print sources and electronic sources. When you quote or paraphrase a specific portion of a text in a source, give enough information—most typically the author’s last name and the page number —to identify the exact location of the borrowed material. If you are using two sources from the same author, then you’ll need to reference both the title of the piece along with the author’s name either in the sentence itself or in the parenthetical citation. Use a comma between the last name and the title of the source if both appear in the parenthetical citation.

The parenthetical information should not repeat information given in your text (e.g., if you mention the author’s name in your text, you do not include it in the citation). For more information and example citations, see: Citing books, articles, and other sources parenthetically in your paper.

How should I format my quotations and citation information?

For direct references, paraphrases, and quotations that are shorter than four lines, include the citation information in parentheses at the end of the sentence directly following any quotation marks and right before the sentence’s ending punctuation.

Use the block quotation format for quotations more than four lines long: indent one half inch from the left margin, double space the quotation, and do not use quotation marks. Place the parenthetical citation after the period (or other mark of punctuation) that closes the block quotation.

When it comes to referencing numbers in parenthetical citations, do not include the word “page” or “pages” or the abbreviations “p.” or “pp.”—just the page numbers themselves. If an electronic source uses paragraph or section numbers instead of page numbers, use the appropriate abbreviation (e.g., “par.”; do not count paragraphs if they are not numbered in the electronic source; if an electronic source does not include page or paragraph numbers, don’t include any numbers in your citation).

When referring to plays, poems, or modern prose works that call attention to other divisions, in the parenthetical citation first include the page number, then provide any other identifying information—abbreviating terms like “chapter” and “section”—and then include the appropriate number. For more information, see: Abbreviating references to your sources

Citing books, articles, and other sources parenthetically in your paper

In conjunction with the explanations about structuring and formatting in–text citations detailed here , this page provides example citations for how a range of different source types are correctly referenced according to MLA’s citation guidelines.

– Author’s name in text

Magny develops this argument (67-69).

– Author’s name in reference

This argument has been developed elsewhere (Magny 67-69).

– Quotation found in indirect or “secondhand” source

The philosopher Alain states that “admiration is not pleasure but a kind of attention. . .” (qtd. in Magny 66).

– Material found in indirect source

Alain’s words seem to dissociate admiration from pleasure (in Magny 66).

– Two authors’ names in reference

The most notorious foreign lobby in Washington is the “Sugar Mafia” (Howe and Trott 134).

– Reference to volume and page in multivolume work

As a painter Andrea was “faultless” (Freedberg 1: 98).

– Reference to whole volume

In his second volume, Freedberg gives an account of Andrea’s whole painting career.

– Two works by same author on list of works cited

Frye connects Burgess’ A Clockwork Orange to romance tradition ( Secular Scripture 110). And while this connection may be surprising given A Clockwork Orange ‘s themes and content, Frye’s unique perspective on the nature of genres sheds light on this unusual combination (“Rhetorical Criticism: Theory of Genres”).

– Two locations in same source

Dabundo deals with this problem (22, 31).

– Two sources cited

This controversy has been addressed more than once (Dabundo 27; Magny 69).

– Personal interview; name given in text

Parsons addresses the need for physical education teachers to understand the relationship between physical activity and fitness.

– Corporate author

Many different types of organizations in the United States are involved in mediation and dispute resolution (Natl. Inst. for Dispute Resolution).

– Quotation from a play with page numbers

In A Raisin in the Sun , Walter doesn’t hide his disdain for his sister’s attitude towards his mother’s money: “the line between asking and just accepting when the time comes is big and wide—ain’t it!” he levels at Beneatha (Hansberry 37; act 1, scene 1).

– Quotation from a play with division and line numbers

This is made clear by the Duke’s recommendation that the best response to grief is to move on ( Othello 1.3.208–209).

– Quotation from a poem

Amy Quan Barry asks piercingly, “What is it to know the absolute value / of negative grace . . .?”

– Quotation from a multi–page poem with line numbers

It is at this point that Eliot first introduces the women in the room “talking of Michelangelo” (line 14).

– Electronic source that uses paragraph numbers

The semiconductor workplace is highly toxic (Ross par. 35).

– Electronic source that uses chapter and section numbers

“Once we start using a tool extensively, it also starts using us” (Rawlins ch. 1, sec. 1).

Formatting quotations according to the MLA guidelines

Parenthetical citations appear at the end of the sentence in which the direct reference, summary, paraphrase, or quote appears.

For quotations that are shorter than four lines, include the citation after the final quotation marks and before the sentence’s concluding punctuation.

Use the block quotation format for quotations more than four lines long:

  • In most cases, use a colon to introduce the quotation.
  • Indent the quotation one half inch from the left margin.
  • Double space the quotation.
  • Do not use quotation marks.

Place the parenthetical citation (author and page number) after the period (or other mark of punctuation) that closes the block quotation.

intext citation in mla

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In-text Citations

In-text citations should show precisely where you used others' ideas and words.  These in-text citations should refer the reader to the source on the Works Cited page and, in most cases, provide the reader the exact location of the idea or quote within the source itself.  

For example, parenthetical citations will list the first part of the Works Cited entry (e.g., an author's last name) and then the location (e.g., a page number).

Below, specific examples are given.

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MLA In-text Citations - The Basics

In MLA, referring to the works of others within text of your paper is done using  parenthetical citations . This means placing relevant source information in parentheses whenever a sentence uses a quotation or paraphrase. Usually, the simplest way is to put all of the source information in parentheses at the end of the sentence (i.e., just before the period). However, as seen below, there are situations where it makes sense to put the parenthetical elsewhere in the sentence, or even to leave information out.

General Guidelines

  • upon the source medium (e.g. print, web, DVD)
  • upon the source’s entry on the Works Cited page.
  • Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page. More specifically, whatever signal word or phrase you provide to your readers in the text must be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of the corresponding entry on the Works Cited page. This is so your reader can connect your in-text citation to the right line in your Works cited page.
  • Be sure to check the full selection of examples for in-text citations below, they vary slightly depending on the type of source you are citing.

MLA in-text citations

MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number(s) should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence. For example:

  • Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (263).
  • Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263).
  • Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (263).

Both citations in the examples above, (263) and (Wordsworth 263), tell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page 263 of a work by an author named Wordsworth. If readers want more information about this source, they can turn to the Works Cited page, where, under the name of Wordsworth, they would find the following information:

  • Wordsworth, William.  Lyrical Ballads . Oxford UP, 1967.

While the above is the general rule, there are some variations depending on the source of the quote or paraphrase. Here are a few examples, but please review the MLA Manual of Style for more detailed and specific information about in-text citations.

In-text citations by type

  • Print Sources - Known author
  • Print Sources - Corporate author
  • Print Sources - No known author
  • Classic works with multiple editions
  • Works in an anthology
  • Multiple authors
  • Multiple works by same author
  • Multivolume works
  • Web sources

For print sources like books, magazines, scholarly journal articles, and newspapers, provide a signal word or phrase (usually the author’s last name) and a page number. If you provide the signal word/phrase in the sentence, you do not need to include it in the parenthetical citation.

  • Human beings have been described by Kenneth Burke as "symbol-using animals" (3).
  • Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" (Burke 3).

These examples must correspond to an entry that begins with Burke, which will be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of an entry on the Works Cited page:

  • Burke, Kenneth.  Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature, and Method . University of California Press, 1966.

When a source has a corporate author, it is acceptable to use the name of the corporation followed by the page number for the in-text citation. You should also use abbreviations (e.g., nat'l for national) where appropriate, so as to avoid interrupting the flow of reading with overly long parenthetical citations.

  • Climate change is now "an important factor in developing new engineering systems" (EPA 321).
  • The EPA has stated in a recent study, Climate change is now " an important factor in developing new engineering systems" (321). 

When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name, following these guidelines.

  • Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work (such as an article), or italicize it if it's a longer work (e.g. plays, books, television shows, entire Web sites) and provide a page number if it is available.

Titles that are longer than a standard noun phrase should be shortened into a noun phrase by excluding articles. For example,  To the Lighthouse  would be shortened to just  Lighthouse .

If the title cannot be easily shortened into a noun phrase, the title should be cut after the first clause, phrase, or punctuation:

  • The world needs to act to reverse climate change, because it "is here, and it’s causing a wide range of impacts that will affect virtually every human on Earth in increasingly severe ways. . . ." ("Climate Impacts").

In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title appears in the parenthetical citation, and the full title of the article appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry on the Works Cited page. Thus, the writer includes the title in quotation marks as the signal phrase in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader directly to the source on the Works Cited page. The Works Cited entry appears as follows:

  • "Climate Impacts."  Union of Concerned Scientists . 2022. www.ucsusa.org/climate/impacts. Accessed 24 Mar. 2022.

If the title of the work begins with a quotation mark, such as a title that refers to another work, that quote or quoted title can be used as the shortened title. The single quotation marks must be included in the parenthetical, rather than the double quotation.

Page numbers are always required, but additional information can help literary scholars, who may have a different edition of a classic work, like Marx and Engels's  The Communist Manifesto .

In these cases, give the page number from your edition (making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page, of course) followed by a semicolon, and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume (vol.), book (bk.), part (pt.), chapter (ch.), section (sec.), or paragraph (par.). For example:

  • Marx and Engels described human history as marked by class struggles (79; ch. 1).

When you cite a work that appears inside a larger source (for instance, an article in a periodical or an essay in a collection), cite the author of the  internal  source (i.e., the article or essay). For example, to cite Albert Einstein's article "A Brief Outline of the Theory of Relativity," which was published in  Nature  in 1921, you might write something like this:

  • Relativity's theoretical foundations can be traced to earlier work by Faraday and Maxwell (Einstein 782).

For a source with two authors, list the authors’ last names in the text or in the parenthetical citation:

  • Best and Marcus argue that one should read a text for what it says on its surface, rather than looking for some hidden meaning (9).
  • The authors claim that surface reading looks at what is “evident, perceptible, apprehensible in texts” (Best and Marcus 9).

For a source with three or more authors, list only the first author’s last name, and replace the additional names with et al (which means "and others")

  • According to Franck et al., “Current agricultural policies in the U.S. are contributing to the poor health of Americans” (327).
  • The authors claim that one cause of obesity in the United States is government-funded farm subsidies (Franck et al. 327).

If you cite more than one work by an author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks.

Citing two articles by the same author:

  • Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children ("Too Soon" 38), though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year ("Hand-Eye Development" 17).

Citing two books by the same author:

  • Murray states that writing is "a process" that "varies with our thinking style" ( Write to Learn  6). Additionally, Murray argues that the purpose of writing is to "carry ideas and information from the mind of one person into the mind of another" ( A Writer Teaches Writing  3).

**Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the work, and, when appropriate, the page number(s):

  • Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be "too easy" (Elkins, "Visual Studies" 63).

If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon. Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number(s). (If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses.)

  • . . . as Quintilian wrote in  Institutio Oratoria  (1: 14-17).

In your first parenthetical citation referencing the bible, you want to make clear which bible you're using (and underline or italicize the title), as each version varies in its translation, followed by book (do not italicize or underline), chapter, and verse. For example:

  • Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures," each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle ( New Jerusalem Bible , Ezek. 1.5-10).

If future references are to the same edition of the bible you’re using, list only the book, chapter, and verse in the parenthetical citation:

  • John of Patmos echoes this passage when describing his vision (Rev. 4.6-8).

For electronic and Internet sources, follow the following guidelines:

  • Include in the text the first item that appears in the Work Cited entry that corresponds to the citation (e.g. author name, article name, website name, film name).
  • Do not provide paragraph numbers or page numbers based on your Web browser’s print preview function.
  • Unless you must list the Web site name in the signal phrase in order to get the reader to the appropriate entry, do not include URLs in-text. Only provide partial URLs such as when the name of the site includes, for example, a domain name, like  CNN.com  or  Forbes.com,  as opposed to writing out http://www.cnn.com or http://www.forbes.com.
  • One online film critic stated that  Fitzcarraldo  "has become notorious for its near-failure and many obstacles" (Taylor, “Fitzcarraldo”)
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In-text citations, page contents.

Direct Quoting

Paraphrasing

Citing a source cited in your source, citing a web page.

Basic Rules for In-Text Citations:

  • In all cases, create a citation that is brief and that unambiguously  directs the reader to the right entry on your Works Cited page.
  • Use the author's last name and page number(s) when available for paraphrases & quotes; just the author's name is sufficient for summarizing the gist of an entire work.
  • Put the author's name either within within the text of the sentence or in parentheses . If in the text of the sentence, only the page number is put in parentheses.
  • If there is no page number , use whatever location marker is available: paragraph numbers, line numbers, chapter and/or section, or time-stamp (for video or audio). If there is no page number or other location, simply omit it.
  • If the source is attributed to an organization , use a "corporate" (or group) author, such as "U.S. Government Printing Office," or "American Library Association."
  • If there is no author (not even a corporate author), use an abbreviated form of the work's title in the citation.

Direct Quote & Paraphrase

1. Author's name in text

According to Naomi Baron , reading is "just half of literacy. The other half is writing" (194) . One might even suggest that reading is never complete without writing.

2. Author's name in parentheses

Reading is just "half of literacy. The other half is writing"  (Baron 194) . One might even suggest that reading is never complete without writing.

Baron, Naomi S. "Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital Communication Media." PMLA, vol. 128, no. 1, Jan. 2013, pp. 193-200.

Note that the locations of author name and page help clarify which of the language and ideas belong to that particular author and source. The author's idea from that page is understood to end at the parenthetical page number.

When you include a citation, you must also include a full bibliographic entry in your Works Cited list.

*Examples excerpted from: Modern Language Association. MLA Handbook. 9th ed. New York: Modern Language Assoc. of America, 2021.

Paraphrasing  or summarizing an author's ideas in your own words is fine as long as you acknowledge the author. Paraphrasing is a near 1:1 rephrasing, so you need a page number. Summarizing condenses either a full work or a large part of it into a brief version, so no page number is necessary.

1. Paraphrase (following a quote):

According to Gao Xingjian, "Literature is essence divorced from utility" (7). Gao adds, however, than the market for publishing works is constricted by politics (13).

Gao Xingjian. Aesthetics and Creation . Cambria Press, 2012.

2. Summary (with in-text citation):

Naomi Baron broke new ground on the subject.

3. Summary (with parenthetical citation):

At least one researcher has broken new ground on the subject (Baron) .

Baron, Naomi S. "Redefining Reading: The Impact of Digital Communication Media." PMLA , vol. 128, no. 1, Jan. 2013, pp. 193-200.

Note that all of these examples would require a full bibliographic entry of the author's work on your works cited page.

*Examples excerpted from: Modern Language Association.  MLA Handbook.  9th ed. New York: Modern Language Assoc. of America, 2021.

Sometimes you may need to use information cited in another source . For example, a text by Boswell that you found quotes something written by Johnson. There are two possible ways of handling it. You can:

  • Find the original item by Johnson and cite directly from that author ( preferred ).
  • Name Johnson as a source in your paraphrase, but only cite Boswell in the references page ( Acceptable if the original item would be prohibitively difficult to find; obviously that criteria depends on the situation and your professor's judgment. Ask them. )

Quoted in ("qtd. in"):

Samuel Johnson admitted that Edmund Burke was an "extraordinary man" (qtd. in Boswell 289) .

Boswell, James. Boswell's Life of Johnson . Edited by Augustine Birrell, vol. 3, Times Book Club, 1912. HathiTrust Digital Library , hdl.handle.net/2027/uc1.b3123590.

Noted in Text:

In a speech urging listeners to reject physical destruction and to seek mutual undertanding, Robert F. Kennedy quoted Aeschylus: "In our sleep, pain which cannot foreget falls drop by drop upon the heart until, in our own despair, against our will, comes wisdom through the awful grace of God."

Kennedy, Robert F. "Statement on Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., Indianapolis, Indiana, April 4, 1968." John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum , www.jfklibrary.org.

Note that in works cited for both examples, you would only need to list the work(s) you actually read: in other words, Boswell or Kennedy, not Johnson or Aeschylus.

  • If there is no author listed, look for other authorship information, such as the creator or editor, or performer of the item, or organization responsible for the site. If there is none of those, or if the organization would also be the publisher, use a short-form version of the full title in quotation marks in place of the author's name in the citation.
  • Page numbers are very uncommon on websites, so MLA does not require a page number.

Clear Author (NY Times online article):

"Small changes in your eating habits can lower your risk for many of the diseases associated with aging" (Parker-Pope) , so it's never too early to evaluate your diet. *

Parker-Pope, Tara. "How to Age Well." The New York Times , 2 Nov. 2017, www.nytimes.com/guides/well/how-to-age-well. *

Unclear Author

The female bhakti poets "faced overwhelming challenges through their rejection of societal norms and values" ("Bhakti Poets") . *

"Bhakti Poets: Introduction." Women in World History , Center for History and New Media, chnm.gmu.edu/wwh/modules/lesson1/lesson1.php?s=0. Accessed 20 Sept. 2020. *

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How to cite in MLA format

MLA handbook 9th edition

MLA is one of the most common citation styles used by students and academics. This quick guide explains how to cite sources according to the 9th edition (the most recent) of the MLA Handbook . You can also use Scribbr’s free  citation generator to automatically generate references and in-text citations.

An MLA citation has two components:

  • In-text citation : Every time you quote or paraphrase a source, you cite the author and the page number in parentheses.
  • Works Cited : At the end of your paper, you give a full reference for every source you cited, alphabetized by the author’s last name.

MLA Works Cited list

The list of Works Cited (also known as the bibliography or reference page) gives full details of every source you cited in your text. Each entry is built from nine core elements:

Following this format, you can create a citation for any type of source—for example, a book , journal article , website , or movie . You only include information that’s relevant to the type of source you’re citing.

Missing information in MLA citations

Regardless of the source type, the most important elements of any MLA citation are the author , the source title , and the publication date. If any of these are missing from the source, the Works Cited entry will look slightly different.

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MLA in-text citations

MLA in-text citations are brief references that direct your reader to the full source entry. You include them every time you quote , block quote , paraphrase or summarize a source.

The in-text citation must match the first word of the Works Cited entry—usually the author’s last name . It also includes a page number or range to help the reader locate the relevant passage.

If you already named the author in your sentence, include only the page number in parentheses:

Sources with no page numbers

If the source has no page numbers, you either use an alternative locator, or leave the page number out of the citation:

Tools and resources

Besides the MLA Citation Generator, Scribbr provides many more helpful tools and resources;

  • Citation generator : Generate flawless APA , MLA , and Harvard citations in seconds
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  • AI detector: Find out if your text was written with ChatGPT or any other AI writing tool. ChatGPT 2 & ChatGPT 3 supported.
  • Proofreading services : Hire a professional editor to improve your writing
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  • Guides and videos : Explore hundreds of articles, bite-sized videos, time-saving templates, and handy checklists that guide you through the process of research, writing, and citation.

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Citation Guide (MLA 9th Edition) UNDER CONSTRUCTION

  • In-Text Citations
  • Title of source
  • Title of container
  • Contributor
  • Publication date
  • Supplemental Elements
  • Advertisements
  • Books, eBooks & Pamphlets
  • Class Notes & Presentations
  • Encyclopedias & Dictionaries
  • Government Documents
  • Images, Charts, Graphs, Maps & Tables
  • Interviews and Emails (Personal Communications)
  • Journal Articles
  • Magazine Articles
  • Newspaper Articles
  • Religious Texts
  • Social Media
  • Theses and Dissertations
  • Videos & DVDs
  • When Information Is Missing

Works Quoted in Another Source

  • Page updated to MLA 9

About In-Text Citations

Basic format.

  • Sample Works Cited List
  • Sample Annotations This link opens in a new window
  • Plagiarism This link opens in a new window

In-text citations are inserted in the body of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information. They should cause minimal disruption to the reading flow. Brief in-text citations point the reader to more complete information in the works cited list at the end of the paper.

  • In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a page number enclosed in parentheses. "Here's a direct quote" (Smith 8).
  • If the author's name is not given, then use the first word or words of the title. Follow the same formatting that was used in the works cited list, such as quotation marks. This is a paraphrase instead of a direct quote ("Trouble" 22).
  • If the author is mentioned in context, you do not need to repeat it in the in-text citation. Include the page number (if available) enclosed in parentheses. According to Smith, "here's a direct quote" (8). "Trouble" uses a signal phrase (22).

In addition to giving credit, the purpose of the in-text citation is to give the reader enough information to find the full citation for the source on your Works Cited page.

Since the Works Cited page is in alphabetical order, you only need to identiry the last name of the author(s). If there is no author, use a shortened version of the title.

Basic format for parenthetical citations

  • (Last Name Page #)

I am citing a source with

One (1) author.

You only need the author's last name and the page number.

(Joseph-Armstrong 243)

Two (2) Authors

Connect both authors' last names with and , followed by the page number.

(Case and Brand 57)

(Strunk and White 36)

(Sturken and Cartwright 134)

Three (3) or more Authors

Use the first author's last name and et al., followed by the page number.

(Case et al. 57)

(Franck et al. 327)

No or Unknown Author

Use a shortened title of the work. Don't include initial articles like "A", "An" or "The".

  • If the title in the Works Cited list is in italics, italicize the words from the title in the in-text citation: ( Title Page Number)
  • If the title in the Works Cited list is in quotation marks, put quotation marks around the words from the title in the in-text citation: ("Title" Page Number)

( Cell Biology 12).

("Trouble" 22)

No Page Numbers

When available, use stable page, chapter, or section numbers. If none is available, omit it.

  • For e-books, do not use device-specific locations, e.g. "240 of 503" or "Loc. 1690 of 3014".
  • For audio-visual sources (such as films and oral interviews), use the timecode for the quote instead of the page number.
  • When you quote from electronic sources, such as a webpage, that do not provide page numbers, cite the author's name only.
  • If a journal article is posted on a webpage that includes a PDF of the print version, use the PDF to get the page numbers.

(Scalzi Chap. 7)

(Wong 01:00:54)

("New Student Orientation")

(Milosavljevic 320)

Punctuation

  • Include the page number without specifying page or p. or pp.
  • Do not add a comma, semi-color, or other punctuation mark between Last Name and Page #
  • Do not add a colon or other punctuation mark before the first parenthesis.
  • The ending period of a sentence goes after the in-text citation

Citing Multiple Works by an Author

It can get more complicated if you are citing mulitple sources by the same author. If possible, use signal phrases to identify which source you are citing. Please refer to the MLA and the Purdue OWL (links below) for more guidance.

Other online guides to help you with in-text citations:

Quoting Directly

When you quote directly from a source, enclose the quoted section in quotation marks. Add an in-text citation at the end of the quote with the author name and page number:

Mother-infant attachment has been a leading topic of developmental research since John Bowlby found that "children raised in institutions were deficient in emotional and personality development" (Hunt 358).

Long Quotations

What Is a Long Quotation?

If your quotation extends to more than four lines as you're typing your essay, it is a long quotation.

Rules for Long Quotations

There are 4 rules that apply to long quotations that are different from regular quotations:

  • The line before your long quotation, when you're introducing the quote, usually ends with a colon.
  • The long quotation is indented half an inch from the rest of the text, so it looks like a block of text.
  • There are no quotation marks around the quotation.
  • The period at the end of the quotation comes before your in-text citation as opposed to after , as it does with regular quotations.

Example of a Long Quotation

At the end of Lord of the Flies the boys are struck with the realization of their behaviour:

The tears began to flow and sobs shook him. He gave himself up to them now for the first time on the island; great, shuddering spasms of grief that seemed to wrench his whole body. His voice rose under the black smoke before the burning wreckage of the island; and infected by that emotion, the other little boys began to shake and sob too. (Golding 186)

Sometimes an author of a book, article or website will mention another person’s work by using a quotation or paraphrased idea from that source. (This may be called a secondary source.) For example, the Kirkey article you are reading includes a quotation by Smith that you would like to include in your essay.

The basic rule is that in both your References list and in-text citation you will still cite Kirkey. Kirkey will appear in your Works Cited list – NOT Smith.

You will add the words “qtd. in” to your in-text citation.  

Examples of in-text citations:

According to a study by Smith (qtd. in Kirkey) 42% of doctors would refuse to perform legal euthanasia.

Smith (qtd. in Kirkey) states that “even if euthanasia was legal, 42% of doctors would be against this method of assisted dying” (A.10).

Example of Works Cited list citation :

Kirkey, Susan. "Euthanasia."   The Montreal Gazette , 9 Feb. 2013, p. A.10. Canadian Newsstand Major Dailies.

Paraphrasing

When you write information or ideas from a source in your own words, cite the source by adding an in-text citation at the end of the paraphrased portion.

Paraphrasing from One Page

Include a full in-text citation with the author name and page number (if there is one). For example:

Mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental research following the publication of John Bowlby's studies (Hunt 65).

Paraphrasing from Multiple Pages

If the paraphrased information/idea is from several pages, include them. For example:

Mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental research following the publication of John Bowlby's studies (Hunt 50, 55, 65-71).

Signal Phrases

If you refer to the author's name in a sentence you do not have to include the name again as part of your in-text citation, instead include the page number (if there is one) at the end of the quotation or paraphrased section. For example:

Hunt explains that mother-infant attachment has been a leading topic of developmental research since John Bowlby found that "children raised in institutions were deficient in emotional and personality development" (358).

Repeated Use of Sources

If you're using information from a single source more than once in succession (i.e., no other sources referred to in between), you can use a simplified in-text citation.

Cell biology is an area of science that focuses on the structure and function of cells (Smith 15). It revolves around the idea that the cell is a "fundamental unit of life" (17). Many important scientists have contributed to the evolution of cell biology. Mattias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, for example, were scientists who formulated cell theory in 1838 (20). 

 Note: If using this simplified in-text citation creates ambiguity regarding the source being referred to, use the full in-text citation format.

In-Text Citation For More Than One Source

If you would like to cite more than one source within the same in-text citation, simply record the in-text citations as normal and separate them with a semi-colon.

(Smith 42; Bennett 71). 

( It Takes Two ; Brock 43).

 Note: The sources within the in-text citation do not need to be in alphabetical order for MLA style.

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MLA Format Guidelines

  • Getting Started
  • General Document Format
  • Formatting Visuals
  • In-Text Citations
  • List of Sources
  • Bias Free Language

For more guidance, visit Purdue OWL's MLA In-Text citation page.

  • Purdue OWL's MLA In-Text Citation

Recommended MLA Websites

  • MLA Citation Guide - Purdue Owl MLA style guidelines for formatting manuscripts and using the English language in writing.
  • MLA In-Text Citations - Purdue Owl Describes how to write In-Text citations in your research assignments.
  • MLA Works Cited Page - Purdue Owl How to format your Works Cited Page.
  • MLA Works Cited Page - Purdue Owl A sample works cited page.
  • Purdue OWL Sample Paper - 8th Ed.

Include the source's author (last name only) and page number (if applicable) in parentheses either at the end of sentence before the sentence-ending punctuation or before a natural break in the sentence, such as a semicolon or comma.

  • Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" (Burke 3).

If the author's name is used in the sentence, include the page number in parentheses before a natural break or at the end of the sentence.

  • Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (263).

If a quotation is more than four lines long in your document, indent it 0.5 inches on a new line without quotation marks around it. Double space the quotation, and insert closing punctuation before the parenthetical citation at the end.

At the end of Lord of the Flies the boys are struck with the realization of their behaviour:

The tears began to flow and sobs shook him. He gave himself up to them now for the first time on the island; great, shuddering spasms of grief that seemed to wrench his whole body. His voice rose under the black smoke before the burning wreckage of the island; and infected by that emotion, the other little boys began to shake and sob too. (Golding 186)

  • The line before your long quotation, when you're introducing the quote, usually ends with a colon.
  • The long quotation is indented half an inch from the rest of the text, so it looks like a block of text.
  • There are no quotation marks around the quotation.
  • The period at the end of the quotation comes  before  your in-text citation as opposed to  after , as it does with regular quotations.

Paraphrase or Summary

Unlike a direct quotation, a summary or paraphrase still relays ideas from a source but in your own words to make it fit better with your document. A paraphrase is a specific idea from a source that needs a citation with author and page number.

Paraphrasing from One Page

Include a full in-text citation with the author name and page number (if there is one). For example:

  • Mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental research following the publication of John Bowlby's studies (Hunt 65).

Paraphrasing from Multiple Pages

If the paraphrased information/idea is from several pages, include them. 

  • Mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental research following the publication of John Bowlby's studies (Hunt 50, 55, 65-71).

One or Multiple Authors

Citation rules vary based on how many authors a source. Consult the following table for how to handle these different situations.

Indirect (Secondary) Sources

When citing a quotation from a source, include the quotation's original author in text and insert a parenthetical citation that begins with the phrase "qtd. in" to indicate the source from which the quotation came.

  • According to Allegeria, biology "revolves around the idea that the cell is a fundamental unit of life" (qtd. in Smith 15).

Authors with the Same Surname

In addition to the author's name and the page number(s), include a shortened version of the title to distinguish which source is being referenced. 

  • Mattias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, were scientists who formulated cell theory in 1838 (Smith, "Cell Theory" 20). 

Anonymous Author

When a source's author is unknown, cite the first few words of the source's reference list entry, usually the title with appropriate formatting if an article (quotation marks) or book (italicized).

  • Cell biology is an area of science that focuses on the structure and function of cells ( Cell Biology  15).
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Citation Help

  • About Citing and Citation Styles

MLA Style Online Resources

Mla style books.

  • Other Citation Styles
  • Citing Artificial Intelligence Tools
  • Citation Managers

MLA (Modern Language Association) Style is most commonly used for papers in the liberal arts and humanities.

QUICK LINKS:  *Links to Purdue OWL MLA 9th Edition*

MLA General Format

In-text Citations

Footnotes & Endnotes

Works Cited Page

Sample Works Cited Page

Sample Paper

QUICK GUIDE:

Fresno State library MLA Citation Guide (4-page pdf)   *MLA 8th Edition - update pending*

F resno State Library’s MLA Quick Guide is based on the 8th edition. *Only use it if your instructor has specified MLA 8th edition.* The handout is being updated, and you can get the updated information in the print handbook or on the Purdue OWL web site.  TUTORIALS:

MLA Style Essay Format (walks you through the basics of setting up your paper in Word)

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  • Tools for Access

Citation Managers

In order to organize and manage your citations, consider using a Citation Manager like Zotero . More information on Zotero and other citation managers can be found on the Citation Managers Guide . 

MLA & Chicago Style Manuals & Citation Help

MLA and Chicago are both popular citation styles for English language and literature. Below are resources that can help you when you're formatting your bibliography and papers using either MLA or Chicago notes & bibliography style. Some professors (or publishers, if you are writing an article to be published) may prefer a different style, such as Chicago author/date style, so always check before you format and submit your work. Ask a librarian if you have questions about citation styles. 

  • MLA Handbook Plus This link opens in a new window The ninth edition builds on the MLA’s unique approach to documenting sources using a template of core elements that allows writers to cite any type of work, from books, e-books, and journal articles in databases to song lyrics, online images, YouTube videos, dissertations, and more.
  • The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed) Online Edition Use link in Virgo record to access the online edition of the guide.
  • Purdue OWL: Chicago Formatting & Style Guide A great resource for seeing how to cite different types of sources using Chicago style. (I don't recommend their citation generator, just the information about how to cite different sources)
  • Purdue OWL: MLA Formatting & Style Guide An essential resource from Purdue University with examples and advice for creating in-text citations and bibliographies using MLA style.
  • The MLA Style Center - Using MLA Format The official website on MLA style. This site will show you how to document sources, set up your paper, and improve your writing.
  • Chicago Manual of Style Guidelines: Quickstudy Digital Guide A short guide on rules of Chicago style. See the last section for recommendations and examples on creating citations.

intext citation in mla

Sample Citations in MLA Style

Scholarly Article Citation

General Format:  

Author (last name, first name). "Title of Article." Journal Title , volume number (vol. #), issue number (no. #), year, pages (pp. #-#). 

Example:  Shin, John. “Negative Dialectics in Mrs. Dalloway.” English Studies , vol. 102, no. 5, 2021, pp. 552-62.

Essay in an Edited Book

General Format: 

Essay Author (last name, first name). "Title of Essay." Title of Book Collection , edited by Name of Editor(s), Publisher, year, pages (pp. #-#). 

Example: 

Saint-Amour, Paul K. "Mrs. Dalloway: Of Clocks and Clouds." A Companion to Virginia Woolf, edited by Jessica Berman,        Wiley-Blackwell, 2016, pp. 74-94.   

Sample In-Text Citations MLA style

General in-text citation: (Author page number(s))

Example: (Shin 563). 

If I have more than one article by Shin in my Works cited, I would add part of the title (to identify which  work you are referring to): 

Example: (Shin, "Negative Dialectics," 563). 

When citing an essay from a book collection, use the essay author in the citation (not the editor(s) name(s)). 

Citation after quotation:    "Here is my quotation" (cite). 

Example: According to Shin, "Woolf leaves the reader without a resolution to this competitive dialectic between private and public" (554). 

Or paraphrase of information (cite). 

Example: Clarissa's consciousness is filled with a mixture of concerns both public and private (Shin 556). 

Sample Citations in Chicago Style

General note format:  

1. Author name, "Title of Article," Journal Title volume number ,  issue number (year): page(s) referred to. 

1. David S. King, “Mutilation and Dismemberment in the Chanson de Roland, a Question of Faith,”  Romance Notes 45,     no. 3 (2005): 253. 

General bibliography format: 

Author last name, First name. "Article Title." Journal title volume number, issue number (year): full pages of article. 

King, David S. “Mutilation and Dismemberment in the Chanson de Roland, a Question of Faith.”  Romance Notes 45,     no. 3 (2005): 247-263. 

Chapter from a Single-Authored Book

General note format: 

2. Author, "Title of Chapter," in  Title of Book (City of Publication: Publisher, year), page(s) referred to. 

2. Simon Gaunt, “Monologic Masculinity: The Chanson de Geste,” in  Gender and Genre in Medieval French Literature ( Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press,1995), 25. 

Author last name, First name. "ChapterTitle." In Book Title , full chapter pages. City of Publication: Publisher, year. 

Gaunt, Simon. “Monologic Masculinity: The Chanson de Geste.” In  Gender and Genre in Medieval French Literature , 22-70. Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press,1995.  

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intext citation in mla

MLA Handbook Plus: Home

Quick links.

  • Library Home Page This link opens in a new window
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  • Find Journals & Magazines This link opens in a new window Find out if the library has specific journals, magazines, or newspapers, either electronically or in print.
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  • Ask a Librarian This link opens in a new window Connect to a reference librarian for help 24/7.

Get Help 24/7

Mla handbook plus,    .

The MLA Handbook is the official, authoritative source to use for creating your citations in correct MLA format.  It utilizes in-text citations and a works cited page at the end.  The following sections of the handbook are the ones you will use most often.

  • Works-Cited-List Entries by Publication Format You can find over 500 sample citations here for almost every possible type of resource. They are in the format you use in your Works Cited list at the end of your paper.
  • In-Text Citations: Overview This section of the handbook provides guidance on how to create in-text citations for your sources in the body of your paper.
  • MLA Handbook This link opens in a new window Click this link to connect to the table of contents for the entire handbook. Here you can find all the sections of the handbook, such as Chapter One, which provides guidance on formatting your paper (the margins, title, header, font, etc.).
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  • MLA 8th Citations

ENG199 - Imagining Other Minds: MLA 8th Citations

Welcome to the MLA 8th Guidelines Page for your iLab course. 

Please refer to the formulas below for formatting a proper citation. Take note that this is an abbreviated guide. 

For more information, navigate to the Purdue Online Writing Lab .

If you have any questions, please contact the librarian associated with your iLab section.

Website      Newspaper or Magazine     Scholarly Journal      Book      ebook     Image     Other Common Sources

More than One Author in a Citation

Two Authors (applies to both books and articles)

Last Name, First Name, and First Name Last Name.

ex) Smith, John, and Carly Morrison.

Three or more Authors (applies to both books and articles)

Last Name, First Name, et al. You will put  et al.  to indicate after the first author's last name to indicate  and others .

ex) Pearson, Joshua, et al.

MLA 8th In Text Citations

If a page number is provided, follow the formats below:

In-Text Citation

(Jones 378).

In-Text Citation, Two Authors

​List the two author's last names.

(Jones and Miller 378).

In-Text Citation, Three or More Authors

You will put et al. to indicate after the first author's last name to indicate  and others .

(Jones et al. 378).

When no page number is provided, please follow the formats below:

In-Text Citation, No Page Number Provided

In-Text Citation, Two Authors, No Page Number Provided

List the two author's last names.

(Jones and Miller).

In-Text Citation, Three or More Authors, No Page Number Provided

You will put et al. to indicate after the first author's last name to indicate  and others ​.

(Jones et al.).

If no author is provided, please follow the format below:

In-Text Citation, No Author. ("Use Title Instead").

If the source is titled "Clay Pot Snowman Tutorial", your in-text citation will be (“Clay Pot Snowman Tutorial”).

Month Abbreviations

intext citation in mla

For more information...

Please visit the Purdue Online Writing Lab if you have any other questions regarding MLA 8th citation.

Visit the Purdue OWL Site for Chicago Style if you wish to use that.

A Full Website:

The Buffalo History Museum. The Buffalo & Erie County Historical Society , 2018, www.buffalohistory.org/ . 

A Page on a Website with an Author:

Fong, Jonathan. "Clay Pot Snowman Tutorial." eHow , 7 Nov. 2017, www.ehow.com/13661861/clay-pot-snowman-tutorial . 

A Page on a Website without an Author:

"Allergies: Basic Info You Need to Know." WebMD , 12 Aug. 2016,  www.webmd.com/allergies/allergy basics . 

a News or Magazine Article from a Database

Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the Article.”  Title of the Newspaper , Version (if applicable), Numbers (if applicable), Publication date, Page numbers (if available).  Title of the Database , URL.

Dewey, Caitlin. "London Plans to Ban Fast-Food Outlets Near Schools."  Washington Post , 1 Dec. 2017.  Infotrac Newsstand , link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A516769322/STND?u=sunybuff_main&sid=STND&xid=8551bb81 .

a Physical Book from the Library

Last Name, First Name.  Title of Book . Publisher, Publication Date.​

Jones, Marlo.  An Age of Inquiry , Penguin Books, 2015.

an eBook from the Library

Last Name, First Name. Title of eBook . Publisher, Publication Date. Database Name , URL.

Nicholas, Lorraine, and Geraldine Morris. Rethinking Dance History: A Reader . Taylor & Francis, 2004. ProQuest Ebook Central , ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/buffalo/detail.action?docID=1487145# .  

Scholarly Journal Article Citations

Journal Article from a Database with DOI available:

Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article."  Name of Journal , vol., no., date, page numbers. Database Name , DOI.

Landes, Thomas. "Fresh Water Fisheries in the Great Lakes."  Great Lakes Studies , vol. 21, no. 1, 3 Mar. 2010, pp. 90-105. Academic Search Complete , doi:10.1002/tox.20155. 

Journal Article from a Database with no DOI available:

Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article."  Name of Journal , vol., no., date, page numbers. Database Name , URL.

Landes, Thomas. "Fresh Water Fisheries in the Great Lakes."  Great Lakes Studies , vol. 21, no. 1, 3 Mar. 2010, pp. 90-105. Academic Search Complete , search.ebscohost.com.gate.lib.buffalo.edu/login.aspx?direct=true=ehost-live&scope=site .  

an Image from a Website

Last Name, First Name (or username). "Title of Image." Name of Website , date, URL.

Jose and Roxeanne. "Flowers." Flickr , 31 Dec. 2017, flic.kr/p/8bD3aP . 

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intext citation in mla

Physics 009

  • Access the Library
  • Library Resources
  • Search Strategies
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Using a Citation Manager

Style by Discipline

MLA style is usually used in English and the Humanities. MLA 9th edition uses a citation format for use with ALL source types. MLA 9th edition, updated in 2021, is very similar to the MLA 8th edition from 2016.

MLA Examples

These examples, using MLA 8th ed., illustrate the order of information you should include and do not include hanging indents or double spacing. To see sample references on a Works Cited page, view the MLA Sample Paper at Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL).

intext citation in mla

MLA Style - Key Characteristics

Big Picture

  • MLA style features in-text parenthetical citations and a corresponding Works Cited page.  Some publishers may ask for endnotes/footnotes rather than parenthetical citations.

In-Text Citations

Use for quotes, paraphrases and summaries

  • Basic format includes author's last name followed by page number(s) - Example: (Patel 245)
  • Author name may be excluded if in the introductory text - Example: Patel found that …. “ “ (245).
  • If referring to two authors of the same text, join last names with and . Example: (Jones and Rhett 119)
  • If no author, use the first part of the citation found in the Works Cited - Example: ( National Committee 37)
  • If referring to more than one source in the same citation, separate with a semi-colon - Example: (Davidson 18-20; Simmons 302)

MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics (Purdue OWL)

Work Cited List

  • Order citations alphabetically (typically by author's last name)
  • Include hanging indent after the first line
  • Place quotation marks around sources in containers e.g. poem, short story, journal article etc.
  • Italicize sources for stand-alone items e.g. novel, play, journal publication, book etc.
  • Capitalize main words in a title
  • one author includes last name, first name.  Example: Reddy, Anisha
  • two authors includes last name, first name and first name last name. Example:  Reddy, Anisha and Nate Conner.  
  • three authors includes last name, first name, et al. Example: Jones, Steve, et al.
  • DOIs are preferred over URLs.  When using an URL, remove http:// or https://  Example:  doi:10.1002/tox.20155

MLA Works Cited Page: Basic Format (Purdue, OWL)

Create citations for your Works Cited page using this template with its elements.  Your citation may not include ALL elements.  You may also repeat elements 3-9 depending on whether or not your source stands on its own or it is part of one or more containers.  

  • If an element is missing, move on.
  • If your source is in one or more containers, you will repeat some elements starting back at element #3.
  • Only use a period after the Author, Title and Location elements; all other elements are followed by a comma.
  • Example: a book is considered a self contained/stand alone source
  • Example: a chapter in a book would be the source (chapter) within one container (the full book)
  • Example: a journal article would be the source, found in a journal (container 1) which may be in a database (container 2)
  • See the Marquette University Libraries video on MLA 8th edition , also embedded on this guide, for a great explanation of source vs containers.

Examples of MLA Works Cited: Periodicals (Purdue OWL)

MLA Formatting Guides & Examples

  • MLA Formatting and Style Guide (OWL Purdue)
  • MLA Quick Citation Guide (Penn State)
  • Citing Sources: MLA Style, 8th edition (UWF Libraries)
  • Citing Your Sources MLA, 8th edition (University of Hawaii, Honolulu Community College)

MLA Style Center

Writing Resources from the Modern Language Associations (MLA)

  • Formatting a Research Paper
  • Ask the MLA - FAQs
  • Works Cited: a Quick Guide
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University of California, Merced

How do I cite one person’s testimony in a congressional hearing?

Your source for congressional testimony may be a transcript, audio recording, or video recording of all or part of a hearing. Style each source using the MLA format template . Note that, depending on your source, the person whose testimony you are citing may or may not be listed in the Author element of your entry.

Hearing Transcript Miriam Nisbet, director of the Office of Government Information Services, testified to a “strong interest in updating regulations” to use “plainer” language (United States, Senate 11). Work Cited United States, Senate, Committee on the Judiciary. We the People: Fulfilling the Promise of Open Government Five Years after the Open Government Act . U.S. Government Printing Office, 2013, www.judiciary.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/CHRG-113shrg90863.pdf. 113th Congress, 1st session, 90-863 PDF.
Transcript of One Person’s Testimony The general counsel for the Associated Press testified in favor of the proposed portal for FOIA requests (Kaiser 7).  Work Cited Kaiser, Karen. Testimony of Karen Kaiser, General Counsel, the Associated Press, on behalf of the Sunshine in Government Initiative before the Committee on the Judiciary United States Senate on “Ensuring an Informed Citizenry: Examining the Administration’s Efforts to Improve Open Government.” 6 May 2015, www.judiciary.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/05-06-15%20Kaiser%20Testimony.pdf.
Video Excerpt Jeanne H. Schmedlen’s testimony about federal partnerships with state humanities councils highlighted the activities of Pennsylvania’s Commonwealth Speakers Bureau (“NEA Hearing” 02:30–03:45). Work Cited “NEA Hearing: Jeanne H. Schmedlen.” YouTube , uploaded by Committee on Education and the Workforce Democrats, 9 May 2008, www.youtube.com/watch?v=kBV_NuQMfgM.

For further guidance on citing government sources, see the ninth edition of the MLA Handbook .

IMAGES

  1. Sample Text Citation Mla

    intext citation in mla

  2. MLA In-Text Citations

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  3. In-Text Citations

    intext citation in mla

  4. PPT

    intext citation in mla

  5. MLA 8th Edition

    intext citation in mla

  6. MLA Style

    intext citation in mla

VIDEO

  1. In-text citation using MLA format

  2. MLA citation assignment explanation

  3. citation

  4. MLA format and citation review for VC ENC1101

  5. InText Citation Organization as Author

  6. Homes.com Wow Moment: Connect With the Right Listing Agent

COMMENTS

  1. MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics

    MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics Guidelines for referring to the works of others in your text using MLA style are covered throughout the MLA Handbook and in chapter 7 of the MLA Style Manual.

  2. MLA In-text Citations

    Revised on May 19, 2022. An MLA in-text citation provides the author's last name and a page number in parentheses. If a source has two authors, name both. If a source has more than two authors, name only the first author, followed by " et al. " If the part you're citing spans multiple pages, include the full page range.

  3. MLA In-Text Citations

    MLA In-Text Citations | Parenthetical & Narrative | EasyBib Certain features require a modern browser to function. Please use a different browser, like Firefox, Chrome, or Safari Citation Generator APA Citation Generator MLA Citation Generator Harvard Referencing Generator Writing Resources Grammar Guides Plagiarism Guide Writing a Paper

  4. Library Guides: MLA Quick Citation Guide: In-text Citation

    MLA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the page number from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken, for example: (Smith 163). If the source does not use page numbers, do not include a number in the parenthetical citation: (Smith). For more information on in-text citation, see the MLA Style Center.

  5. In-Text Citations: An Overview

    An in-text citation begins with the shortest piece of information that di­rects your reader to the entry in the works-cited list. Thus, it begins with what ever comes first in the entry: the author's name or the title (or descrip­tion) of the work. The citation can appear in your prose or in parentheses. Citation in prose

  6. In-Text Citation

    In-text citations in MLA style follow the general format of author's last name followed by a page number enclosed in parentheses. Here is an example: "Here's a direct quote" (Smith 8). If the author's name is not given, use the first word (or words) of the title.

  7. MLA Citation Guide (MLA 9th Edition): In-Text Citation

    In MLA, in-text citations are inserted in the body of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information. Brief in-text citations point the reader to more complete information in the works cited list at the end of the paper. In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a page number enclosed in parentheses.

  8. LibGuides: MLA Citation Guide (9th Edition): In-Text Citation

    In MLA, in-text citations are inserted in the body of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information. Brief in-text citations point the reader to more complete information in the Works Cited list at the end of the paper. Number of Authors/Editors. Format of In-Text Citation. One.

  9. In-text citation

    Referencing home In-text citation The MLA 9th style uses author-date in-text citations, used when quoting or paraphrasing people's work. Two types of in-text citations 1. Author prominent format Use this format if you want to emphasise the author. Their name becomes part of your sentence. Example

  10. In-Text Citation

    In-text citations direct the reader to the full citation on the Works Cited list -- i.e., (see page 214 of the work authored by the Modern Language Association) -- and the Works Cited list will have the full publication details.

  11. The Basics of In-Text Citation

    (Jackson, 2005, p. 16) We also offer a free citation generator and in-depth guides to the main citation styles. Generate accurate citations with Scribbr Go to APA examples Go to MLA examples Go to Chicago examples Instantly correct all language mistakes in your text Be assured that you'll submit flawless writing.

  12. Research Guides: LAI203: How to Create In-Text Citations in MLA

    Formatting an MLA 9th in-text citation can be tricky, but when you locate all the necessary information, it is quite easy. Please use the information below to assist you in making an accurate in-text citation to ensure you are not plagiarizing borrowed information. Basic Formatting.

  13. Using MLA in-text citations

    Using MLA in-text citations General information about parenthetical citations How do I cite sources in my paper? The following instructions are basically the same for print sources and electronic sources.

  14. LibGuides: MLA Citation Style, 9th Edition: In-text citations

    These in-text citations should refer the reader to the source on the Works Cited page and, in most cases, provide the reader the exact location of the idea or quote within the source itself. For example, parenthetical citations will list the first part of the Works Cited entry (e.g., an author's last name) and then the location (e.g., a page ...

  15. MLA In-Text Citations

    MLA in-text citations. MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself ...

  16. In-Text Citations

    Basics Basic Rules for In-Text Citations: In all cases, create a citation that is brief and that unambiguously directs the reader to the right entry on your Works Cited page. Use the author's last name and page number (s) when available for paraphrases & quotes; just the author's name is sufficient for summarizing the gist of an entire work.

  17. MLA Formatting and Style Guide

    Resources on using in-text citations in MLA style. The Basics General guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay Works Cited Page. Resources on writing an MLA style works cited page, including citation formats. Basic Format Basic guidelines for formatting the works cited page at the end of an MLA style paper ...

  18. Free MLA Citation Generator

    Cite manually Save hours of repetitive work. Stop wasting hours figuring out the correct citation format. With Scribbr's citation generator, you can search for your source by title, URL, ISBN, or DOI and generate accurate MLA citations in seconds. No experience needed. Rely on accurate citations, verified by experts.

  19. MLA In-Text Citations

    MLA In-Text Citations. MLA style uses in-text citations to give credit to authors when paraphrasing or quoting their ideas. In-text citations include two parts, the lead-in (or signal) phrase and the parenthetical citation. The lead-in phrase is an important element of the in-text citation to include when integrating sources into your own writing.

  20. In-Text Citations

    If you would like to cite more than one source within the same in-text citation, simply record the in-text citations as normal and separate them with a semi-colon. Examples: (Smith 42; Bennett 71). (It Takes Two; Brock 43). Note: The sources within the in-text citation do not need to be in alphabetical order for MLA style.

  21. Library Guides: MLA Format Guidelines: In-Text Citations

    Type of Citation. In-Text Citation. Parenthetical Format. 1 Author. According to Haller, music "has a positive effect on mental health" (25). Music has been reported to have "a positive effect on mental health" (Haller 25). 2 Authors. According to Busker and Haller, music "has a positive effect on mental health" (25).

  22. MLA

    General formatting rules for MLA. Your end of paper list of references should be titled: Works Cited and centered on the page. Citations should be in alphabetical order by authors' last name, if no author, then by the title of the article. The "A, An, The" Rule, when an unsigned article or title begins with the word "A, An, The", alphabetize ...

  23. MLA

    Fresno State library MLA Citation Guide (4-page pdf) *MLA 8th Edition - update pending*. F resno State Library's MLA Quick Guide is based on the 8th edition. *Only use it if your instructor has specified MLA 8th edition.*. The handout is being updated, and you can get the updated information in the print handbook or on the Purdue OWL web site.

  24. Bibliography & Citation Resources

    MLA and Chicago are both popular citation styles for English language and literature. Below are resources that can help you when you're formatting your bibliography and papers using either MLA or Chicago notes & bibliography style. ... General in-text citation: (Author page number(s)) Example: (Shin 563). If I have more than one article by Shin ...

  25. Home

    The MLA Handbook is the official, authoritative source to use for creating your citations in correct MLA format. It utilizes in-text citations and a works cited page at the end. The following sections of the handbook are the ones you will use most often. You can find over 500 sample citations here for almost every possible type of resource.

  26. ENG199

    In-Text Citation, No Author. ("Use Title Instead"). If the source is titled "Clay Pot Snowman Tutorial", your in-text citation will be ("Clay Pot Snowman Tutorial"). If the title is very long, shorten it by using only the first word. For example, the title "Allergies: Basic Info You Need to Know." would be ("Allergies").

  27. MLA

    MLA style features in-text parenthetical citations and a corresponding Works Cited page. Some publishers may ask for endnotes/footnotes rather than parenthetical citations. In-Text Citations. Use for quotes, paraphrases and summaries. Basic format includes author's last name followed by page number(s) - Example: (Patel 245)

  28. How do I cite one person's testimony in a congressional hearing?

    Your source for congressional testimony may be a transcript, audio recording, or video recording of all or part of a hearing. Style each source using the MLA format template. Note that, depending on your source, the person whose testimony you are citing may or may not be listed in the Author element of your entry.