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Job Analysis: Meaning, Importance, Components, Methods, Process

Job Analysis: Meaning, Importance, Components, Methods, Process

Job Analysis is an essential part of human resource management. It determines the skills, ability, duties, authority, and accountabilities a job should have. Let’s learn and understand the meaning of job analysis and its components, methods, tools, processes, and uses in HRM.

Meaning of Job Analysis

Job analysis is the process of determining and reporting pertinent information relating to the nature of a specific job. It is the determination of the tasks that comprise the job and the skills, knowledge, abilities, and responsibilities required of the holder for successful job performance.

Job analysis is studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job.

The information thus collected is analyzed, and the facts about the nature of job working conditions and qualities of an employee can be easily known.

Job analysis defines the jobs within the organization and the behaviors necessary to perform these jobs.

Job Analysis is a systematic exploration, study, and recording of a job’s responsibilities, duties, skills, accountabilities, work environment, and ability requirements.

It also involves determining the relative importance of a job’s duties, responsibilities, and physical and emotional skills.

Definition of Job Analysis

Job analysis gathers and analyzes information about job content, human requirements, and the context in which jobs are performed.

Dessier (2005) defines job analysis as the procedure through which a job analyst determines the duties of different positions of an organization and the characteristics of the people to hire them.

Dale Yoder (1983) defines job analysis as “a process in which jobs are studied to determine what tasks and responsibilities they include, their relationships to other jobs, the conditions under which work is performed, and the personnel capabilities required for satisfactory performance.”

In the opinion of Strauss and Sayles (1977), job analysis consists of two parts, a statement of work to be done (Job description) and the skills and knowledge which must be possessed by anyone filling the job (Job Specification)”.

According to Gary Dessler, “Job analysis is the procedure for determining the duties and skills requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it.”

According to Edwin B. Flippo, “Job Analysis is the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operation and responsibilities of a specific job.”

Job analysis is a systematic way to gather and analyze information about the content and the human requirements of jobs and the context in which jobs are performed.

Job analysis involves collecting data about the performance of the job in an organization.

However, this definition is probably too simplistic when all of the different types of information that must be collected are considered.

For example, the data collected should clearly describe what is required to perform a specific job.

This should include the:

  • Knowledge: Knowledge is the degree to which a job holder must know specific technical material.
  • Skill: Skill is defined as adequate performance on tasks requiring tools, equipment, and machinery.
  • Abilities: Abilities refers to the physical and material capabilities needed to perform tasks not requiring the use of tools, equipment, and machinery. Further, where the job is completed must be considered.

Types of information to be collected by a job analysis are shown below:

  • Work activities.
  • Work-oriented activities.
  • Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids are used.
  • Job-related tangible and intangible.
  • Work performance.
  • Job context.
  • Personal requirement.

15 Terminology Used In Job Analysis

  • Task: An identifiable work activity carried out for a specific purpose. For example, typing a letter.
  • Duty: Several tasks that are related to some sequence of events. For example, pick up, sort out, and deliver incoming mail.
  • Position: A collection of tasks and duties which are performed by one person. For example, the P.A. to Chairman receives visitors, takes dictation , operates the computer, answers queries, attends to complaints, and helps students.
  • Job: A group of positions similar in their significant duties. For example, the job of salesmen, technical assistants, computer programmers, etc.
  • Job Families: Groups of different jobs that need similar skills. For example, sales jobs and clerical jobs in different departments.
  • Job Code: A job code uses numbers, letters, or both to provide a quick summary of a job and its content.
  • Job Classification: The grouping of jobs on some basis, such as the nature of work done or the level of pay. For example, skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled Grade II and III officers in a Bank .
  • Job Analysis: The process of gathering information about a job.
  • Job Description: A written summary of tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job.
  • Job Specification: The minimum skills, education, and experience necessary for an individual to do a job.
  • Job Evaluation: A systematic procedure for finding the relative worth of a job.
  • Job Sharing: It is a scheduling innovation that allows two or more workers to share a job.
  • Job Design: A conscious effort to organize tasks, duties, and responsibilities into a unit of work to achieve a certain objective.
  • Job Rotation: Moving employees horizontally or vertically to expand their skills, knowledge, or activities.
  • Job Enrichment: Adding more responsibilities, autonomy, and control to a job.

Historical Context and Modern Approaches to Job Analysis

Job analysis has a long history within the HR field. Efficiency expert Fred Taylor’s scientific management studies were key contributions to the evolution of contemporary job analysis methods.

Taylor’s industrial engineering approach was focused on reducing costs and improving the efficiency of the manufacturing worker. In particular, his analysis process concentrated on finding the “one best way” to do any job.

This approach, still a central feature of present-day job analysis, examines two main aspects of each job in the organization;

  • the methods employed, and
  • the time measurement for task completion.

The first aspect is concerned with how the job incumbent performs the job – that is, with the minimum requirements for success in the job.

These requirements include;

  • the individual’s knowledge of production techniques and processes, cognitive (mental) abilities, mechanical abilities, and psychomotor abilities, and
  • the working conditions in which the job is performed (e.g., whether the work is done by the individual alone or in conjunction with other members of a team).

The second aspect, common to all job analyses, is time measurement, or the cycle/production time required to produce the goods or services to the organization’s performance standards. This time standard completely depends on the first aspect, concerned with the methods employed (or how the job is performed).

Changing the process from individual to team-based production and modifying the number of raw material inputs or steps in the production process will substantially change the output or number of items that can be produced on a time basis per hour, shift, or day.

4 Features of Job Analysis

From the definitions in the preceding section, we can list the features of job analysis as follows:

  • Job analysis is gathering relevant information about various aspects of a job and identifying tasks required to be performed as part of it.
  • It systematically defines the role, context, conditions, human behavior, performance standards, and responsibilities of a job.
  • It helps establish the job’s worth to an organization. In other words, it measures a job’s value and contribution to the organization’s growth.
  • It establishes job-relatedness, which is crucial for HR decisions involving recruitment, selection, compensation, training, health, and safety.

6 Importance of Job Analysis

Job analysis has been described as a fundamental instrument in the manpower management program. However, its importance may be well understood by narrating the areas of its concentration as under:

Ensuring similarity in job title

If the same job is described or titled in different ways in different organizations, the management finds great difficulty in selecting personnel and pricing the jobs. Job analysis helps minimize this problem by introducing similarities in job titles in different organizations.

Clarifying methods and procedures of work

The jobs are studied scientifically to study the duties and the tasks of the workers doing a particular job. Job analysis helps the management to get a clear picture of workers’ requirements regarding the types of supply of tools, machines, and equipment.

It indicates how much training, responsibilities, and supervision the worker should receive to perform the job efficiently. It helps the industrial engineer improve methods or procedures of work and determine the production standards.

Improving physical conditions of the work environment

Job analysis helps the management provide the worker with optimum conditions for work by providing an adequate workplace with good illumination and ventilation.

It also helps the management decide the ways by which it can avoid unnecessary noise, humidity, and dangerous, unhealthy, and hazardous conditions of work.

Delineating the relation of one job to other jobs

Job analysis describes the skill involved in doing a job as well as the characteristics required by the worker to do the job efficiently.

Thus, it helps the management to grade the jobs and to coordinate the work of a job with other jobs. It also helps the management to keep auxiliary workforces in the form of job families to meet any emergency.

When the best characteristics required by the workers are more or less identical in different jobs, then the jobs can be classified under one family. Inter-job, inter-department, and even inter-plant transfer of employees are common under conditions of industrial growth. Scientifically studying the job facilitates economic, efficient, and equitable transfer.

Similarly, men cannot be advanced from position to position and asked to take more responsibilities as they move upward in the organizational ladder unless the nature of the job under question and the human characteristic requirements of higher positions are definitely known.

Job analysis not only informs the management about the blockade of the promotional opportunities in some cases but also links up with other positions in the same or other departments that can offer opportunities.

Determining conditions of employment

Job analysis helps the industrial engineer determine the length and hours of work as well as the responsibilities for a particular job.

It helps the personnel department in pricing the job as well as in determining whether the job can be made permanent or seasonal. Last but not least, it helps the management to have a scientific procedure to provide every employee with opportunities for promotions and advancement.

Reducing grievances

At present, an appreciable amount of labor unrest is due to the absence of adequate information about jobs. Because of this situation, management and unions, in most cases, do not agree upon wage fixation, transfer, and promotion.

Gross inequalities in rates of wages, poor promotion plans, inability of heads of the department to understand fully the intricacies of the job, and lack of scientific analysis of human qualities create discontentment among employees and sometimes lead to serious grievances.

Job analysis supplies systematic information through job evaluation, job specification, job description, job schedule, etc., and thus helps avoid discontentment.

Basically, job analysis and job standardization are service tools; they are the means to an end.

It is closely connected with research studies on time and motion, industrial health and fatigue, causation of industrial accidents, determination of standards of performance and production standards, improvement of methods of procedure in machine operation, adjustment, and maintenance.

KSAs of Job Analysis

Job analysis can be defined as an examination of the jobs in an organization with a view to documenting the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) associated with the successful performance of those jobs. The written outcomes of this process are referred to either as a job description or a job specification.

The difference between these two items centers on whether the emphasis is on the duties or tasks to be carried out on the job (i.e., the job description) or on the competencies or KSAs the jobholder must possess to be a successful performer in a specific job (i.e., the job specification). KSAs are elaborated as follows:

Knowledge : Knowledge is the body of information, usually of a factual or procedural nature, that allows an individual to perform a task successfully.

Skill : Skill is the individual’s level of proficiency or competency in performing a specific task. The level of competency is typically expressed in numerical terms.

Ability : Ability is a more general, enduring trait or capability an individual possesses at the time when he or she first begins to perform a task.

Other attributes : Other attributes include work experience.

9 Objectives of Job Analysis

A sound human resource management practice  dictates that a thorough job analysis should be done, as it may provide a deeper understanding of the behavioral requirements of jobs.

This, in turn, creates a solid basis on which to make job-related employment decisions.

9 main objectives of job analysis;

Organizational structure and design

Human resource planning, work simplification, setting up of standards., support for personnel activities, job description, job specification, job classification system, job evaluation and compensation.

By clarifying job requirements and interrelationships among jobs, responsibilities at all levels can be specified, promoting efficiency and minimizing overlap or duplication.

Job analysis is the foundation of forecasting the needs for human resources and plans for such activities as training, transfer, or promotion.

Job analysis information is incorporated into a human resource information system.

Job analysis provides information related to the job, and this data can be used to make the process or job simple.

Work simplification means dividing the job into small parts, i.e., different product lines or process operations, improving production or job performance.

Standard means minimum acceptable qualities, results, performance, or rewards regarding a particular job.

Job analysis provides information about the job, and each standard can be established using this information.

Job analysis supports various personnel activities like recruitment, selection, placement, training and development, wage administration, performance appraisal , etc.

A job description is a job profile that describes the job’s contents, environment, and condition . It is prepared based on data collected through job analysis. It provides information about the activities and duties to be performed in a job.

Job description differentiates one job from another by introducing unique characteristics of each job.

A job specification is another notable objective of job analysis. It includes information about the requirements of skills and abilities to perform a specific task.

It states the minimum acceptable qualifications an incumbent must possess to perform the assigned duty successfully.

The job specification statement identifies the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to perform that task effectively .

Selection, training, and pay systems are often key to job classification.

Without job analysis information, it is impossible to determine the relationships among jobs in an organization reliably.

Job analysis also provides the required information that is necessary for evaluating the worthiness of jobs.

After preparing the job description and job specification statements, it assists in evaluating actual performance against the predetermined standard. Then the deviation (if any) is found that has taken place during action.

Moreover, it helps establish the value of different jobs in a hierarchical order, comparing jobs to one another.

These, in turn, are valuable in helping managers identify the kinds of employees they should recruit, select, and develop and provide guidance for decisions about training and career development, performance appraisal, and compensation administration.

Strategic Choice of Job Analysis

The following strategic guidelines should be examined when deciding whether to conduct a job analysis;

  • The primary purpose for conducting a job analysis should be specified (such as establishing wage rates or recruiting) to help ensure that all relevant information is examined.
  • The primary purpose of conducting a job analysis should be to input the types of information collected (for example, work activities, machines & tools used, or job context).
  • The purpose of the job analysis, the types of information required, the time & cost constraints, the level of employee involvement & the level of detail desired should be specified before choosing one or more of the available data collection methods .
  • Managers should follow or include the following steps when conducting a job analysis.
  • Determine the purpose of the job analysis.
  • Identify the jobs to be analyzed.
  • Determine the data collection method.
  • Explain the process to employees & involve them.
  • Collect job analysis information.
  • Process the job analysis information.
  • Review & update frequently.
  • The job analysis should be designed so that job descriptions & job specifications can be derived easily.
  • Managers should communicate all relevant information to employees concerning the job analysis to prevent unnecessary uncertainty & anxiety.
  • If major organizational changes occur, managers should consider conducting a job analysis.
  • If major organizations are anticipated, managers should consider conducting a more future-oriented job analysis.

3 Purposes of Job Analysis

The data collected from the job analysis can be used for three purposes.

3 purposes of job analysis are;

Job Description

Job specification, job evaluation.

Job descriptions describe the duties, responsibilities, working conditions, and activities of a particular job. Job descriptions vary in terms of the level of detail provided.

However, several components are present in virtually every job description—for example, the job title, type of summary, and worker requirements.

One valuable source for locating standardized job descriptions is the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT), published by the US Department of labor, providing more than 12,000 occupations. Managers can adapt the standardized job descriptions from the DOT to the specific jobs within their firm.

Job specifications detail the knowledge, skills, and abilities relevant to a job, including the education, experience, specialized training, personal traits , and manual dexterity required. The job specification is important for several reasons.

First, certain jobs have the qualifications required by law.

For example, airline pilots, attorneys, and medical doctors must be licensed. Another type of job specification is based on professional tradition.

For example, university professors must usually hold a Ph.D. or equivalent degree if they are in a tenure track position.

Finally, job specifications might involve establishing certain standards or criteria for successful performance.

The information gathered during a job analysis can be used as input for the organization’s job evaluation system. The job evaluation determines the worth of a particular job to the organization .

This information is primarily used to determine the pay for the job. Thus, employees should be paid more for working more difficult jobs.

7 Components of Job Analysis

A job can be broken into several components and arranged into a hierarchy of work activities. This hierarchy is depicted in the following figure;

Components Of Job Analysis

7 components of job analysis are;

  • Job Family.

The smallest practical unit into which any work activity can be subdivided.

An identifiable unit of work activity is produced by applying a Composite of methods, procedures, and techniques.

An individual performs several distinct tasks to complete a work activity for which he or she is responsible.

The combination of all the duties required of one person performed a job.

A group of positions that are the same enough or their job elements tasks and others to be covered by the same job analysis.

Jobs are combined across organizations based on the skills, exhaustion, and responsibilities required by the jobs.

A category in which similar cocoons are grouped.

6 Steps or Stages of The Job Analysis Process

There are six steps in the job analysis process. Let’s look at each of them. The steps are shown in the following figure:

Steps In Job Analysis Process

  • Decide how we will use the information.
  • Review relevant background information
  • Select representative positions
  • Analyze the job
  • Verify the job analysis information.
  • Develop a job description and job specification

Step 1: Decide how we will use the information.

Decide how we will use the information since this will determine the data and how we collect them. Some data collection techniques – like interviewing the employee and asking what the job entails – are good for writing job descriptions and selecting an employee for the job.

Other techniques, like the position analysis questionnaire , do not provide qualitative information for a job description.

Instead, they provide numerical ratings for each job: these can be used to compare jobs for compensation purposes.

Step 2: Review relevant background information

Review relevant background information, such as organization charts, process charts, and job descriptions.

Organization charts show the organization-wide division of work , with titles of each position and interconnecting lines that report to and communicate with whom.

A process chart provides a more detailed picture of the workflow. A process chart shows the flow of inputs to and outputs from the job we analyze in its simplest form.

Finally, the existing job description usually provides a starting point for building the revised job description.

Step 3: Select representative positions

Select representative positions. There may be too many similar jobs to analyze them all. For example, it is usually unnecessary to analyze the jobs of 200 assembly workers when a sample of 10 jobs will do.

Step 4: Analyze the job

Analyze the job by collecting data on job activities, required employee behaviors, working conditions, and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job. For this step, use one or more of the job analysis methods.

Step 5: Verify the job analysis information.

Verify the job analysis information with the worker performing the job and with his immediate supervisor. This will help confirm that the information is factually correct and complete.

This review can also help gain the employee’s acceptance of the job analysis data and conclusions by giving that person a chance to review and modify our description of the job activities.

Step 6: Develop a job description and job specification

Develop a job description and job specification.

The job description is a written statement describing the job’s activities and responsibilities and its important features, such as working conditions and safety hazards.

Job specification summarizes the personal qualities, traits, skills, and background required to complete the job. It may be in a separate document or the same document as the job description.

7 Job Analysis Methods

An organization uses different methods to collect information and conduct job analysis.

7 job analysis methods are;

Observation method

Job performance, work sampling, individual interview, structured questionnaire, critical incident method, diary method.

In this method, the observer observes a worker or a group of workers doing a job. He lists all the duties performed by the worker and the qualities required to perform those duties.

It is a direct method. Direct exposure to jobs can provide a richer and deeper understanding of job requirements than workers’ descriptions of what they do.

Observations alone may reveal little useful information if the work in question is primarily mental.

With this approach, an analyst does the job understudy to get firsthand exposure to what it demands.

With this method, there is exposure to actual job tasks and the jobs’ physical, environmental, and social demands. It is suitable for jobs that can be learned relatively quickly.

Its main limitation is that the employee becomes conscious when the employee’s work is observed. This method is inappropriate for jobs that require extensive training or are hazardous.

Under this method, a manager can determine the content and pace of a typical workday through a statistical sampling of certain actions rather than through continuous observation and timing of all actions.

A manager or job analyst visits each job site and talks with employees performing each job. A standardized interview form is used most often to record the information.

Frequently, both the employee and the employee’s supervisor must be interviewed to understand the job completely. In some cases, a group of experts conducts the interview.

They ask questions about the job, skill levels, and difficulty levels.

They ask questions and collect information, and based on this information, job analysis is prepared.

This method can provide information about standard and non-standard activities and physical and mental work.

In short, the worker can provide the analyst with information that might not be available from any other source. Its main limitation is that workers may be suspicious of interviewers and their motives.; interviewers may ask ambiguous questions.

Thus, the distortion of information is a real possibility.

A survey instrument is developed and given to employees and managers to complete.

The main advantage of this method is that information on many jobs can be collected inexpensively in a relatively short time. This method is usually cheaper and quicker to administer than other methods.

Questionnaires can be completed off the job, thus avoiding lost productive time. Its main limitation is that it is time consuming and expensive to develop.

The rapport between analyst and respondent is impossible unless the analyst is present to explain and clarify misunderstandings.

Such an impersonal approach may have adverse effects on respondent cooperation and motivation .

In this method, the employee is asked to write one or more critical incidents that has taken place on the job .

The incident will explain the problem, how it is handled, the qualities required, difficulty levels, etc. The critical incident method gives an idea about the job and its importance.

A critical means important, and an incident means anything that takes place on the job . This method focuses directly on what people do in their jobs, and thus, it provides insight into job dynamics.

But this method takes much time to gather, abstract, and categorize the incidents.

It may be difficult to develop a profile of average job behavior as this method describes particularly effective or ineffective behavior.

Under this method, companies can ask employees to maintain log records or daily diaries, and job analysis can be done based on information collected from the record.

A log record is a book in which employee records /writes all the activities performed by him on the job.

The records are extensive and exhausted and provide a fair idea about the duties and responsibilities in any job.

In this method, the worker does the work himself, and the idea of the skill required, the difficulty level of the job, and the efforts required can be known easily.

6 Job Analysis Tools

Job Analysis supports all other management activities, including recruitment and selection , training and development need analysis, performance analysis, and appraisal, job evaluation, job rotation, job enrichment and enlargement, the right job-individual, creation, and regulation of entry and exit of talent in an organization.

There are various tools and techniques, such as the O-Net model. PAQ model. FJA model.

F-JAS model and competency model help HR managers to develop genuine job description and job specification data.

Though not very new, a few high-profile organizations use these specialized tools and techniques.

Not very common in use, but once understood, these systematic approaches prove extremely useful for measuring the worth of any job in an organization.

6 tools for Job Analysis are;

O*Net Model

F-jas model, competency model.

The beauty of this model is that it helps managers or job analysts in listing job-related data for a huge number of jobs simultaneously.

It helps collect and record basic and initial data, including educational, physical, and mental and emotional requirements to some extent.

It also links the compensation and benefits, perks, and advantages to a prospective candidate for a specific job.

FJA stands for Functional Job Analysis and helps collect and record job-related data to a deeper extent. It is used to develop task-related statements.

The technique developed by Sidney Fine and his colleagues helps determine the complexity of duties and responsibilities involved in a specific job.

This work-oriented technique works based on the relatedness of job data, where the complexity of work is determined on a scale of various scores given to a particular job.

The lower scores represent greater difficulty.

PAQ represents the Position Analysis Questionnaire . This well-known and commonly used technique analyzes a job by getting the questionnaires filled by job incumbents and their superiors.

Designed by a trained and experienced job analyst, the process involves interviewing the subject matter experts and employees and evaluating the questionnaires on those bases.

Representing Fleishman Job Analysis System is a basic and generic approach to discovering common elements in different jobs, including;

  • verbal abilities,
  • reasoning abilities,
  • idea generation,
  • quantitative abilities,
  • attentiveness,
  • spatial abilities,
  • visual and other sensory abilities,
  • manipulative abilities,
  • reaction time,
  • speed analysis,
  • flexibility,
  • emotional characteristics,
  • physical strength,
  • perceptual abilities,
  • communication skills,
  • coordination, and
  • movement control abilities.

This model discusses employees’ competencies in knowledge, skills, abilities, behaviors, expertise, and performance.

It also helps understand what a prospective candidate requires at the time of entry into an organization at a particular designation in a given work environment and schedule.

The model also includes basic elements such as qualifications, experience, education, training, certifications, licenses, legal requirements, and a candidate’s willingness.

This technique defines personality dynamics and suggests an ideal job model.

However, it does not discuss the individual competencies, such as intellect, experience, or physical and emotional characteristics of an individual required to perform a specific job.

Different tools can be used in different situations. The selection of an ideal job analysis tool depends upon job analysis needs and objectives and the amount of time and resources.

8 Key Factors in Job Analysis

  • Task identity.
  • Responsibility.

Working environment

Interaction with others, recognition and support, outcomes and performance measures, task identity.

Employees receive more satisfaction from doing a ‘whole’ piece of work. This is likely to happen when the job has a distinct beginning and end, visible to the employee and others.

Employees must see the work results they have produced either independently or as a part of a team .

Employees who perform repetitive tasks that offer no challenge may lose interest and become bored and dissatisfied.

Greater variety can improve interest, challenge, and commitment to the task. Variety means more than simply adding an extra but similar task.

For example, processing different forms would not make the work more meaningful as there would be no extra challenge.

Too much variety can also be frustrating and a source of conflict and dissatisfaction. The optimum amount of variety will differ from person to person and could depend on the level of the position.


Employees need to feel responsible for a significant part of the work they perform, either individually or as part of a team.

Work should be identified, enabling employees to see that they are personally responsible for the successes and failures of their actions.

This goes hand in hand with responsibility. Employees should have some areas of decision-making within the framework of their job.

Autonomy means giving more scope to employees to regulate and control their work.

A job should provide a safe and healthy working environment that is free from discrimination and harassment. It is also important to consider the types of work aids and equipment required to perform the role.

Employees need to understand their reporting relationships.

For example, employees must know to whom they report. It is important to identify the level of interaction that is required with key internal and external customers.

Employees need jobs that contribute to self-respect, particularly through acceptance and recognition by fellow workers and supervisors.

Jobs should permit relationships between individuals and encourage teamwork; otherwise, the employee can feel isolated, resulting in negative feelings about their work and work environment.

Employees need to know their particular targets and how they relate to the organization’s overall operation. This will involve identifying the outcomes required of the position.

The standard of performance also needs to be identified, along with performance measures. This feedback will provide employees with an equitable capacity for ongoing learning and advancement.

Guidelines for Performing Job Analysis

Before actually analyzing the job, using one or more of the tools we turn to in the following section, keep four practical guidelines in mind.

  • Make the job analysis a joint effort by a human resources specialist, the worker, and the supervisor. The human resource manager might observe the worker doing the job and have the supervisor and worker fill out job questionnaires. The specialist lists the job duties and required human traits based on all that. The supervisor and worker then review and verify the HR manager’s list of the job’s activities and duties.
  • If several employees are doing the same job in different departments, collect job analysis information from employees in different departments, not just one. The way someone with a particular job title spends his time is not necessarily the same from department to department.
  • Make sure the questions and processes are clear to the employees. (For example, some might not know what we mean when we ask about the job’s “mental demands.”) Catch problems early.
  • Use several different tools for job analysis. Generally, try not to rely on a questionnaire but perhaps supplement the survey results with a short follow-up interview. The problem is that each tool has potential drawbacks.

4 Techniques for Designing Jobs

Basically, there are four techniques used in the design of jobs;

  • job simplification,
  • job enlargement,
  • job enrichment, and
  • job rotation.

Job Simplification

Job simplification is a design method whereby jobs are divided into smaller components and subsequently assigned to workers as whole jobs.

Simplification of work requires that jobs be broken down into their smallest units and then analyzed. Each resulting sub-unit typically consists of relatively few operations. These subunits are then assigned to the workers as their total job.

There appear to be two major advantages to using job simplification.

First, since the job requires very little training, it can be completed by less costly unskilled labor.

Second, job speed increases because each worker is performing only a small portion of the previously large job and thus is able to master a smaller, less complicated job unit.

On the negative side, job simplification results in workers experiencing boredom, frustration, alienation, lack of motivation, and low job satisfaction . This, in turn, leads to lower productivity and increased cost.

Job Enlargement

Job enlargement expands a job horizontally. It increases job scope; that is, it increases the number of different operations required in a job and the frequency with which the job cycle is repeated.

By increasing the number of tasks an individual performs, job enlargement increases the job scope or job diversity . Instead of only sorting the incoming mail by department, a mail sorter’s job could be enlarged to include physically delivering the mail to the various departments.

Job Rotation

Job rotation refers to the movement of an employee from one job to another. Jobs themselves are not actually changed; only the employees are rotated among various jobs.

An employee who works on a routine job moves to work on another job for some hours/days/months and returns to the first job. This measure relieves employees from boredom and monotony, improves employees’ skills regarding various jobs, prepares workers’ self-image, and provides personal growth.

However, frequent job rotations are not advisable in view of their negative impact on the organization and the employee.

Job Enrichment

Job enrichment, as it is currently practiced in industry , is a direct outgrowth of Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory of motivation.

It is, therefore, based on the assumption that to motivate personnel, the job itself must provide opportunities for achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, and growth. The basic idea is to restore to jobs the elements of interest that were taken away under intensive specialization.

Job enrichment tries to embellish the job with factors that Herzberg characterized as motivators: achievement, recognition, increased responsibilities, opportunities for growth, advancement, and increased competence. There is an attempt to build a higher sense of challenge and achievement through vertical loading into jobs.

“Enrichment means building challenge and achievement into workers’ jobs by changing their jobs’ content—letting them order and inspect their own good day schedule, and so forth.”

Vertical job loading entails redesigning jobs to provide:

  • Greater responsibility,
  • Greater autonomy,
  • More immediate feedback to the individual or group.

Job enrichment might include transferring some of the superior’s activities to subordinates.

8 Reasons Why Job Analysis Is Important For HRM!

Job analysis is a process. 8 importance of job analysis are;

Planning and organizing of program

Obtaining current information, conducting needs research.

  • Establishing_priorities
  • Collecting. job data

Preparing job description

  • Developing.job specification

Maintaining and updating the job description and job specification.

The first step is to plan and organize the job analysis program. Planning is done before gathering data from the employees. It is important to identify the objectives of the job analysis.

Top management support is needed to make job analysis a success . A person is designated as in charge of the program, and required authority and responsibility are assigned.

The schedule of the program and budget estimation is prepared.

Current job design information is collected, and the analyst studies job descriptions, job specifications, processes used, manuals, and organization flow charts.

The analyst determines which manager, the department requires the job analysis.

Research is conducted to determine the purpose of the job analysis and the method used to gather relevant information.

Establishing priorities

With the help of various related department managers, an HR manager will identify and prioritize the jobs to be analyzed.

Collecting job data

The next step is collecting the data related to the job selected for the analysis as they are being performed in the organization.

Using job information obtained from job analysis, a job description is prepared.

It states the full information about the job, including the working conditions, nature of the job, processes, machines, and materials used.

Developing job specification

Job specifications are developed using the information given in the job description.

A job specification is a statement regarding the human qualities required to perform a particular job. Such information is used to select the person matching the job requirements.

Once a job description and job specification have been completed and reviewed, a system must be developed to keep them current.

Job and employee requirements may change over time, and accordingly, job descriptions and specifications need to be adapted.

Why is job analysis the Foundation of HR Practices?

HR practitioners refer to job analysis as the foundation for all HR activities, and there are extremely valid reasons for this assertion.

Before we can meaningfully advertise jobs and attract desired individuals to fill job vacancies identified by the HR planning process , we must be able to specify the individual competencies that we are looking for.

Once we have developed a pool of high-quality job applicants, the selection process will incorporate employment tests and interview questions based on the need to choose the individual who best meets the formal requirements for success identified by our job analysis process.

The selection criteria that follow out of the job analysis process are also used in succession planning to appraise the organization’s internal candidates for possible transfer or promotion to management or executive jobs.

Once we have selected an individual to fill a job, he or she should be given a copy of the job description or specification for the job, which provides specific guidance on how to perform the job in accordance with the wishes of the organization.

The performance appraisal process compares the individual’s accomplishments over a predetermined period with the desired standards specified in the job description or specification.

If the performance appraisal process reveals that the individual has deficiencies that can be rectified by training and development, specific programs or courses can be offered to help the individual reach the desired standards.

Furthermore, compensation systems in organizations typically use a classification process based on knowledge and skills, effort, responsibility, and working conditions – the four indispensable factors of the job that are explicitly noted and formalized by the job analysis process.

Finally, successful career planning programs also draw heavily on the front-end requirement of a comprehensive job analysis.

In planning future career moves, the individual and the organization note the employee’s current KSAs and level of performance and compare these to the KSAs required in various target jobs for which the employee would like to apply.

Once this information is provided by job analysis, the employee is informed of the explicit education and skills development that will be required prior to being considered for the target job.

Job analysis, therefore, is not only a critical requirement for the proper implementation and operation of the HR planning process, as examined in this book, but is also an essential prerequisite for the success of virtually all other HR functions.

4 Major Problems With Job Analysis

Having noted the process of job analysis, let’s now turn to an examination of the frequent problems associated with job analysis.

Job Analysis that is neither updated nor reviewed

One must consider the topic of computer technology to recognize the impact that an extremely rapid rate of change has on how work is being performed.

Job analyses must be reviewed regularly by incumbents, supervisors, HR staff, and so on to ensure that the written job requirements reflect the reality of contemporary job performance. Recent changes in technology, materials, and processes must be incorporated into the amended job description or specification.

Obsolete job descriptions not only fail to provide job incumbents with meaningful guidance as to their required duties and tasks but also result in an HR planning process attempting to match individuals to jobs based on no longer valid information.

Job description or specification that is too vague

If job analysis is to provide important information to allow us to select the individual who best meets job requirements, we must be specific as to what those exact requirements are.

For example, organizations often specify that applicants must have a certain number of years of experience in a certain functional area instead of specifying the exact skills or competencies the applicant should have learned over that period.

Without this specific information, experience or time spent on the job has little relevance for selection.

Similarly, organizations may mistakenly include elements such as “dependability” as one of their job requirements without giving specific examples of what constitutes dependable behavior (e.g., the individual arrives on time for meetings with all preparatory work properly completed).

To be an effective component of HR planning, the job analysis process must produce detailed, specific behavioral examples of successful job performance for each job in the work process.

Contamination and deficiency

Although brevity and clarity are definite virtues with respect to job analysis (a short, clear job description is of great use to both job incumbents and the HR staff), taken to an extreme, these characteristics may cause problems during job analysis efforts.

If our job description or specification fails to incorporate important aspects of the job that are required for success, this error of omission is referred to as deficiency.

Conversely, if we include peripheral, unimportant aspects of a job in the formal job description, we run the risk of contaminating it by diverting attention from valid, important correlates of success.

Contamination of our job analysis process may also lead to legal consequences if we use the information to select individuals based on factors not related to the job.

For job analysis, therefore, we should try to be as brief and clear as possible but not at the expense of excluding any important behavioral or performance element of the job.

Time and costs of job analysis

Some organizations are deterred from conducting job analysis due to the significant time and start-up costs perceived to be associated with the process.

Typical costs include consulting fees for job analysis (if the organization does not have in-house HR staff with relevant qualifications), licensing fees associated with usage of copyrighted job analysis methods, the costs of lost production (or overtime) involved with interviewing and surveying job incumbents, managers, and so on, and the administrative costs involved with codifying, analyzing, drafting, revising, and disseminating the information that results from the process.

However, many organizations that bemoan the large time and cost expenditures associated with job analysis do so only because they have not conducted a proper cost-benefit analysis with respect to this decision.

For example, organizations should also consider the time and cost savings that result from the following:

  • better matching of individual skills to organizational requirements (e.g., reduced costs and often lower absenteeism and turnover associated with training and development),
  • incorporation of the benefits of organizational learning with respect to product and process improvements,
  • reduced job ambiguity and wastage,
  • clarification of operating procedures and job relationships,
  • explicit definition of performance expectations for individuals and teams, and
  • facilitation of other HR programs.

If organizations consider the full costs and benefits associated with entering into the job analysis process, the decision to proceed is invariably very clear!

Conclusion: Job Analysis is an essential prerequisite for the effective management

Information is the basic material used by an industry for many kinds of job-related planning. The nature of job information varies from industry to industry, from department to department, and from purpose to purpose. Information used for job analysis must be accurate, timely, and tailor-made.

Job analysis is the process of determining by observation and study and reporting pertinent information related to the nature of a specific job. It is the method used to determine what types of manpower are needed to perform the jobs of the organization.

Job analysis is composed of—(i) Job description, (ii) Job specification, and (iii) Job evaluation.

Employee turnover is a severe problem in most industries.

Turnover is harmful because it causes serious inconveniences, high costs, wastage of trained workforce, and reduces morale and motivation. It occurs mainly due to frustration for the following reasons:

  • A mismatch between expectation and reality, like work,
  • A mismatch between the requirements of the job and capabilities,
  • A mismatch between responsibility and compensation.

This mismatch has arisen because the work has not been properly defined, designed, and disclosed.

This leads to the concept of job analysis. F.W. Taylor, the father of Scientific Management , also emphasized conducting and studying each part of the job scientifically to develop the best way of doing a task.

Let us now define a job.

Organizations consist of positions that have to be staffed by the right person.

A job is defined as a collection of duties and responsibilities given to an individual employee. Jobs are important to individuals.

They help determine living standards, places of residence, status, and even one’s sense of self-worth. Jobs are important because they are the vehicles through which work is accomplished.

Job analysis is an essential prerequisite for the effective management of the human resources of an organization . It is the process of gathering relevant information about a job. It specifies the tasks involved in a job and the factors that influence the performance of that job.

As a process, it can produce results with great practical relevance for human resource management .

Job analysis has applications in almost all the HR activities of an organization .

It acts as the basis for decisions involving human resource planning, recruitment and selection, training and development, compensation fixation, job evaluation, performance evaluation , career management , and the health and safety of employees.

The end product of a job analysis is a written description of the actual requirements of the job.

You now have an idea about job analysis. Read through our detailed resources for learning human resource management .

  • How to Measure HR Effectiveness [12 Tools HR Experts Use]
  • Human Resource Planning: Definition, Factors, Process, Barriers
  • Creative Compensation: Non-Monetary, Non-Traditional Compensation
  • Human Resource Management: Meaning, Evolution, Objectives, Philosophy
  • Training and Development: Similarities & Differences in HRM
  • 11 Principles of Human Resource Management
  • Functions of Human Resource Management
  • Recruitment Process: 4 Steps of Recruiting Best Talents
  • 12 Features of Human Resource Management
  • 10 Professional Tips To Write Eye-Catching Resumes
  • HRM Models: 13 Types of Human Resource Management Models
  • Incentives: Types of Short-Term & Long-Term Incentives
  • 12 Common Rating Errors in Performance Appraisals
  • 26 Essential Qualities of a Good Interviewer
  • Green HRM: Definition, Advantages, Green HRM Practices, Policies

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Free Resource

Our job requirements template.

Latest blog posts, the 5 steps to job analysis success.

managers performing a job analysis

With so many moving parts, your company needs to run like a well-oiled machine. But that means having a thorough understanding of each component, or what we might consider each and every job.

By performing a proper job analysis, you can not only create a comprehensive description of a position but also use that information to inform your organizational structure, streamline your hiring process, and much more.

  • 1 What Is A Job Analysis?
  • 2 The 5 Benefits Of Performing A Job Analysis
  • 3 How Do You Perform A Job Analysis?
  • 4 The Step-By-Step Job Analysis Process
  • 5 Before You Go: Job Analysis Best Practices To Keep In Mind

What Is A Job Analysis?

A job analysis is a dissection of a role within your company. When performing a job analysis, you look at the responsibilities included in the job, the qualifications required to do the job well, how it relates to other positions within your organization, and when/how it’s performed.

Keep in mind : You’re not analyzing a worker’s performance in a specific position, but the actual position itself. However, you may want to interview or survey workers who hold or have held the position to gain a more in-depth understanding of the role in practice.

Is A Job Analysis The Same As A Job Evaluation?

Somewhat, but mostly no. A job evaluation compares roles within an organization to establish pay rates. While this may relate to a job analysis, the analysis itself is in more of a quantitative sense. It can inform an evaluation, but is not limited to it.

The 5 Benefits Of Performing A Job Analysis

Whether you’re a company of dozens or thousands, you’ll benefit from performing a job analysis for each role within your organization. In the end, you’ll better understand what the role entails and can use what you’ve learned to improve your business across the board.

Here are five of the top benefits of performing a job analysis:

Outlines Requirements And Pay Grade

After you complete a job analysis, you can determine if the role is entry-level, intermediate, or senior, depending on the complexity of the work, skills, knowledge, and experience needed to do it successfully. This will then inform the pay grade for the role and give you data to support your selection.

Streamlines Applicant Selection And Recruitment

When you better understand a job, you can better position the job ad and attract higher-quality candidates. After completing a job analysis, you’ll gain more insight into the responsibilities and requirements of the role and what behavioral and personality traits you need in the worker. All of this can help you find a candidate that’s perfectly aligned with your company.

Creates More Effective Training And Development Programs

By determining the exact skills and knowledge needed for a role, you can develop more effective training and development programs that specifically cater to them. With this information, you can ensure new hires get the training and support they need to onboard smoothly and build out learning and development solutions that promote long-term growth.

Helps Organizational Design And Planning

With a job analysis, you can determine where a job fits within a department and the company, as well as who the employee reports to and interacts with on a daily basis.

These analyses also help with succession planning and organizational design . With the information you gather from your analysis, you can map out a job path that shows how an employee progresses to the role and what positions they can advance to afterward.

These analyses can also bring to light any overlapping responsibilities with another role, which can help you consolidate positions and departments.

Here’s our complete guide to succession planning for organizations.

Provides Clarity On Legalities, Safety, And Compliance

When workers have clear and detailed job descriptions to follow, they can perform their duties with confidence—and ideally, with fewer incidents. You can lay out distinct boundaries, work conditions, and the machinery/tools used in the role, along with the training/certifications required to use them safely.

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How Do You Perform A Job Analysis?

What’s the best approach to completing a job analysis? You can take a few different routes depending on your goals, the role itself, the company size, and the data you want to gather.

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The Step-By-Step Job Analysis Process

Performing a job analysis is no small undertaking. It starts with getting real-time insight into a position and ends with a more coherent and aligned company:

1. Gather Data

First, you need to take the time to understand the ins and outs of the role. Depending on which information-gathering approach you want to take, book your meetings or build your surveys to send out to current and former workers who held or hold that position, as well as the managers involved.

Here are a few questions and topics you should uncover in your fact-finding mission:

What are the skills, knowledge, and expertise required to perform the job well?

Is it an entry-level, intermediate, senior position?

How are workers within this role considered for promotion?

What’s included in the onboarding and training process?

How can an employee in this job advance in the company?

What training programs can someone in this role benefit from?

How is an employee’s performance measured?

What machinery and equipment are used in the role?

What skills or certifications are required to perform this role correctly and safely?

What are the working conditions for someone in this role? How does that impact the employee?

Who else does an employee in this role interact with?

How and by whom will they be supervised?

How does this role impact the company’s finances and budgeting?

2. Review Inefficiencies

Most jobs aren’t analyzed frequently enough to keep up with technological advancements, changing responsibilities, and team developments. Review the current job description with a worker or manager to determine how the role has changed:

Do they no longer complete certain tasks?

Have they taken on new tasks and responsibilities?

Have the programs or tools they use changed?

Are there skill gaps that need to be addressed?

How can the workload, processes, or employee experience be improved?

3. Research Industry Standards

Similar roles can be found across companies and industries, and while yours will be unique, you can always learn a little something from the other guys.

Review multiple job descriptions similar to the one you’re analyzing to see what other companies include and how you can improve upon it to attract talent.

TIP : Search on Google, LinkedIn, Glassdoor, recruiting websites, and competitors’ careers pages to compile multiple sources.

4. Draft The Description

Based on the information you’ve gathered, you should now be able to draft the ideal job description. Here’s what it should cover:

5. Formalization

Once you’ve completed your job analysis and corresponding description, review them with a worker and manager familiar with the role. After approval, formalize the documents according to your company’s established processes and make the information easily accessible for those that need it.

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Performance Goals

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Before You Go: Job Analysis Best Practices To Keep In Mind

Now you’re ready to perform your next job analysis—well, almost. Before you dive in, let’s take a look at some of the best practices to abide by:

Stay On Mission

Whether you’re updating an established job description or creating a new one, ensure that the role and responsibilities align with your company’s mission, values, and goals.

Make the job description clear and easy to understand by anyone who reads it, whether they’re a prospective candidate, a new recruit, an immediate team member, or an employee from an unrelated department.

Company roles are constantly changing and evolving with the business. Review job descriptions on an annual basis to see what can be improved, if the tasks and responsibilities are still relevant, and if the pay is still consummate with the role.

Share Widely

Share your findings and descriptions with employees. Be open to questions or clarifications so everyone has a solid understanding of the role and responsibility of the job, as well as how it impacts them and their work.

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4.2 Job Analysis

Job Analysis is a systematic process used to identify and determine, in detail, the particular job duties and requirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given job. It allows HR managers to understand what tasks people actually perform in their jobs and the human abilities required to perform these tasks. It is often called the “bedrock” of HRM practices. Job analysis aims to answer questions such as:

  • What are the specific elements of the job?
  • What physical and mental activities does the worker undertake?
  • When is the job to be performed?
  • Where is the job to be performed?
  • Under what conditions is it to be performed?

A major aspect of job analysis includes research, which may mean reviewing job responsibilities of current employees, researching job descriptions for similar jobs with competitors, and analyzing any new responsibilities that need to be accomplished by the person with the position.

Job Analysis Competencies

  •  Conduct a job analysis using an objective methodology that is appropriate for the purpose for which the job analysis is conducted.
  •  Implement job enrichment, job enlargement, and job re-design initiatives when deemed appropriate.

Source: HRPA Professional Competency Framework (2014) , pg. 13. © HRPA, all rights reserved.

For HRM professionals, the job analysis process results lead to job design, work structure and process engineering, as well as team and department structure. The data collected informs a multitude of HR policies and processes. For this reason, job analysis is often referred to as the ‘building block’ of HRM.

How HRM Uses Job Analysis

Here are some examples of how the results of job analysis can be used in HRM:

  • Production of accurate job postings to attract strong candidates;
  • Identification of critical knowledge, skills, and abilities required for success to include as hiring criteria;
  • Identification of risks associated with the job responsibilities to prevent accidents;
  • Design of performance appraisal systems that measure actual job elements;
  • Development of equitable compensation plans;
  • Design training programs that address specific and relevant knowledge, skills, and abilities.

The Job as Unit of Analysis

Any job, at some point, needs to be looked at in detail in order to understand its important tasks, how they are carried out, and the necessary human qualities needed to complete them. As organizations mature and evolve, it is important that HR managers also capture aspects of jobs in a systematic matter because so much relies on them. If HRM cannot capture the job elements that are new and those that are no longer relevant, it simply cannot build efficient HRM processes.

Take the job of university or college professor, for example. Think of how that job has changed recently, especially in terms of how professors use technology. Ten years ago, technology-wise, a basic understanding of PowerPoint was pretty much all that was required to be effective in the classroom. Today, professors have to rely on Zoom, Moodle, and countless other pedagogical platforms when they deliver their courses.

These changes point to a profound change in the job. It is critical that this change be captured by the organization’s HR department in order for the organization to achieve their educational mission. With this information, departments can now select professors based on their level of technological savvy, develop training programs on various platforms, and evaluate/reward those professors who are embracing the technological shift, etc.

While job analysis seeks to determine the specific elements of each job, there are many studies that have looked at how jobs are evolving in general . These mega trends are interesting because they not only point towards new characteristics of jobs but also towards an acceleration in the rate of change.

job analysis outcomes

For example, Artificial Intelligence (AI) has just begun to make its impact on the world of work. In the next decade, many tasks will be replaced and even enhanced by algorithms. Project yourself, if you can, 50 years from now. Do you think that transportation companies will rely on truck drivers? Autonomous vehicles are already a reality, this promises to be incredibly efficient. Do you think that customer service representatives will be required? We are already having conversations with voice-recognition automated systems without realizing it. Let’s push this to more sophisticated jobs: medical doctors.  The diagnosis of illness requires a vast amount of knowledge and, in the end, judgment. Who would bet against the ability of computers able to process billions of bits of information per second not to outperform the average doctor? Bottom line: the AI revolution is not coming, it is already here.

Determine Information Needed

The information gathered from the job analysis falls into two categories: the task demands of a job and the human attributes necessary to perform these tasks. Thus, two types of job analyses can be performed: a task-based analysis or a skills-based analysis.

Task-based job analysis

This type of job analysis is the most common and seeks to identify elements of the jobs. Tasks are to be expressed in the format of a task statement. The task statement is considered the single most important element of the task analysis process. It provides a standardized, concise format to describe worker actions. If done correctly, task statements can eliminate the need for the personnel analyst to make subjective interpretations of worker actions. Task statements should provide a clear, complete picture of what is being done, how it is being done and why it is being done. A complete task statement will answer four questions:

  • Performs what action? (action verb)
  • To whom or what? (object of the verb)
  • To produce what? or Why is it necessary? (expected output)
  • Using what tools, equipment, work aids, processes?

When writing task statements, always begin each task statement with a verb to show the action you are taking. Also, do not use abbreviations and rely on common and easily understood terms. Be sure to make statements very clear so that a person with no knowledge of the department or the job will understand what is actually done. Here are some examples of appropriate task statements:

  • Analyze and define architecture baselines for the Program Office
  • Analyze and support Process Improvements for XYZ System
  • Analyze, scan, test, and audit the network for the Computer Lab
  • Assess emerging technology and capabilities for the Computer Lab
  • Assist in and develop Information Assurance (IA) policy and procedure documents for the Program Office
  • Automate and generate online reports for the Program Office using XYZ System
  • Capture, collate, and report installation safety issues for XYZ System
  • Conduct periodic facility requirements analysis for the Program Office
  • Copy, collate, print, and bind technical publications and presentation materials for the Program Office

Competency-based job analysis

A competency-based analysis focuses on the specific knowledge and abilities an employee must have to perform the job. This method is less precise and more subjective. Competency-based analysis is more appropriate for specific, high-level positions.

Identify the Source(s) of Data

For job analysis, a number of human and non-human data sources are available besides the jobholder themselves. The following can be sources of data available for a job analysis.

Determine Methods of Data Collection

Determining which tasks employees perform is not easy. The information provided helps in decision making, must be evidence-based and documented. One of the most effective technique when collecting information for a job analysis is to obtain information through direct observation as well as from the most qualified incumbent(s) via questionnaires or interviews.

Evidence-Based Approach Competencies

  •  Consult the literature for solutions to HR challenges.
  •  Promote the use of data and quantitative and qualitative research in the decision-making process.
  •  Document the rationale for HR decisions.

Source: HRPA Professional Competency Framework (2014) , pg. 11. © HRPA, all rights reserved.

The following describes the most common job analysis methods.

Open-ended questionnaire

Job incumbents and/or managers fill out questionnaires about the Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities (KSA’s) necessary for the job. HR compiles the answers and publishes a composite statement of job requirements. This method produces reasonable job requirements with input from employees and managers and helps analyze many jobs with limited resources.

Structured questionnaire

These questionnaires only allow specific responses aimed at determining the nature of the tasks that are performed, their relative importance, frequencies, and, at times, the skills required to perform them. The structured questionnaire is helpful to define a job objectively, which also enables analysis with computer models. This questionnaire shows how an HR professional might gather data for a job analysis. These questionnaires can be completed on paper or online, many are available for free.

In a face-to-face interview, the interviewer obtains the necessary information from the employee about the KSAs needed to perform the job. The interviewer uses predetermined questions, with additional follow-up questions based on the employee’s response. This method works well for professional jobs.


Employees are directly observed performing job tasks, and observations are translated into the necessary KSAs for the job. Observation provides a realistic view of the job’s daily tasks and activities and works best for short-cycle production jobs.

Work diary or log

A work diary or log is a record maintained by the employee and includes the frequency and timing of tasks. The employee keeps logs over a period of days or weeks. HR analyzes the logs, identifies patterns and translates them into duties and responsibilities. This method provides an enormous amount of data, but much of it is difficult to interpret, may not be job-related and is difficult to keep up-to-date. See : Job Analysis: Time and Motion Study Form (Account Creation Required) .

Evaluate and Verify the Data

Once obtained, job analysis information needs to be validated and evidence-based.. This can be done with workers performing the job or with the immediate supervisor, for accuracy purposes. This corroboration of the data will ensure the information’s accuracy, and can also help the employees’ acceptance of the job analysis data.

Using the Data to Yield a Job Analysis Report

Once the job analysis has been completed, it is time to write the job description. These are technical documents that can be very detailed. For example, here is a job analysis report conducted in the US by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) within strategic initiatives focusing on four occupations with primary responsibilities for safety and risk data collection, analysis, and presentation: Operations Research Analyst, Engineer, Economist, and Mathematician. In a totally different category of work, here is another one describing the job of Amusement and Recreation Attendant .

Job Analysis is a great deal of work. Are there any situations where a company would not want to complete Job Analysis? Do you think that all companies should complete Job Analysis? Why? Why not?

Job Analysis: The Process that Defines Job Relatedness

Person signing papers

In the chapter on discrimination, we emphasized the importance of the concept of job relatedness. Jobs contain many elements, some of which are essential to doing the job, and others that are ideal or preferable, but not essential. A job analysis will distinguish between essential and non-essential duties. The essential requirements must be determined objectively and employers should be able to show why a certain task is either essential or non-essential to a job.

Finding out the essential characteristics of a job is fundamental in determining whether some employment decisions are discriminatory or not.  For example, a hiring requirement that states ‘frequent travel’ will disproportionately impact women with major caregiving responsibilities. When travel is included in a job description, it must be an essential duty otherwise its disparate impact on women will make it illegal. Moreover, even if travel is found to be an essential job duty, the employer would be expected to accommodate the family-status needs of employees. The purpose of a job analysis is to objectively establish the ‘job relatedness’ of employment procedures such as training, selection, compensation, and performance appraisal.

In order to comply with the law, an employer may consider the following questions:

  • Is the job analysis current or does it need to be updated?
  • Does the job analysis accurately reflect the needs and expectations of the employer?
  • Which are essential requirements and which are non-essential?

“ 4.2 Job Analysis ” from Human Resources Management – 3rd Edition by Debra Patterson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

Human Resources Management Copyright © 2023 by Debra Patterson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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job analysis outcomes

How to conduct a job analysis

job analysis outcomes

Before we get into the how, what, who, and why of the job analysis process, let's kick off with a few of the basics.

What is a job analysis?

In plain terms, it's a deep-dive into every part of the job. It includes all the data relating to what it takes to do the job, how the job is performed, the benefits, tasks, and its relation to other posts and roles within the company and the industry .

The importance of job analysis in a structured business soon becomes apparent when you understand what it provides. It defines vital data throughout key areas:

  • Knowledge, skills, and abilities required to carry out the job
  • Activities, duties, responsibilities, and critical tasks
  • Working conditions
  • Interactions and communication with other departments, offices, partners, and clients
  • How the role relates to the organization structure
  • Performance standards
  • Machinery and equipment utilized
  • Supervision—delivered and received

Training and development

  • Promotions and in-house appointment

Recruitment and selection

  • Expected outcomes
  • Compensation administration
  • Risk management, security, and health and safety

Who should conduct a job analysis?

Typically, HR carries out most job analysis roles, but there are occasions where a specialist consultant is employed to carry out the work .

The benefit of hiring a consultant is their ability to focus on a specific task .

Your HR team, or an employee currently in the role, will already have their typical workload to carry out. Squeezing in another task may mean they deliver less than their full attention to the matter at hand, providing a much weaker end-product.

If there are several jobs to analyze, hiring a consultant provides uniformity throughout each of the roles and promotes greater efficiency in the process.

What is the purpose of job analysis?

Apart from creating a succinct job description for recruitment, promotions, and selection processes , the job analysis aims to create a documented company structure.

These deep-dive documents show how the roles within an organization connect to deliver its objectives. They also create an all-in instruction guide for the HR department and anyone else in need of the same documentation.

Here are some of the prime job analysis benefits:

Not only will an accurate analysis help deliver the most inclusive job description, but it also aids team managers and analysts to improve roles and specifics. This helps to boost performance within each department, as well as the overall operation of the company.

The analysis creates a clear understanding of the type of person required to do the job. It highlights the education, qualifications, experience, and skills required from ideal candidates . It also defines rewards, salary, conditions, prospects, daily process, and role expectations.Combining both of these data satisfies the information required for clear design and presentation of advertising and marketing to fill those posts .

Understanding the role's current operation's strengths and weaknesses indicate areas where training or further development is required.

Compensation management

A well-defined compensation policy makes delivering essential information to candidates far simpler and creating enticing marketing materials. Elements including pay scales, bonuses, incentives, promotions, and restructuring opportunities—all of which add to the attractiveness of a position.

These elements don't only help attract new talent but also to retain and motivate existing employees .

Optimizing performance reviews

This works in both directions. Developing each job analysis highlights the objectives and the performance of current employees.

Periodic performance reviews consider the elements that make up your job analysis, showing whether your team meets goals and hopeful outcomes, whether they're realistic, or whether they need updating and redesigning.

The key job analysis methods

  • Observations
  • Questionnaires ‍

These are the primary tools for job analysis. Each method has its own distinct advantages and disadvantages. Hopefully, by combining the data from each element, patterns you can trust should emerge, and the data gathered provides an accurate outline to create the ideal analysis.

Job analysis interviews

Interviews need to be carried out with the team members who understand the role better than anyone else. This includes the employees currently carrying out those tasks and their managers.

More often than not, the HR team and company executives don't have the same idea of what's involved in the job on a daily basis, nor the typical problems and issues requiring regular attention on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis.

When interviewing your key players, it's vital to maintain a structured, systematic approach , to retain accuracy, continuity, and clean data.

  • Ask all interviewees the same questions in the same order.
  • Record all of your answers to compare and evaluate against existing or expected data.
  • Implement a standard interview structure for any different interviewers to adhere to. ‍

A poor structure allows conversations to go off-topic, making data harder to recognize and compare. Each question must be designed to uncover specific data. Without sticking to a rigid structure, it can be almost impossible to spot the necessary patterns required to identify the factors that will define your analysis.

Job analysis observation

Observation creates an opportunity to reveal factors an interview may fail to uncover. It gives the analyst first-hand information into the existing operation.

It's a great way to identify elements that employees may try to hide or are embarrassed or unsure of whether to mention.

While it offers the analyst a more hands-on understanding of the role, there are some disadvantages.

  • Employees may work more efficiently or differently under observation, affecting the accuracy of the data.
  • Not all of the typical duties will happen during a specifically allocated timeframe.
  • Executive and managerial roles are often far more challenging to monitor and observe.

Job analysis questionnaires

Questionnaires help to fill the gaps between interviews and observations.

They're also applicable to a range of staff throughout the company: employees, supervisors, managers, and more.

A questionnaire creates a simple, time-friendly, and economical method to gather information throughout various departments.

Your questionnaires' design can include checklists, multiple-choice, and open-ended questions, whichever methods are easiest for those filling out the answers, and offers the easiest ways to compile their data.

It also creates an option for employees to deliver more honest information without having to face an interviewer. On the other hand, written responses can be confusing and open to misinterpretation.

What to include in a job analysis questionnaire & interview:

Review the responsibilities of your current employees.

Finding out precisely what duties your employees currently carry out is imperative to see if they match what's expected, previously documented, or if they've drifted away from target actions and goals.

Although HR and management deliver hopeful outputs and expectations, they might not know what the role involves daily.

Creating a detailed analysis means understanding the job on every level. Each action needs to be detailed accurately to provide the best instructions to new applicants, to understand precisely what's expected of them.

Carrying out research into other businesses and organizations with the same or similar job roles

It's not entirely unacceptable to refer to an example of a job analysis provided by competitors or another organization within the same industry.

It's vital to create a bespoke analysis for your operation, yet, looking into how others produce theirs often introduces areas you may not have considered.

Copying somebody else's work is lazy and not at all a good way to achieve your best results, but using them as a guide or as a reference, can provide additional inspiration.

Analyzing daily duties, tasks, and responsibilities of the role.

As you look into each job and duty, you may find areas where overlapping roles create inefficiencies or move functions to different departments better equipped for the purpose.

Are there tasks and responsibilities allocated to more appropriate employees or departments to ease pressures and upgrade efficiency?

Combining industry information from other data points

There are plenty of statistics and data available for the most popular and accepted industries. Utilizing them can guide where you're pitched regarding salaries, benefits, conditions, and alternate roles. Not only will they guide you into areas of improvement, but they can also help you prevent staff from leaving for more advantageous opportunities.

Determine the critical outcomes and contributions required for and by the role

Sometimes we can't see the wood for the trees. When putting together a job analysis, analysts can become so involved in the process that they miss the true point or become sidetracked from what they're trying to achieve.

Creating a clear, concise document—fit for purpose—is a necessity. Test your documents with those who do and don't understand the role.

You can ask those directly connected to the job if it's clear and if any vital areas or points are missing.

And then, ask team members who aren't experienced with the role if the document creates a complete and clear interpretation of what's involved and about any areas they feel are missing or aren't easy to understand.

A great job analysis takes plenty of planning, structure, and organization.

The rewards, however, are many. They're vital for all departments, and newcomers, to understand the complete company strategy and its model. They also create huge potential in attracting fresh talent and the very best players in your business.

Having the right tools for the job, understanding what data you need, and how to go about getting it is imperative in creating the most coherent, streamlined, and systemized job analysis documents available—for everyone.

Sim is currently a content marketer at Foleon, and has also held the title of Head of Content at Recruitee where she was one of the blog's main curators.

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  • People Management
  • Personnel Management

Job Analysis - Job Description and Job Specification

Job analysis is primary tool in personnel management. In this method, a personnel manager tries to gather, synthesize and implement the information available regarding the workforce in the concern.

A personnel manager has to undertake job analysis so as to put right man on right job.

There are two outcomes of job analysis:

The information collected under job analysis is:

  • Nature of jobs required in a concern.
  • Nature/ size of organizational structure.
  • Type of people required to fit that structure.
  • The relationship of the job with other jobs in the concern.
  • Kind of qualifications and academic background required for jobs.
  • Provision of physical condition to support the activities of the concern. For example- separate cabins for managers, special cabins for the supervisors, healthy condition for workers, adequate store room for store keeper.

Advantages of Job Analysis

  • Job analysis helps the personnel manager at the time of recruitment and selection of right man on right job.
  • It helps him to understand extent and scope of training required in that field.
  • It helps in evaluating the job in which the worth of the job has to be evaluated.
  • In those instances where smooth work force is required in concern.
  • When he has to avoid overlapping of authority- responsibility relationship so that distortion in chain of command doesn’t exist.
  • It also helps to chalk out the compensation plans for the employees.
  • It also helps the personnel manager to undertake performance appraisal effectively in a concern.

A personnel manger carries analysis in two ways :

  • Title/ Designation of job and location in the concern.
  • The nature of duties and operations to be performed in that job.
  • The nature of authority- responsibility relationships.
  • Necessary qualifications that are required for job.
  • Relationship of that job with other jobs in a concern.
  • The provision of physical and working condition or the work environment required in performance of that job.

Advantages of Job Description

  • It helps the supervisors in assigning work to the subordinates so that he can guide and monitor their performances.
  • It helps in recruitment and selection procedures.
  • It assists in manpower planning .
  • It is also helpful in performance appraisal.
  • It is helpful in job evaluation in order to decide about rate of remuneration for a specific job.
  • It also helps in chalking out training and development programmes.
  • Job title and designation
  • Educational qualifications for that title
  • Physical and other related attributes
  • Physique and mental health
  • Special attributes and abilities
  • Maturity and dependability

Advantages of Job Specification

  • It is helpful in preliminary screening in the selection procedure.
  • It helps in giving due justification to each job.
  • It also helps in designing training and development programmes.
  • It helps the supervisors for counseling and monitoring performance of employees.
  • It helps in job evaluation.
  • It helps the management to take decisions regarding promotion, transfers and giving extra benefits to the employees.

From the above advantages, we can justify the importance of job analysis and it’s related products.

Both job description as well as job specification are important for personnel manager in personnel management function. Therefore, job analysis is considered to be the primary tool of personnel management .

  Related Articles

  • Personnel Management - Introduction
  • Elements of Personnel Management
  • Performance Appraisal
  • Performance Appraisal Tools
  • Performance Appraisal Biases

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6 Critical Steps for Job Analysis: Find the Right Candidates

9 minute read

Posted by Chris Platts on 23 February 2021

Jobs are constantly evolving. Roles and responsibilities change in reaction to new technologies, externalities, and cultural norms. And as the people in our organisations change, so do the jobs themselves. 

It’s easy to lose track of these changes, making it difficult to hire the right candidates. New tasks and responsibilities require new knowledge, behaviours and skills. What’s often required to ensure we’re looking for the right attributes in new hires is a framework called job analysis.  This article explains how to design one and how to correctly implement it into your recruitment strategy.

What is a Job Analysis (and Why Does it Matter)?

A job analysis is a systematic process of determining the duties and responsibilities of a specific job and the qualifications necessary for performing it well. Companies that conduct job analyses correctly are more likely to design candidate selection criteria that align with job performance.

There are many reasons why your organisation should conduct them:

  • Improving your recruitment process: According to a survey conducted by CareerBuilder , 74% of employers said they’ve hired the wrong candidate for the position. Job analyses allow businesses to identify the most important characteristics needed for an employee to be successful in that position. From there, you can implement your findings into your pre-employment assessments and interview processes. 
  • Setting realistic performance measurement targets : Finding realistic benchmarks for your employees to strive toward is the best way to maximize engagement and productivity. On one hand, setting low targets for your employees will minimize your company’s output. On the other hand, setting unrealistic goals can lead to employee burnout. The data collected should be utilized by HR as they conduct performance reviews and goal setting. 
  • Identifying areas of improvement : Observing tasks your employees undertake on a daily basis will uncover areas of your organisation that need improvement. There may be some tasks that could be done more efficiently; similarly, you could stumble across an unnecessary task that you may choose to eliminate from your employees’ workload. Some jobs may need redesigning or restructuring, and you may even find that you need to create new positions. 
  • Identifying training requirements : In order for a company to develop its new hires effectively, it needs to know exactly what tasks are required for that job. Failing to onboard and train your new employees effectively leads to high staff turnover . 
  • Administering appropriate compensation : Job evaluation is the process in which a company compares the duties of various jobs within its company and determines each job’s pay rate. Adjusting a job’s compensation depends on its relative importance to the company and the difficulty of tasks in the job description. Therefore, conducting an analysis is a mandatory step in performing a job evaluation. 
  • Avoiding litigation: To help protect your business from employee litigation and other legal issues you will need to demonstrate that candidates are fairly and reliably assessed on skills and behaviours that are intrinsic to the nature of the job being recruited. If this is unclear or if the recruitment process is selecting for non-job relevant characteristics, then you are at risk of being accused of unfair hiring practices. For more information on this, check out our guide to fairer hiring .

How to Conduct a Job Analysis

Step 1: plan out your process.

Before you start, take the time to lay down the specifics of the project such as: 

  • Which jobs will you be analyzing? 
  • Who will conduct the analysis? 
  • When will it be taking place? 
  • What methods will you be using (more on those later)? 
  • What resources will you need? 
  • How and where will you collect your data? 
  • What job-relevant materials are already available?
  • For what purpose(s) are you conducting the analysis? 

Answering all of these questions will inevitably increase the efficiency of the process. 

Step 2: Gather all current job and culture information

Studying how the role is perceived today from the outside in is a helpful first step, so before you get started, make sure you collect all the internal and external information concerning the jobs you’re analyzing. This includes: 

  • Previous job adverts
  • Job descriptions
  • Interview guides
  • Role specifications
  • HR documentation including employee handbooks, employment contracts etc
  • Training and development plans
  • Performance data
  • Exit interview data (e.g. why people leave this job)

Building this foundation of knowledge will help you to pinpoint what has and hasn’t changed in your jobs, and what may need changing after the process is completed. 

Step 3: Inform your employees

In order to study how people experience the job in your organisation you’ll need to spend time with people doing the role. Be sure to notify any employees beforehand about the process and what you require from them. It is often best to choose an approach that will work seamlessly with their working day; that way it should not interfere too heavily with the productivity of your company. 

At ThriveMap, we create “role stories” for each position ahead of developing our realistic day-in-the-life pre-hire assessments. If you’d like more information on this you can contact one of the team here .

Step 4: Conduct your analysis

Your analysis should provide any and all relevant information about a job, including:

  • Job title and reporting structure
  • Hours per week and location of the job, including flexibility
  • Specific tasks completed in a typical workday (including their importance and complexities)
  • Nature of task operation (activities required to carry out the tasks)
  • Levels of responsibility
  • Tools and equipment required to perform the tasks
  • Work environment and culture
  • KSAs (knowledge, skills, and abilities) required, and how essential each one is to perform tasks at a sufficient level
  • Other desired personal attributes (physical demands, social skills, behaviours, etc.)
  • Hazards and risks involved in performing the tasks
  • Experience required (if required)
  • Opportunities for advancement
  • Current pay rate and benefits
  • Reasons for exit; both voluntary and non-voluntary

There are various methods of capturing this information, these are:

  • Employee & manager questionnaires, entailing what people in the role do in a typical workday
  • Structured interviews with employees and managers
  • Job shadowing; direct observation of employees at work
  • Critical incident techniques; where employees describe critical incidents that have occurred over their time at the company, and how they resolved them
  • Employee work logs and task inventories (performed over a predetermined period of time)
  • Expert panels
  • Research/benchmarking on corresponding jobs at similar companies
  • Behavioural event interview (an HR-led performance and competency-based analysis)

The more of these methods that you include in your analysis, the more accurate and in-depth your results will be.

You may want to consider using a job analysis tool to help with this process; we’ve recently developed Signal; a job analysis questionnaire you can use for free. Click here to give it a try .

Step 5: Document your results

Once you have completed the process, write up a final report containing the data you have collected and the methodology used. The critical part is then making suggestions for the proceeding changes and improvements that you intend to make. Make sure to record your results in your company’s HR information system or shared company directory. Review your final report and verify with your current employees and supervisors that your results are accurate. 

Step 6. Action necessary changes

Once the information has been captured and approved, it’s time to make the necessary improvements and adjustments. The key areas where your insights can affect changes are:

  • Role specification – do elements of the job itself need to change or adapt. e.g. new reporting structures, new tasks and responsibilities or development opportunities
  • Candidate sourcing – Where should we be looking for individuals with the KSAs (Knowledge, skills, attributes) we require? Are these channels sustainable?
  • Candidate selection criteria – Are we looking for the correct selection criteria (KSAs) in new hires? Do our job descriptions accurately reflect the realities of the job?
  • Candidate selection methodology – Are we using the correct assessment method to analyse these KSAs? For example, should we be interviewing, asking for CVs, conducting role-plays, or can we leverage online assessments?
  • Performance management – Are we setting realistic goals for employees in this position?
  • L&D – Are we training for the right skills and behaviours?
  • Compensation & benefits – Are we rewarding the right behaviours? Is our compensation plan fair and competitive?

Tips and Reminders

Conducting a successful job analysis can be time-consuming and complicated. So, before you jump in, here are a few tips and reminders:

  • Make a job analysis template to capture all the important characteristics you are looking for in the job. This will make future job analyses considerably easier and more consistent. *check out a job analysis questionnaire like Signal here .
  • Transparency is key ; make sure that you update contributors on any relevant information that you gather throughout. Transparency in the process will make the people involved more receptive to help out. 
  • Analyse, don’t critique ; remember, a job analysis is not a performance review. This process is about studying the job, not the person working it. Save your performance reviews for another day.
  • Create and adapt ; over time, allow for modifications as required while still providing employees with an understanding of what they are expected to do. Regularly and proactively update the information you’ve collected, and be aware that you’ll need to adjust your job analyses after any significant organisational changes or new procedures have been introduced. Go through this process as many times as needed in order to perfect it.

Processes change, people change, and companies change. It’s important that we keep up. Conducting regular job analyses is the best way to stay ahead of the curve. In recruitment, it provides you with the first step to improving your hiring outcomes by designing candidate selection methods that accurately assess the KSAs (Knowledge, Skills, Abilities) identified to perform each job successfully.

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ThriveMap creates customised assessments for high volume roles , which take candidates through an online “day in the life” experience of work in your company. Our assessments have been proven to reduce staff turnover, reduce time to hire, and improve quality of hire.

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Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology pp 1369–1370 Cite as

Job Analysis

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Job analysis is the process of gathering and documenting accurate and objective data relevant to the requirements and outcomes of a job, including what a worker does, how the work is done, why the work is done, the materials used to complete the job, the context of the job, and the characteristics and skills required to complete the job. An evaluation of the context of the job addresses the work and organizational culture, the integration of the worker, as well as environmental conditions. The job analysis is conducted by writing down in sequence all major job duties and the time required to perform each, identifying and describing each job skill that the employee will be required to perform, identifying work-related interaction between employees, and summarizing the analysis of each job. The job analysis is a tool that assists in the job selection process.

The steps to conduct a job analysis include interviewing the employer/supervisor, observing a coworker completing the...

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References and Readings

Griffin, C., Hammis, D., & Geary, T. (2007). The job developer’s handbook: Practical tactics for customized employment . Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

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Rubin, S., & Roessler, R. (2008). Foundations of the vocational rehabilitation process . Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Szymanski, E. M., & Parker, R. M. (2003). Work and disability: Issues and strategies in career development and job placement (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Wehman, P., Inge, K. J., Revell, G., & Brooke, V. (2007). Real work for real pay: Inclusive employment for people with disabilities . Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

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What is a Job Analysis

A job analysis involves gathering in-depth details about a job role. The goal is to understand what the work environment is like, what the job requires employees to do, and what competencies they must possess to perform the job effectively.

Here are 5 steps to conduct a job analysis :

  • Outline the job requirements
  • Explore the desired outcomes for the role
  • Find out what training is required on the job
  • Determine a realistic and fair compensation package
  • Lastly, continue to evolve the job as things change

Table of Contents

What is a job analysis, what is job analysis data used for.

  • Formal Job Analysis Methods

How To Conduct a Job Analysis

Frequently asked questions.

A job analysis is a formalized way to collect and analyze information about a job role. For hiring and recruitment purposes, HR professionals use job analysis to accurately capture the activities, competencies, and context of the job to ensure every element of the interview process is job-relevant. The OPM summarizes the function of this process well: “Job analysis is the foundation for all assessment and selection decisions.”

A job analysis breaks an entire job down into smaller pieces, like tasks, using a systematic method for gathering and synthesizing data. The information collected includes:

What employees do on the job

What competencies are needed to do the job well

The resources that are used to do the job

The job’s environment or conditions

Depending on the job analysis method, the process is led by a qualified HR practitioner, job analyst, or consultant who has a clear picture of HR’s strategic objectives.

Job analysis data informs a number of different HR functions. In this article, we’ll be focusing on using job analysis data to enable a better interview process.

In hiring, the structured interview process is based on a job analysis.

Start conducting structured interviews

Why Is a Job Analysis Important?

Trying to make hiring decisions without having crucial information about the roles at your organization is a bit like trying to bake a cake without knowing what kind of cake it is, or what it’s supposed to taste or look like. You cannot make the right decision without understanding what you’re looking for. Here are four reasons why a job analysis is so important:

Job Analysis Elements

  • Operational context: Having access to more information allows you to stop second-guessing and make more effective decisions. With the full picture of a role, you can confidently do things like provide a realistic job preview during the hiring process and put together an effective training plan.
  • Organizational impact: The more you understand the roles at your organization, the more strategic you can be when making decisions. A job analysis can also help you find points of differentiation between similar roles and to better understand how they fit with the positions they interact with.
  • Role definition: Some hiring managers may not understand the full picture of a position they manage, leading to poor hiring decisions. A job analysis can clarify expectations for new employees, validate compensation bands, and better inform hiring managers about the roles they supervise.
  • Identify key requirements: A job analysis defines what competencies a great candidate should bring to the table, the minimum qualifications needed to perform the role, and which competencies are mission-critical, so you stand a better chance of hiring and retaining the right person.

“Job analysis has always been, and will continue to be in the foreseeable future, a valuable informational tool in human resource management.” -Parbudyal Singh, in an article for Human Resource Management Review .

Types of Job Analysis Data

What kind of information is collected in a job analysis? Job analysis data can generally be divided into three categories: activities, competencies, and context.

Activities What does this role do and look after? What are the basic functions of the job?

  • Responsibilities

Competencies What competencies are necessary to do the job well?

  • Other characteristics

Context How would you describe this role’s work environment? Who and what is involved?

  • Supervision (given and received)
  • Working conditions
  • Internal and external interactions
  • Equipment, tools, apps, or software used in the role

While there are many HR uses for job analysis data, it can be used to improve a structured hiring and recruitment process.

Setting Job Specifications

What specifications does a candidate need to qualify for a role and what can they learn? A job analysis can help you answer that. Specifications include education, work experience, and professional qualifications or certifications.

Creating Detailed Job Descriptions

Job seekers don’t want to apply for a job if the description is unclear. Unfortunately, Burnett’s Staffing said being too vague is the #1 mistake employers make when writing job descriptions.

Modern job descriptions are very detailed, going the extra mile to sell candidates on the role and the organization. A job analysis will not only save you time drafting the job description, but it will also help your organization stand out and attract suitable candidates.

The core competencies identified in the job analysis are used to create a clear job description, in addition to the interview guide , and interview questions in a structured process.

Developing Selection Assessments

Selection assessments are a great way of inviting candidates to demonstrate how they would complete a real task they would encounter in the role. A job analysis reveals what tasks or competencies are most critical to a role, so data can be used to develop assessments that evaluate what is most important. They can also help determine what assessment methods ( competency-based or task-based) are most appropriate for a given job.

Outside of hiring, what is job analysis data used for?

Outside of the context of hiring and recruitment, job analysis data can be used to:

  • Meet legal requirements
  • Identify health or safety hazards
  • Analyze work activities to optimize employee efficiency
  • Identify training gaps
  • Support employee development
  • Enhance employee training programs
  • Set the minimum specifications for a position
  • Create worker mobility (inform promotions or job departures)
  • Inform performance reviews and feedback

A professional woman with glasses multitasking, holding a laptop in her hands.

Formal Job Analysis Methods and Processes for Structured Interviewing

There are several formal ways HR teams can conduct a job analysis. When incorporating job analysis as the first step in your structured hiring process, keep in mind that some methods are more helpful than others.

A study in the Academy of Management Journal evaluated several job analysis methods against each other to see what method was most effective for each purpose. It identified the job analysis methods that were best for writing job descriptions and setting job specifications: Threshold Traits Analysis (TTA), Task Inventory (TI), Functional Job Analysis (FJA), and the Job Elements Method. Some other common job analysis processes used in HR functions are Critical Incident Technique (CIT) and Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ).

Name of Method: Functional Job Analysis (FJA)

Description: An FJA will help teams create accurate job descriptions by defining the necessary work activities, responsibilities, and qualifications required to perform the job well. This method focuses on specific tasks rather than outcomes (as they can be achieved in numerous ways).

Best use case for hiring: Writing job descriptions

Name of Method: Task Inventory (TI)

Description: A task inventory is a structured list of all the tasks related to a specific job, scoring their frequency, importance, and difficulty. This method is completed collaboratively, as the manager, subject matter experts, and employees in the position work together to complete this list.

Best use case for hiring: Writing job descriptions and job classification

Name of Method: Threshold Traits Analysis (TTA)

Description: TTA is a method for identifying the traits required to perform a job effectively. It uses a collaborative approach where those who know the job role (such as someone with the job title, and their manager)  rate the importance, uniqueness, relevance, level, and practicality of 33 traits for the role.

Best use case for hiring: Personnel requirements and job classification

Name of Method: Job Elements Method

Description: A main objective of JEM is to identify workers’ eligibility for a job. This methodology compares applicants’ abilities against the job requirements, focusing on the attributes needed for top job performance.

Best use case for hiring: Personnel requirements

Name of Method: Critical Incident Technique (CIT)

Description: A critical incident is when an action, or actions, contribute to an effective or an ineffective outcome. The CIT is a task analysis technique that helps you identify good and bad behaviors that contribute to critical incidents.

Best use case for hiring: Providing performance reviews and feedback

Name of Method: Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)

Description: A PAQ is the most standardized way of comparing different positions using quantitative and qualitative data. According to HR Guide , the PAQ contains hundreds of job elements that cover five categories: information input, mental processes, work output, relationships with others, and job context. This is based on data from thousands of jobs.

Best use case for hiring: Job classification and job evaluation (used to determine salary)

In a lot of circumstances, it’s useful to use a combination of these methods to get the full picture. The Academy of Management Journal evaluation mentioned above demonstrates that using one method may give you a different response than if you use another.

Commonly used job analysis data collection methods

More typically, HR teams use a variety of approaches to get the best understanding of a job role. Here is an overview of common job analysis data collection techniques:

Work Log or Diary

The work diary or log method (also referred to as the daily method) requires an incumbent employee to record all their daily activities for a short period of time. This includes what the task is, the amount of time spent on the task, and the perceived importance or urgency.


Direct observation is meant to provide a realistic view of the position’s activities and context. A manager, qualified HR practitioner, job analyst, or consultant would watch an employee perform their tasks without getting involved.


Questionnaires are one of the most affordable and accessible ways to collect job analysis data. O*NET has generic, structured questionnaires available for job incumbents or subject matter experts to fill out as “a starting point to collect occupational data”.

Competitive Research

Scope out what competitors and other comparable companies are asking for in terms of job titles and their requirements and duties. Review a variety of other companies to ensure you’re getting an accurate stance on what the most vital and relevant expectations are.

Doing a job analysis interview involves booking an in-person or video interview where a manager would speak to an employee who currently holds the position or an employee who has held it in the past. Depending on the role, you could also interview people in adjacent positions.

Similar to direct observation, the interviewer would simply be responsible for leading the interview and capturing the employee’s viewpoint. Ideally, you’d interview more than one employee to collect multiple perspectives on a job role and use predetermined questions to standardize your job analysis interview.

Job Performance

In this method, a job analyst would actually perform work activities of the role to understand stressors, contextual factors (physical risks, for example), and scenarios job holders face.

This method provides a first-hand experience of what the job physically and mentally entails, which is more visceral than simply listing things out.

The job performance method is similar to the direct observation method, except in the direct observation method, the person cataloging the job information does not participate at all.

Depending on the job role and industry, there can be several different steps needed to conduct a sufficient job analysis. For a simplified, yet helpful approach, here are the main components of a job analysis that should cover most job types.

1. Outline the job requirements

The first step is to outline the job role in terms of duties, responsibilities, and expectations. This step helps you develop an accurate job description, though it’s necessary to complete all components beforehand to give candidates the most comprehensive summary of a role.

  • The day-to-day job duties (and the difficulty and importance of each duty)
  • Other responsibilities and their importance
  • Skills needed to do the job successfully
  • Qualifications and experience needed to be considered for the role

Best ways to collect information about job requirements

A red pen highlights a requirement on a document, emphasizing its importance.

2. Explore the desired outcomes for the role

Consider the bigger picture of this role – how does this position benefit the organization as a whole? Every job is connected to the success of other roles. Outlining what you hope to get out of the position is as important as what you put into it. This step, along with the previous step, are the most important to help you build an effective interview plan and fairly evaluate candidates based on your definition of success.

  • How the role aligns with the organization’s overall goals
  • How the role contributes to larger projects with other teams
  • Soft skills desired for the role
  • Specific 30-60-90 goals for the role
  • How success will be measured as tenure evolves

Top methods to learn about desired role outcomes

3. Find out what training is required on the job

Learn what tools and training are required for a new hire to achieve both short and long-term success. Discover what your organization needs to provide them with to help them truly master their role. For each training component, consider who will need to train them, how long it will take,  and how that will impact their workload.

  • Onboarding necessities (orientation and high-level organization goals/expectations)
  • Organization-related product or service training relative to the role
  • Required training for programs and tools used in the role

Most effective ways to discover the required training

4. Determine a realistic and fair compensation package

It can be hard to determine a fair salary – there are a lot of variables such as the experience of a candidate, and how lucrative an offer needs to be to fill the position successfully. By following the steps involved in a job analysis, you should be able to summarize key job details needed for determining a fair compensation package.

  • Fair salary bracket based on job role and experience
  • Benefits based on organization standards or job role
  • How the salary bracket compares to similar positions in the company
  • How the salary compares to competitors’ similar roles

Best approaches to determine an ideal compensation

Internal Comparisons

5. Lastly, continue to evolve the job as things change

A job analysis is not a one-and-done activity. As time goes on, the expectations and duties for a position change. This can be due to factors such as the company evolving, or a transition in the industry or the economy as a whole.

Some jobs evolve more frequently than others, especially in the case of jobs that involve any kind of technology. In these cases, you’ll want to consider refreshing your analysis annually. However, if a position is relatively unchanging, then you’ll only need to review and refresh the job analysis as needed.

An up-to-date analysis of every position means job descriptions, expectations, and compensation are kept relative. Ultimately, with your finger on the pulse, you’ll keep attracting candidates who are the right fit for the role.

When creating a job analysis, it’s best practice to do so for all available jobs, not solely for one job – there could be ways to optimize roles. For example, you may notice an overlap in responsibilities, or another role would be better suited for a task.

A woman in a green jacket sits at a desk, focused on her laptop, engrossed in her work.

Job Description vs. Job Analysis: What’s the Difference?

A job analysis is the process of gathering information about the competencies a candidate should have, and everything the candidate needs to perform, in order to do a job effectively.

A job description is a written statement describing a job opportunity to a job seeker. They include the job title, desired competencies, required certifications, working conditions, and tasks and responsibilities.

Job descriptions live on job board sites because they are intended for an external audience, whereas a job analysis is primarily conducted and created for internal use.

When Should You Conduct a Job Analysis?

Here’s a list of some examples of when to conduct a job analysis:

  • When you introduce a new position that is unlike any other position at your organization
  • There is a need to combine multiple jobs into a single, new job
  • Organizational or departmental restructuring
  • Changing organizational values
  • The nature of the job or work has changed
  • There is a need to revisit compensation for any reason

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Job Analysis in HRM

job analysis outcomes

Everything you need to know about job analysis. Job analysis is a systematic and detailed examination of jobs. It is a procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it.

Job analysis is the procedure through which you determine the duties and nature of the jobs and the kinds of people who should be hired for their goal. It provides to write job descriptions and job specifications, which are utilized in recruitment and selection, compensation, performance appraisal, and training.

Job analysis is a process of studying, examining and collecting detailed information relating to the components and various operations of job. It is a process of collecting and analysing data relating to a job.

It is defined as the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibilities of the specific job. The immediate products, of this analysis are Job description and Job specification.


Learn about:-

1. Meaning and Definition of Job Analysis 2. Concepts of Job Analysis 3. Factors to be Considered in Collection of Data 4. Aspects 5. Importance

6. Information and Its Sources 7. Steps 8. Techniques 9. Questionnaire 10. Competency Approach 11. Uses 12. Advantages 13. Problems.

Job Analysis in HRM – Meaning, Definition, Concept, Methods, Process, Techniques, Uses and Other Details

  • Meaning and Definition of Job Analysis
  • Concepts of Job Analysis
  • Factors to be Considered in Collection of Job Analysis Data
  • Aspects of Job Analysis
  • Importance of Job Analysis
  • Job Analysis Information  and Its Sources
  • Process of Job Analysis
  • Techniques of Job Analysis
  • Job Analysis Questionnaire
  • Competency Approach of Job Analysis
  • Uses of Job Analysis
  • Advantages of Job Analysis
  • Problems of Job Analysis

Job Analysis in HRM – Meaning and Definition

Job analysis is a systematic and detailed examination of jobs. It is a procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it.

Job analysis is a formal and detailed examination of jobs. It is a systematic investigation of the task, duties and responsibilities necessary to do a job.

A task is a distinct work activity carried out for a distinct purpose. Examples would include type a letter, preparing a lecture, or unloading a mail truck.

A duty is a large work segment consisting of several tasks, related by some sequence of events that are performed by an individual.

A position refers to one or more duties performed by one person in an organization. There are at least as many positions as there are workers in the organization.

Job responsibilities are obligations to perform certain tasks and duties. Thus, job analysis is a procedure and a tool for determining the specified tasks, operations and requirements of each job.

It is a complete study of job, embodying every known and determinable factor, including the duties and responsibilities involved in its performance, the conditions under which the performance is carried on, the nature of the task, the qualities required in the worker and such conditions of employment as pay, hour, opportunities and privileges. It also emphasizes the relation of one job to others in the organization.

Job analysis is a process of studying, examining and collecting detailed information relating to the components and various operations of job. It is a process of collecting and analysing data relating to a job. It is defined as the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibilities of the specific job. The immediate products, of this analysis are Job description and Job specification.

According to Scott, Clother and Spriegel “job analysis is the process of critically evaluating the operations, duties and responsibilities of the job”.

In the words of Yoder “job analysis is the procedure by which the facts with respect to each job are systematically discovered and noted”.

Thus, job analysis is a process of collecting information about the job.

The job analysis may include these activities:

(a) Reviewing the job responsibilities of current employees,

(b) Doing Internet research and viewing sample job descriptions online or offline highlighting similar jobs,

(c) Analysing the work duties, tasks, and responsibilities that need to be accomplished by filling the position,

(d) Researching and sharing with companies that have similar jobs, and

(e) Articulation of the most important outcomes or contributions needed from the position.

Job Analysis in HRM – 5 Important Concepts : Job, Job Description, Position Description, Job Specification and Job Design

The important concepts of job analysis are:

In simple language, a job may be understood as a division of total work into packages/positions. According to Dale Yoder, “A job is a collection or aggregation of tasks, duties and responsibilities as a whole, is regarded as a regular assignment to individual employees and which is different from other assignments”.

Thus, a job may be explained as a group of positions involving some duties, responsibilities, knowledge and skills. A job may include many positions. A position is a particular set of duties and responsibilities regularly assigned to an individual.

2 . Job Description :

Job descriptions are written statements that describe the:

(a) Duties,

(b) Responsibilities,

(c) Most important contributions and outcomes needed from a position,

(d) Required qualification of candidates, and

(e) Reporting relationship and co-workers of a particular job.

Job descriptions are based on objective information obtained through job analysis, an understanding of the competencies and skills required to accomplish needed tasks, and the needs of the organization to produce work.

Job description clearly identifies and spells out the responsibilities of a specific job. Job descriptions also include information about working conditions, tools, equipment used, knowledge and skills needed, and relationships with other positions.

The best job descriptions are living, breathing documents that are updated as responsibilities change. The best job descriptions do not limit employees, but rather, cause them to stretch their experience, grow their skills, and develop their ability to contribute within their organization.

3 . Position Description :

The Human Resource Director Guide and managers the overall provision of Human Resources services, policies and programs for the entire company.

The major areas directed are:

(a) Recruiting and staffing;

(b) Organizational and space planning;

(c) Performance management and improvement systems;

(d) Organization development;

(e) Employment and compliance to regulatory concerns;

(f) Employee orientation, development, and training;

(g) Policy development and documentation;

(h) Employee relations;

(i) Company-wide committee facilitation;

(j) Company employee and community communication;

(k) Compensation and benefits administration;

(l) Employee safety, welfare, wellness and health;

(m)Charitable giving; and

(n) Employee services and counselling.

The Human Resources Director originates and leads Human Resources practices and objectives that will provide an employee-oriented, high performance culture that emphasizes empowerment, quality, productivity and standards, goal attainment, and the recruitment and on-going development of a superior workforce.

The Human Resource Director coordinates implementation of services, policies, and programs through Human Resources staff; reports to the CEO and serves on the executive management team; and assists and advises company managers about Human Resources issues.

4 . Job Specification :

It is a standard of personnel and designates the qualities required for an acceptable performance. It is written record of the requirements sought in an individual worker for a given job. It refers to a summary of the personnel characteristics required for a job. It is a statement of the minimum acceptable human qualities necessary for the proper performance of a job.

5 . Job Design :

Job design is the division of the total task to be performed into the manageable and efficient units- positions, departments and divisions-and to provide for their proper integration. The sub-division of work is both on a horizontal scale with different tasks across the organization being performed by different people and on the vertical scale, in which higher levels of the organization are responsible for the supervision of more people, the co-ordination of sub-groups, more

Job Analysis in HRM – 5 Different Factors to be Considered in Collection of Job Analysis Data: Freedom from Bias, Allaying Anxiety Respondents and a Few Others

The different factors to be considered while collection of job analysis data are:

1. Freedom from Bias (Exaggeration/Hiding of Facts):

Respondents at times tend to exaggerate the facts to show the complexity of their jobs and consequently their mastery over the same. Vice-versa few also tend to hide the facts emanating out of their fear as they suspect that the organization may find him/her incompetent. Both exaggeration and hiding of facts will lead to erroneous data and hence care should be taken by the data collector that such bias do not occur.

2. Allaying Anxiety Respondents:

Some respondents look at this activity with suspicion and think that it may be a management’s covert strategy which may harm them in the long-run. Allaying all such fears and anxieties is very important to ensure correctness and consistency of data.

3. Use of Right Data Collection Method:

Choosing a right data collection method is very important in conducting job analysis. Out of the various methods available the method which suits best must be selected and not necessarily the ‘best method’.

4. Recency Impact:

Respondents tend to talk about their job aspects more which have occurred recently or they have been more involved in the recent past, while ignoring other dimensions. Interviewer must ensure that such errors do not occur and guide the respondents in overcoming this bias.

5. Commitment:

The commitment of the top management, line functions and finally of the HR department is paramount to ensure the success, of job analysis.

Job Analysis in HRM – Aspects

Aspects of job analysis are brought out as follows:

1. Job analysis establishes the structural- functional delineation of an organisation, according to the classical paradigm of administrative theory.

2. Job analysis deals with responsibilities, defining roles, delineating scope and authority at each level of the organisation.

3. It answers the important utilitarian call of optimizing organisational efficiency through maximising individual capabilities, as per the systems paradigm of organisational theory.

4. It basically deals with job study. It studies very detailed, specific and exhaustive on job.

5. As per scientific management precepts, the job analysis describes work process in detail on physical demands at work, physical conditions of work and also human relations and behavioural

6. Job analysis answers the important utilitarian call of optimising organisational efficiency through maximizing individual capabilities, as per the systems paradigm of organizational theory.

Job Analysis in HRM – Importance of Job Analysis to HR Managers: Work Redesign, Human Resource Planning, Selection, Training and a Few Others

Job analysis is so important to HR managers that it has been called the building block of everything that personnel does.

The fact is that almost every human resource management program requires some type of information that is gleaned from job analysis:

1. Work Redesign:

Often an organization seeks to redesign work to make it more effi­cient or to improve quality. The redesign requires detailed information about the existing job(s). In addition, preparing the redesign is similar to analyzing a job that does not yet exist.

2. Human Resource Planning:

As planners analyze human resource needs and how to meet those needs, they must have accurate information about the levels of skill required in various jobs, so that they can tell what kinds of human resources will be needed.

3. Selection:

To identify the most qualified applicants for various positions, decision makers need to know what tasks the individuals must perform, as well as the neces­sary knowledge, skills, and abilities.

4. Training:

Almost every employee hired by an organization will require training. Any training program requires knowledge of the tasks performed in a job, so that the training is related to the necessary knowledge and skills.

5. Performance Appraisal:

An accurate performance appraisal requires information about how well each employee is performing in order to reward employees who perform well and to improve their performance if it is below standard. Job analysis helps in identifying the behaviours and the results associated with effective performance.

6. Career Planning:

Matching an individual’s skills and aspirations with career oppor­tunities requires that those in charge of career planning know the skill require­ments of the various jobs. This allows them to guide individuals into jobs in which they will succeed and be satisfied.

7. Job Evaluation:

The process of job evaluation involves assessing the relative dollar value of each job to the organization in order to set up fair pay structures. If employees do not believe pay structures are fair, they will become dissatisfied and may quit, or they will not see much benefit in striving for promotions. To put dollar values on jobs, it is necessary to get information about different jobs and compare them.

Job analysis is also important from a legal standpoint. The government imposes requirements related to equal employment opportunity. Detailed, accurate, objective job specifications help decision makers comply with these regula­tions by keeping the focus on tasks and abilities. These documents also provide evidence of efforts made to engage in fair employment practices.

For example, to enforce the Americans with Disabilities Act, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission may look at job descriptions to identify the essential functions of a job and determine whether a disabled person could have performed those functions with reasonable accommodations.

Likewise, lists of duties in different jobs could be com­pared to evaluate claims under the Equal Pay Act. However, job descriptions and job specifications are not a substitute for fair employment practices.

Besides helping human resource professionals, job analysis helps supervisors and other managers carry out their duties. Data from job analysis can help managers iden­tify the types of work in their units, as well as provide information about the work flow process, so that managers can evaluate whether work is done in the most effi­cient way.

Job Analysis in HRM – Information Provided and Its Sources

Job analysis information also supports managers as they make hiring deci­sions, review performance, and recommend rewards.

The job analysis provides the following information:

i. Job Identification – Job title, job code number

ii. Characteristics of the Job – Job location, Physical setting, supervision levels required, union jurisdiction, and hazards associated etc.

iii. Job Duties (Principal activities) – A detailed list of the duties along with the probable frequency of occurrence of each duty.

iv. Equipment and materials used

v. How a Job is done – Focus lies mainly on the nature of operations associated with the job.

vi. Required Personnel Attributes – Experience levels, trainings undertaken, apprenticeships, physical strength, coordination levels, mental capabilities, social skills, communication skills etc.

vii. Job Relationships – Opportunities for advancement, working conditions, essential cooperation etc.

There are mainly five sources of job information which are as follows:

1. Job holders’ questionnaires – Information may be gathered from the job holder personally or through a job questionnaire which should be as short as possible, simple, should explain for what purpose the questionnaire is being used and should be tested before using it.

2. Other employees who know the job – This may include supervisors and foreman who may be given special training and be asked to analyse the job under their supervision.

3. Independent observer – This is the person who observes the employee performing the job. Special job-reviewing committees or technically trained job analysts can be assigned the job and necessary information collected from them.

4. Job incumbent diary or log – If the job incumbent keeps his/her diary or log updated record­ing his/her job duties, his/her frequency and also when the duties are performed, these can also provide very useful information.

5. Interviews – Information may also be gathered through interviews of the people concerned.

Job Analysis in HRM – 5 Steps Involved in the Process of Job Analysis

Job analysis involves different steps which are described below:

1. Determination of uses of job analysis

2. Strategic choices in job analysis

3. Information collection

4. Information processing, Job description and Job specification.

Step # 1. Determination of Uses of Job Analysis:

Job analysis begins with determination of uses of job analysis. Job analysis has variety of uses. Earlier it was used for recruitment and selection and later its coverage increased. Therefore, before analyzing the job, the organization should define the uses of job analysis.

Because, without knowing the purpose, required information cannot be collected. In large organizations, it is undertaken in comprehensive, systematic and in written form. But in small organizations the process is generally informal and is used for limited purposes.

Step # 2. Strategic Choices in Job Analysis:

There are certain strategic choices with regard to job analysis which are described below:

(a) Employees Involvement:

Before analyzing the job, it is advisable to know the extent of employee’s involvement in the job, because a job holder knows better about the job and it is easy to collect the information about the job from job holders. But the question is whether job holder should be involved in the process as there are every possibilities of inflating the duties and responsibilities of his job by the job holder.

If employees are not involved, they tend to become suspicious about the process undertaken by the organization. Therefore, extent of employees involvement in the job should be understood along with the adverse effect on employees before job is being analyzed. Action should be taken to convince the employees, the object of conducting the job analysis programme and their co-operation should be sought.

(b) Level of Details of Analysis:

Job analysis may be made in-depth or it can be completed without going in to the details. It is therefore necessary to define the level of details of analysis. Generally, objectives and use of analysis determine the level of details of analysis along with nature of job. Job of routine nature with limited responsibilities requires fewer details whereas dynamic and non-repetitive job requires detailed analysis.

(c) Frequency and Timing of Analysis:

Frequency of job analysis and time during which analysis is to be undertaken is also another important factor to be considered while analyzing the job.

Generally job analysis is conducted under the following circumstances:

(i) When an organization is newly established or new job is created in an organization or

(ii) When job restructuring and rationalization is initiated in the organization or

(iii) When there is no relation between job demand and remuneration or

(iv) When there is a change in technology, method & procedure of doing a job.

(d) Past Oriented vs. Future Oriented:

Generally job analysis is made on the basis of past performance. But due to rapid change in the technology a future oriented approach may have to be initiated depending upon the change in the nature of job requirements. Future oriented job analysis allows an organization to initiate the process of acquiring and developing employees in advance. For example in many organizations, typewriters are replaced with computers and organization have to prepare & develop their employees accordingly.

Step # 3. Information Collection:

The next step to be followed in the process of job analysis is information collection for job analysis which involves the following sub steps:

(a) The type of information to be collected

(b) Method to be adopted to collect the information

(c) Persons involved in information collection

(a) Type of Information to be Collected:

In deciding the type of information to be collected, all details about the job need to be gathered. It may be related to description of work like why, when and how, task is performed, machines, tools, and equipment used, job contents, personal requirement of job holder etc.

(b) Method to be Adopted to Collect the Information:

With regard to method to be applied to collect the data, there are several methods like observation, interview method, questionnaires, checklists, technical conference etc. Use of a particular method depends on type of information required for job analysis.

(c) Persons Involved in Information Collection:

Persons generally involved for gathering information are – trained job analysts, supervisors, job incumbents or job holders. Trained job analysts maintain objectivity, consistency in information collection and reporting but intrinsic factors of job may be missed by them. Supervisors ensure speedy collection of information and there will be better familiarity with job contents and contexts but they have time constraints and they lack skill required for job analysis.

Job holders provide information with greater familiarity but their opinion may be biased and they lack skills in providing relevant information for job analysis. However, type of persons to be involved in the process of data collection ultimately depends on the purpose of job analysis and the nature of job to be analyzed.

Step # 4. Information Processing, Job Description and Job Specification:

The last step in the process of job analysis is processing of information collected which involves editing and classification of information in to different relevant components which are helpful in the preparation of job description and job specification. Job description refers to the description of duties, responsibilities, and requirement of a particular job. Job specification is the statement that describes the minimum acceptable qualifications that a job holder should possess to perform the job successfully.

Job Analysis in HRM – Top 4 Methods Used for Job Analysis: Questionnaire Method, Written Narratives, Observations and Interviews

There are a number of methods used for job analysis. These methods are meant to collect data about job.

These are as follows:

Method # 1. Questionnaire:

This is a widely used method for collecting data pertaining to job. The questionnaire is structured in such a fashion that all data about nomenclature of jobs, description of duties, machines and equipment used, working conditions etc. can be collected.

The questionnaire is filled both by employees/subordinates and supervisors. The questionnaire should be very clear, understand­able and relevant. If the questionnaire is not able to bring out responses of employees/managers, it should be discarded and fresh questionnaire should be made.

Method # 2. Written Narratives:

In this system, the employee keeps a daily record of major duties performed, marking the time when each task is started and finished. This forms the basis of narratives which become a tool in getting the information relating to different jobs. They may be incomplete and unorganized, thus you need to supplement it with interviews etc.

Method # 3. Observations:

In this method the job analyst personally observes the job while people are doing it. He checks the tasks performed on the job, the pace of work, working condition, job hazards involved etc. in any one work cycle. Based on these observations he makes a job analy­sis. This method has one major limitation. It is that the analyst has to be very careful about what information to observe and what not to observe. Also after observation, he should know how to analyze.

Method # 4. Interviews:

The analyst in this method personally interviews the employees while they are performing the job. A standard format is used to collect data collected from different employees. The analyst asks standard job related questions. These interviews are often used with observation tool to clarify all questions related to the jobs being analyzed. In this analysis, employees may not always come out with the real information about job but an intelligent analyst has the ability to shift relevant information from irrelevant one.

Pros and Cons of Interviews:

(a) It is very simple and quick method of getting information which might never come through in written.

(b) A very tactful interviewer can take out some information about group/activities informally which are never depicted on organizational charts.

(c) Interviews may reflect dissatisfaction with the job for vari­ous monetary or safety reasons which may help manage­ment in re-analyzing it.

Cons of Interviews:

(a) There is a tendency among employees to inflate their jobs importance. This leads to a different perception about the job needs of analysts.

(b) Respondents often take interviews as some kind of efficiency evaluation which may affect their pay. Thus, they may tend to exaggerate certain responsibilities of their job and mini­mize others.

(c) Respondents may include the ability based versions of the statements than simple task statements.

(d) The prudent analysts may not be able to get that informa­tion and if he is getting multiple inputs to his questions it may become difficult for him to get the valid responses. It is a very slow process.

Job Analysis in HRM – 4 Types of Questionnaire   Used for Analysing Job: Job Related Questionnaire, Position Analysis Questionnaire and a Few Others

Information regarding- (1) Job knowledge, (2) Scope of Responsibility, (3) Work environment, and (4) Personal constraints are, therefore, the required data for a job analysis, which should be collected through a well-designed questionnaire.

Types of JA Questionnaires :

The questionnaires used to collect data for job analysis are generally of four types, depending upon the nature of the job, such as:

1. JRQ – Job Related Questionnaire

2. PAQ – Position Analysis Questionnaire

3. MPDQ – Management Position Description Questionnaire

4. FJAQ – Functional Job Analysis Questionnaires.

1. JRQ – (Job Related Questionnaire) – These questions disseminate the data regarding job elements and job complexity for an analysis of the job performance requirements.

2. PAQ – (Position Analysis Questionnaire) – These questions cover six major areas such as type and nature of source of information, mental process applied in performance, physical activities involved to perform, relationship with other jobs/ job and workers, work environment or culture prevailing, and other relevant information for improving job performance.

These data enable the management to scientifically analyze the elements of groups or activities interrelationships into job dimensions.

3. MPDQ – (Management Position Description Questionnaire) – These questions are designed to analyze the managerial jobs and therefore the questions are aimed at collecting all possible information from the managers/executives so as to examine the importance of the job, its significance to the organization or the position and the desired responsibilities and accountabilities for a said job.

4. FJAQ – (Functional Job Analysis Questionnaires) – It is a worker-oriented job analysis where the questions are designed to gather information from the worker in the said job or a similar job in another industry to define the personality required to perform the job in question.

Job Analysis in HRM – Competency Approach

Competency approach of job analysis (also known as competency-based job analysis) is a comparatively newer practice in human resource management. Competency-based job analysis involves analyzing a job in terms of competencies required for performing the job effectively.

Thus, the job is not defined in terms of duties and responsibilities as is done in traditional job analysis but in terms of competencies required. Competency of an individual is the combination of his knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, and interest.

Competency approach of job analysis is based on the assumption that competencies of people influence organizational performance. Therefore, instead of thinking of individuals having jobs that are relatively stable and can be written up into typical job descriptions, it may be more relevant to focus on the competencies used in performing the job.

There are three main reasons why organizations adopt competency approach of job analysis:

1. Communicating needed behaviors throughout the organization.

2. Raising overall competency level of the organization.

3. Emphasizing competencies of people to enhance organizational competitive advantage.

Process of adopting competency approach of job analysis is as follows:

1. A team of senior managers identifies future performance result areas critical to the organization, for example, customer orientation, innovation, employee productivity, etc.

2. Panel groups of individuals having knowledgeable about the jobs in the organization are constituted. This group may include both high- and low-performing employees, supervisors, managers, trainers, and others.

3. A facilitator either from HR department or an outside consultant interviews the panel members to get specific examples of job behaviors and actual occurrences on the jobs.

4. The facilitator develops detailed descriptions of each of the competencies using relevant concepts of behavioral science. This phase provides clarity and specifics so that employees, supervisors, managers, and others in the organization have a clearer understanding of the competencies associated with jobs.

5. The competencies are rated and levels needed to meet them are identified. The competencies are specified for each job.

6. Standards of performance are identified and tied to the jobs. In the light of this, appropriate employee selection screening, training, and compensation processes focusing on competencies are developed and implemented.

Job Analysis in HRM – Top 5 Uses of Job Analysis

A sound job analysis programme is an essential ingredient of good HR management. Job analysis data recorded in the form of job description, provide most valuable information needed to accomplish many of the other personnel.

The uses of job analysis may be summarized below:

(i) It is helpful in forecasting of human resources of the organization.

(ii) For recruiting purposes, job analysis must provide information on personal qualifications necessary to perform job related behaviour.

(iii) It helps for placing right person on the right job at the right time.

(iv) It is used as a foundation for job evaluation.

(v) It provides necessary information to the management for training and development programmes of employees.

(vi) It helps in establishing clear-cut standards for the development of performance appraisal system of the organization.

(vii) It helps management to look objectively at the hazards associated with the machinery and tools required to be handled as well as with the work environment.

(viii) It provides helps in redesigning jobs to match with mental make-up of the employees.

Job Analysis in HRM – 10 Main Advantages

The main advantages of job analysis are:

1. Job analysis facilitates the selection and placement, of right personnel in each job.

2. Management can provide adequate training to the needy employees.

3. Reasonable wage rate is fixed with the help of job analysis.

4. Job analysis helps in job evaluation and merit rating.

5. Job analysis helps the superiors to take timely decisions. The decision may be related to promotion, transfer, selection, etc.

6. Industrial disputes may be put an end to with the help of job analysis.

7. Adequate disciplinary action may be taken by the management.

8. The selection of right personnel ensures job satisfaction and morale among the employees.

9. Job analysis helps in reducing labour turnover, absenteeism and removing inequalities in pay fixation.

10. It provides a basis of performance appraisal and facilitates the control function of the management.

Job Analysis in HRM – 4 Major Problems: Lack of Support from Top Management, Single Method, Lack of Training /Motivation and Distortion of Activities

In job analysis there are several grave problems:

Problem # 1. Lack of Support from Top Management:

In majority of crises little support from top management is received instead of describing in unequivocal words they describe in a roundabout way what an employee is supposed to do in the company and thus create confusion in the minds of employees. The top management should make it clear to all employees that their full and honest participation is crucially important for the process.

Problem # 2. Single Method:

Often, job analyst relies on only one of the methods whereas combination of two or more methods might provide a better idea. Consequently the analysis made by him remains one-sided and incomplete and hence of little useful.

Problem # 3. Lack of Training/Motivation:

Job holders are a great source of information about the job, but they are not trained or motivated to generate quality data for job analysis. Moreover, job holders are rarely made aware of the importance of the data and are never rewarded for providing accurate data.

Problem # 4. Distortion of Activities:

In the absence of training or preparedness job holders tend to submit distorted data, either intentionally or inadvertently. Another reason for the negative attitude is the feeling that “as long as someone does not know precisely what I am supposed to be doing, I am safe”.

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Read BBA, BMS, B.Com Syllabus wise Notes

Outcomes of Job analysis: Job description and Job Specification

There are two outcomes of job analysis: Job description and Job specification

Job description

A job description is a list that a person might use for general tasks, or functions, and responsibilities of a position. It may often include to whom the position reports, specifications such as the qualifications or skills needed by the person in the job, or a salary range. Job descriptions are usually narrative, but some may instead comprise a simple list of competencies; for instance, strategic human resource planning methodologies may be used to develop competency architecture for an organization, from which job descriptions are built as a shortlist of competencies. A job description concentrates on the job. It explains what the job is and what the duties, responsibilities, and general working conditions are.

A job description may include relationships with other people in the organisation: Supervisory level, managerial requirements, and relationships with other colleagues.

A job description need not be limited to explaining the current situation, or work that is currently expected; it may also set out goals for what might be achieved in future.

Job specification

Job specification concentrates on the characteristics needed to perform the job. It describes the qualifications the incumbent must possess to perform the job.

Job specification is a statement which tells us minimum acceptable human qualities which helps to perform a job. Job specification translates the job description into human qualifications so that a job can be performed in a better manner. Job specification helps in hiring an appropriate person for an appropriate position. The contents are:

  • Job title and designation
  • Educational qualifications for that title
  • Physical and other related attributes
  • Physique and mental health
  • Special attributes and abilities
  • Maturity and dependability
  • Relationship of that job with other jobs in a concern

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After Testimony in Atlanta, Willis Receives Both Praise and Condemnation

After a tumultuous hearing, the Fulton County district attorney earned plaudits for the way she stood firm under pressure but drew doubts about her judgment under the glare of the national spotlight.

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Fani T. Willis, the Fulton County district attorney.

By Rick Rojas ,  Christian Boone and Alessandro Marazzi Sassoon

Reporting from Atlanta

It has been a rare point of consensus about the case brought by Georgia prosecutors against former President Donald J. Trump: the Fulton County district attorney, Fani T. Willis, probably made a mistake by having a romantic relationship with a co-worker.

But the agreement ends there.

As people in Atlanta and its suburbs digested gripping and emotional testimony, what they saw wasn’t just the behavior of Ms. Willis, but a test for their views on race, gender, justice and the city they call home.

Ms. Willis’s sharpest critics, backers of the former president, relished what they saw as the error that could pull her off the case — endangering, if not entirely torpedoing, a prosecution that some legal experts regard as one of the strongest ones against Mr. Trump.

The biggest fear of some of her supporters is that those critics are correct.

“I just wish she would’ve made better decisions,” said Andrea Maia, a recent college graduate living in Atlanta, who is otherwise sympathetic to and supportive of Ms. Willis. “I wouldn’t have done it.”

The testimony came as part of a hearing this week to decide whether Ms. Willis’s romantic and financial relationship with Nathan Wade, an outside lawyer she hired to help lead the prosecution, amounted to a conflict of interest and whether she should be removed from the case.

The hearing — and the broader turbulence over the relationship — has been closely watched by many in Fulton County, who would make up the jury pool in a trial and will ultimately decide whether Ms. Willis, who is up for re-election, should remain in office.

But the reaction to her testimony — which she decided to give despite the misgivings of some colleagues — has also generated sympathy and more support, as many believe that she should remain on the case and not need to have her personal life put on such vivid display.

“I think some people are probably going to come away from this testimony with more faith in Fani Willis,” said Adrienne Jones, a political science professor at Morehouse College in Atlanta, who followed the testimony and was disturbed by the spectacle that surrounded it.

“She braved the breach and said I’m going to speak for myself here and tell you what’s going on,” Professor Jones said. “Some people are going to respect that.”

Jessica Browne, who lives in Atlanta, said she was one of them.

She acknowledged that she had known little about Ms. Willis or the finer points of the case accusing Mr. Trump and his allies of conspiring to overturn his election loss in Georgia in 2020.

“I appreciated the way she defended herself,” Ms. Browne, 42, said.

“She didn’t break any laws,” she added. “Donald Trump did.”

The hearing has come with enormous stakes as many of Mr. Trump’s opponents fear that the prosecution could unravel if Ms. Willis is removed and the case is reassigned to another Georgia prosecutor , who could make changes to the case or drop it entirely.

“I think a lot of people saw this case as one of the stronger cases, if not the strongest, against Trump,” said Zachary Peskowitz, an associate professor of political science at Emory.

If Ms. Willis is taken off the case and it does not move forward as Mr. Trump’s critics hope, the outcome could have disastrous political consequences for Ms. Willis. “That’s going to be devastating,” he said.

But even if Ms. Willis remains, some fear that the attention paid to the relationship and the allegations of impropriety could undermine the prosecution.

“It stokes doubt in members of a Fulton County jury, it stokes doubt in the process of the prosecution,” Professor Jones said. She added: “These are all negatives that take our focus away from whether or not under Georgia law the former president and his colleagues have the right to engage in the kind of behavior they were engaging in.”

Chris Sandbach, a personal injury lawyer, called the hearing a “political circus.” He said he did not believe there was “any objective evidence of any wrongdoing.”

“This was a public smearing, for lack of a better word,” he said. “This is not a defense, this is politics.”

But Scottie Dennis, Jr., 39, believed the entire prosecution was motivated by politics and animosity toward Mr. Trump.

“Everybody and their momma knows, as we say here in the South, that if he weren’t running for re-election there wouldn’t be a case against him,” said Mr. Dennis, a supporter of Mr. Trump living in Northwest Atlanta.

The opponents of Ms. Willis reveling in the situation are not only political ones, but also the sort of enemies prosecutors rack up on the job, like Latasha Kendrick, the mother of Yak Gotti, one of the rappers charged in a racketeering case brought by Ms. Willis against the YSL, the rap record label prosecutors have characterized as a gang.

“She’s about to get a taste of her own medicine,” Ms. Kendrick said as she watched the hearing from the Atlanta courthouse. “She don’t look like the big bad wolf now.”

Some argue that Ms. Willis has faced added scrutiny because of her race and gender.

“If she was not a woman and Black, I don’t think she would have gone through this,” said Bishop Reginald T. Jackson, the presiding prelate for African Methodist Episcopal Church in Georgia, who has been a vocal ally of Ms. Willis and has prayed with and counseled her privately in recent weeks.

“What this was all about was distraction and delay,” he said. “I think it’s time to move on.”

Kamina Pinder, a law professor at Emory University, agreed that Ms. Willis should not be disqualified, but found her actions — including having a relationship with a lawyer working for her — were troubling.

“Everything she does is going to be scrutinized, so for her to do this is just bizarre,” Professor Pinder said. “As a Black woman, I know there are unique challenges when you’re in a position of power, but that doesn’t excuse behavior that was dubious and unethical.”

Devon Rogers, 37, a musician who recently moved to Atlanta from Memphis, said the circumstances seem to confirm that romance can give way to ill-advised choices.

He had seen in news reports the questions about Mr. Wade’s qualifications for the position. “I don’t know if that’s true,” he said. “But how can she even take a chance putting him up there?”

Her actions, he said, could damage the case and give Mr. Trump’s lawyers material that could help him avoid a conviction.

“Should she be disqualified? I can’t say,” Mr. Rogers said. “But I think she’s been her own worst enemy.”

Rick Rojas is a national correspondent covering the American South. He has been a staff reporter for The Times since 2014. More about Rick Rojas

Our Coverage of the Trump Case in Georgia

Former president donald trump and 18 others face a sprawling series of charges for their roles in attempting to interfere in the state’s 2020 presidential election..

RICO Charges:  At the heart of the indictment in Georgia  are racketeering charges under the state Racketeering Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act . Here’s why such charges  could prove to be a powerful tool for the prosecution .

Who Else Was Indicted?:   Rudy   Giuliani , who led legal efforts in several states to keep the former president in power, and Mark Meadows , the former White House chief of staff, were among the 18 Trump allies  charged in the case.

Plea Deals: Sidney K. Powell , Kenneth Chesebro  and Jenna Ellis  — three lawyers indicted with Trump in the case — pleaded guilty and agreed to cooperate with prosecutors   against the former president.

Lt. Gov. Burt Jones: Since the indictment of Trump and his allies, a question has gone unanswered: Would charges also be filed against the longtime Trump supporter? It is now up to a state agency to find a special prosecutor to investigate him .

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Black woman in pink speaking into a microphone in a court room

Fani Willis must prove herself before a judge, her voters and the whole country

The consequences will reverberate across the US if the Fulton county district attorney is bumped off the Trump election-interference case

When Fani Willis took the stand to trade sharp elbows with lawyers defending Donald Trump and his co-defendants, she stood before three audiences.

But Willis only really cares about two of them.

The first is an audience of one: the superior court judge Scott McAfee, who will rule sometime two weeks or so from now on whether Willis, the special prosecutor Nathan Wade and the rest of the Fulton county district attorney’s office will continue to handle the Trump trial, or if instead it will be handed to another attorney chosen by the Prosecuting Attorneys’ Council of Georgia .

If Willis is bumped off the case, it almost certainly means there will be no resolution before the US presidential election in November, in which Trump is almost certainly going to be the Republican nominee for president again.

Willis and her team have been presenting evidence and testimony to rebut questions about financial motivations for pressing the case against Trump by showing how much personal harm Willis and her staff have had to endure in the process. Willis’s father, the venerable civil rights attorney John C Floyd, gave florid testimony today about the death threats and harassment that drove Willis from her home as she prosecuted the case, for example.

McAfee recognizes high-drama courtroom confrontations for what they are: irrelevant to the legal question. He must decide whether the appearance of impropriety and the legal question of alleged unjust enrichment raised by the defense are sufficient to create an appellate court problem if Trump and others are convicted at trial. Has there been misconduct, and is removing Willis the appropriate remedy under the law if there has been misconduct? That’s the legal question.

But it’s not the only issue for Fani Willis , who is up for re-election in 263 days.

Until this moment, Willis looked like an unbeatable shoo-in for re-election. She is, arguably, the highest-profile district attorney in the US today, and she’s as recognizable to a Fulton county voter as the president, the governor or Georgia’s senators. In a game of name recognition … well, people have stopped mispronouncing her first name in Atlanta now.

But the revelation that she had been dating a highly paid office subordinate while working on a trial with the presidency on the line raises questions about her judgment. She may be contemplating a political challenger, who will argue that Willis is not the one to continue the case … assuming it is still in court in November.

Her challenge here was to remind voters why they voted for her in the first place: to aggressively confront crime in Atlanta. Willis beat a 20-year incumbent in 2020 amid sharply rising crime and issues with prosecutions by her predecessor. She won in part by arguing that she would get the job done where her previous boss could not.

Willis has to make her case to the Fulton county voters that she’s still their best choice. That’s where the sharp elbows and Black cultural callbacks on the stand come from: she’s speaking to the second audience – the primarily Black, majority-female, predominantly Democratic Fulton county electorate who is watching all of this unfold and dreading the possibility that the county’s chance to impose justice on the powerful may be slipping through her fingers.

By showing her grief and rage, she humanizes herself before this audience, which is likely to be sympathetic to the horrors of a Black professional’s love life aired like a reality television show before the American public as a Trump defendant’s legal ploy.

It’s telling, perhaps, that Atlanta’s mayor, Andre Dickens, and the former mayor Shirley Franklin were both in attendance at the hearing on Friday morning, ostensibly as a show of political and moral support for Willis.

There is, of course, a third audience: every other person in the free world.

Americans of all political stripes recognize that there’s a lot riding on the outcome of this case. Of all the criminal and civil cases Trump faces today, a conviction in Georgia is the only one for which he is almost certain to do time in prison, because there’s effectively no pardon power to save him. And Trump’s recorded phone call provides powerful evidence for a prosecutor to present to a jury.

Voters across the country have a stake in the outcome here. But the only voters who count for Willis’s purposes are the ones who live in Fulton county. Until that changes, she’s not going to care what the others think.

  • Fani Willis
  • Donald Trump
  • US politics
  • US elections 2024

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