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What Is Project Management?
A project is an undertaking by one or more people to develop and create a service, product or goal. Project management is the process of overseeing, organizing and guiding an entire project from start to finish. Here are more facts about project management.
Project Management Helps Teams Work Together
A competent project manager pulls together all of the people involved in a project to ensure that tasks are done cooperatively and with regard to the tasks’ effects on other people’s project outcomes. For example, when a new building is being constructed, a project manager will schedule electrical wiring installation before scheduling installation of light fixtures and electrical equipment. If the lighting crew is scheduled before the structure is wired, the lighting crew wastes time arriving on site only to find they can’t perform their work.
Project managers also schedule meetings between various teams to foster cooperation and increased communication about projects. In the example above, the project manager may schedule a meeting during which the electricians explain the wiring, wall-switch operation and receptacle layout to the lighting contractors. Both teams communicate their needs and concerns to help the project move forward without delays.
Project Management Performs Vital Processes
According to the Project Management Institute, five main management processes are used to see a project through to completion. The five processes are:
- Monitoring and controlling
At the initiating phase, key individuals share ideas about a proposed project. In the planning stages, the project is defined and schedules are created to complete the project in a defined time frame. Execution of the project requires organizing and scheduling supplies, materials and workers to complete the project. Monitoring and controlling in project management is the process of inspecting work, crunching budget numbers and keeping track of deadlines. Closing the project involves site cleanup, turning over the project to the owner, collecting payments and scheduling meetings to discuss the lessons learned from a project.
Project Management Focuses on Key Areas of Knowledge
Project management draws on a diverse set of skills. While project managers don’t need to have in-depth knowledge of all key skill areas, they do need to have a basic understanding of the limitations and concerns of each knowledge area. Project managers need to view a project in its entirety and understand the relationships between costs, quality, supply procurement, human resources, communication, risk management and stakeholder management.
Project Management Requires Document Management
A competent project manager organizes all documentation including invoices, e-mails, bids, proposals, permits, and project changes. The project manager ensures documents are submitted on time and to the correct businesses, agencies or individuals. The project manager is also responsible for secure storage of all project documents.
Project Management Helps Meet Goals
Project management is a relatively new field of practice and study but has become a proven method to meet lofty goals and bring diverse groups of people together for a common purpose.
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Project Management and Organizational Structure
Project management is based on effective structure and coordination of all stages. High value-added production processes in adaptable and flexible organizations place new demands on employees’ skills, competence, and commitment to organizational goals. The book A Guide to the Project Management underlines that the main characteristics of projects are: “performed by people, constrained by limited resources and planned, executed and controlled” (p. 4).
A matrix structure.
Some projects are based on matrix structure. Matrix structure means having the resources, competences, and desire to solve problems where they occur. Work unit members thus gain a sense of control, as uncertainties about fluctuations and problems arising from the organizational context can be largely eliminated. Production problems can be addressed quickly and with greater flexibility.For example, members of a socio-technical system unit ought to be in a position to execute and make decisions about all aspects related to the accomplishment of the unit’s primary task (Badiru, 1993). In matrix structure, the supervisor, in general, does not make decisions internal to the socio-technical unit but focuses on boundary management in order to minimize disruptions to the unit’s functioning. This often involves coordination with other units whose work may influence or depend on this unit’s work. The supervisor’s responsibility, for example, is to make sure all necessary materials and documents are available, technical experts are at hand when needed, and so forth. If the technical and organizational design creates self-regulating, relatively independent organizational units, the supervisor takes on a support rather than a control function, aimed at fostering self-regulation and independence of the unit within the organizational environment. This involves managing the relationships and linkages between the unit and other parts of the organization, thus providing a buffer function. Direct supervisory interference and control of the activities of the unit’s group members becomes unnecessary. The determination of a meaningful primary task usually involves a number of interdependent work activities (Balogun and Hailey, 2004).
The project type selection is explained by the nature of work and project goals. The design of matrix structure thus leads to mostly team-oriented forms of work organization. These teams are called autonomous or self-managed work groups. Of course, no single group in any organization can be completely autonomous or independent from other organizational units; it can only be semi-autonomous. Autonomous groups are learning systems focused on a meaningful primary task usually involving a number of interrelated jobs or sets of work tasks (Burnes, 2004). As groups are able to control more and more of the variances encountered, their problem-solving capabilities increase, which can be used to enhance performance and to accommodate group members’ personal needs In order for people to work cooperatively, the primary task must be defined so the group members see it as a team project. This includes all activities involved, such as machine operating, setup, production planning, and clerical tasks. If tasks are assigned so that each team member has a specific area of responsibility for which only he or she is held accountable, the overarching common interest is missing. The notion of a team project implies that the work activities required for the completion of the overall task are perceived by the group as internally coherent (Burkun, 2005). The product or task outcome ought to be clearly identifiable both qualitatively and quantitatively. In order to succeed, a work group can hardly be held accountable for its product if task elements or errors from other groups in the organization might influence the outcome but cannot be traced to their original source in the final product. Among other things, the internal coherence of a work process is determined by the equipment layout and the design of the technical system (Brooks, 2009).
The projected structure
The projected structure is based on a sequence of steps. In many projects, the work team has to have access to all the means of information and communication necessary to accomplish the overall task. Comprehensibility is enhanced if the spatial organization of each workplace allows for spontaneous communication and if the group has its own clearly identifiable “territory.” If a work group sees its overall task as a collective activity with mutual responsibilities, the group, within the constraints of agreed upon quality and health and safety standards, takes on the responsibility for internal task allocation and with it the self-regulation of individual activities (Blanchard and Johnson, 2002). Internal coordination and control by a supervisor are replaced by outcome-oriented process supervision on the part of the group as a whole. The decision latitude for internal task distribution depends on the skill and competence level of the work group members. The range of competences has to be seen in the context of group size and the complexity of the overall task. In larger groups with more complex tasks, overlapping competences might be sufficient; in other words, not every person has to be able to do everything (Child, 2005). Competence increases as time goes on, as individuals acquire new skills and problem-solving capabilities. Multi-skiling and task rotation can vary according to individual preferences and their current level of competence, allowing group members to find suitable niches. Competence is essential to successful teamwork because if a person fails to perform competently, team members are likely to resent the person and behave negatively. In order to rely on internal flexibility to deal with personnel fluctuations due to absences or changing output requirements, adequate personnel resources and sufficient time for planning are needed in addition to a certain degree of multi-skilling of group members. Then the group will be able to balance the variances on its own. This also allows the group to plan its work activities over a longer time period. Based on the principle of self-regulation, the work group has to be able to set its own norms and rules for internal cooperation and the resolution of problems and conflicts. These norms and rules are likely to reflect the characteristics of the group’s composition (Frame, 2002). The failure pf such projects can be explained by inadequate project planning and poor control methods.
Functional project structure
The projects focused on functional work organization characteristics in support of joint optimization. It reflects the structural arrangements that foster competence development processes and optimal organizational performance. For the design of individual work activities, however, additional criteria have to be considered that address the needs of the individual for physical and psychological well-being and development (Kornfeld and Rupp, 2002). Each individual is different. We all know that, and yet we tend to design jobs as if such differences didn’t exist. Different strokes for different folks what is good for one person may not be appropriate for another. In order to take people’s varying abilities, skills, and needs into account two basic principles have to be considered in the design of work activities: variable job design and developmental job design. The principle of developmental job design takes into account the potential for individual change over time. That means that options to change and move into different jobs ought to be available in the course of a person’s work life (Hayes, 2002). The job I like today may not be the job I’d like to do tomorrow. The frequently voiced statement about finding the right person for the job is based on a static perspective that different people fit in different predetermined slots. As job demands and/or individuals needs, preferences, and competences change, work assignments should be reexamined periodically together with the employee affected. Rather than seeing individual needs and motivations as barriers to job design, they should be viewed as opportunities to respond to changing demands as flexibly as possible (Fayol, 1984). The failure pf such projects can be explained by poor job design and poor budgeting.
Economic success in an integrated world economy is likely to be contingent upon the design of work activities and organizational structures that promote the development of employee competence and problem-solving skills. The result: technology is the starting point. Work activity and job design are afterthoughts. People then have to make up for the flaws in the technology by supervising, maintaining, and fixing the equipment (Evans, 1999). Thus human capacity is underutilized and undervalued, based on the assumption that the functioning of the whole system is dependent on how well the technology works. Production systems can be optimized only if both the technical and the social systems are jointly optimized. Only then can technology be viewed as the product of design choices rather as a fait accompli. Technology frequently becomes a driving force if it is developed and implemented without consideration of the social system, which is usually “adjusted” after technology has been introduced. Yet, technology does not have to be a fixed factor; it offers choices and options (Laudon and Laudon, 2006).
Real life Examples
In independent projects, consensus decision-making process is aimed at the efforts of both parties (union and management) to negotiate the “best” solution. This process allows any of the parties to block a potential decision. However, the party opposing the decision must search for alternatives. This decision-making process is used at all organizational levels (Owens and Wilson, 1996). At the core of the production process is the self-directed work unit that understands and can accomplish the tasks within its area of responsibility without direction. Team leadership is rotating. The unit makes its own work assignments, resolves its own conflicts, plans its work, designs its jobs, controls its own scrap and its materials and inventory, performs equipment maintenance, organizes communication within and outside the group, keeps its own records, selects new members for the unit, seeks continuous improvement, does its own budgeting, and schedules vacations, absences, and so forth. The decentralized organization also led to considerable variation among teams; in some, workers are more likely to cling to established methods and work patterns, and in others highly qualified workers take iniative and continuously strive to develop new methods and improvements. In 1990 differences among teams were considerable: some had no problem achieving the productivity and quality standards, while others lagged far behind. In response, the company tried to create an economic incentive for the weaker teams through a bonus system at the work group level. The union’s response was reluctance, pointing out the danger that certain group members might be pushed out of the group. The differences in the production design concepts and forms of work organization illustrated by these examples are the result of a variety of factors, among them labor market conditions, the economic positions of the companies involved, the market niche served, the system of labor-management relations in a given nation, as well as management philosophies and values (Madanmohan, 2004). It has been argued that the stringent Japanese management system requires a certain social context for it to function. It is not surprising that Japanese transplants in the United States and Europe (mostly Great Britain) were typically located in areas with high unemployment, allowing for a very selective recruitment of a workforce with few alternative choices. Where possible, they also tried to avoid unionization of transplants or negotiated labor contracts with weak union influence over job classifications, work assignments, overtime requests, and so forth. In countries such as Germany, the application of Japanese management principles has run into considerable difficulties (Pugh and Hickson, 2003). The permanent violation of worker codetermination rights has led to a number of court disputes. Management requests that employees work great amounts of overtime or not us all their legally granted vacation days were a frequent source of conflict In terms of the degree to which these production concepts provide opportunities for competence development and collective decision-making latitude at the work group and individual level, the three plants can be viewed on a continuum. While production at all three plants is based on work groups, the range of responsibilities and the scope of activities performed by the individual and the group vary greatly (Stacey, 2005). At one end is Mazda, where the work units as they are currently operating seem to provide very little opportunity for individual and group competence development or multiskilling at all levels. Uddevalla, at the other end of the continuum, offers the greatest task variety, with long work cycles and broad responsibilities assigned to the work teams. It is thus not the purpose of this comparison simply to point to one of these concepts as the best one. Each developed in a particular context, and all have their advantages and their limitations. Particularly in the case of Uddevalla and Saturn, the jury is still out; it is too early to tell if the currently implemented forms of work organization will and can be maintained. Some skeptics argue that the Uddevalla concept might be workable in the production of expensive luxury cars built to customer specifications, but that it cannot become a model for the production of large numbers of smaller, less expensive cars for which there is a greater demand. Joint optimization means more than merely adapting the technical system to the social system or vice versa; it involves the design of the socio-technical system as a whole. This does not mean that joint optimization has to focus on the organization as a whole or even encompass a department. System design or redesign can start in smaller units that perform a relatively independent task. Such units, however, always encompass more than a single job on an assembly line, for example, because each such job is dependent on preceding and subsequent tasks (Sheldrake, 2003). This leads to the search for “natural work groups” or groups of jobs that, together, make up a self-contained part of the total production process or primary task. At the core of each sociotechnical system unit is its primary task. Each unit’s task is derived from the primary task of the organization as a whole and the primary tasks of other higher level system units. The primary task is the transformation process of a given (sub)system. In an automotive engine plant, for example, the primary task of a sociotechnical unit might be to produce pistons (Tiwana, 2005). This task is derived from the plant’s task of producing engines, which in turn contributes to the organization’s primary purpose, producing cars. Independence refers to the identification of the smallest organizational units (work groups or teams, for example), which are assigned a primary task that can be executed relatively independently. The design of such units sometimes requires a technical solution first (Frame, 2002).
The analysis shows that the production process may have to be reorganized into relatively self-contained, indirectly linked processes that are connected to each other in a modular design with built-in production flow buffers for each unit. If work is designed from a purely technical perspective, people often end up with a job that in itself has no meaning. The project should have input in the selection of its members. Group norms and values, however, have to be consistent with overarching values, principles, and guidelines of the total organization or, in the case of unionized firms, with both the employer’s and the union’s beliefs and values. This will prevent the emergence of narrow group self-interest and will help preserve equities among the entire workforce. Thus a balance must be maintained between decentralization of rules and unit functional autonomy and consistency of certain principles and practices across units. Otherwise, autonomous units will tend to develop animosity and competitive relations with other units. A coordinator might be elected by the group to handle external communication. To avoid the development of hierarchies or unintended supervisory roles and conflicts of interest, the role of the coordinator should be rotated. Regardless of the particular system adopted (e.g., if the group decides to work without a coordinator), communication rules with external units have to be specified to clarify responsibilities and communication flow.
Badiru, A.B. (1993). Quantitative Models for Project Planning , Scheduling and Control. Quorum Books.
Balogun J. and V.H. Hailey (2004), Exploring Strategic Change , Pearson Education, 2 nd edition.
Burkun, S. (2005), The Art of Project Management . O’Reilly Media; 1 ed.
Burnes B. (2004), Managing Change: A Strategic Approach to Organisational Dynamics , FT Prentice Hall, 4 th edition
Blanchard, K., Johnson, S. (2002). The One Minute Manager. Berkley Trade.
Brooks, I., (2009). Organizational Behaviour: Individuals, Groups and Organization . 4th edition, Essex, Pearson Education Limited
Child, J. (2005), Organization: contemporary principles and practice . Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
A Guide to the Project Management: Body of knowledge . PMBOK Guide 2000 edition. Project management Institute.
Frame, J.D. (2002). The New Project Management: Tools for an Age of Rapid Change , Complexity , and Other Business Realities . Jossey-Bass.
Kornfeld, R., Rupp, K. (2002). The Net Effects of the Project NetWork Return-to-Work Case Management Experiment on Participant Earnings, Benefit Receipt and Other Outcomes. Social Security Bulletin , 63 (1): 12.
Frame, J.D. (2002), The New Project Management: Tools for an Age of Rapid Change, Complexity, and Other Business Realities. Jossey-Bass.
Hayes J. (2002), The Theory and Practice of Change Management , Palgrave Macmillan.
Fayol, H. (1984). General and industrial management . Rev.ed. Gray Irwin, Pitman
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Evans, D., (1999). Supervisory management: principles and practice . 5th edition, London, Thomson Learning
Laudon, K. C. & Laudon, J. P. (2005), Management Information Systems: Managing the Digital Firm, 9th Edition.
Madanmohan, R. (2004). Knowledge Management Tools and Techniques: Practitioners and Experts Evaluate KM Solutions. Butterworth-Heinemann; 1 edition.
Owens, I. Wilson, T. (1996), Information and Business Performance: A Study of Information Systems and Services in High Performing Companies . Bowker-Saur.
Pugh, D. and Hickson, D. (2003). Great Writers on Organizations . 3rd Edition, Hampshire, Ashgate Publishing Limited.
Sheldrake, J., (2003). Management Theory . 2nd edition, London, Thomson Learning.
Stacey, R. (2005). Strategic management and Organizational Dynamics , 2 ed., London, Pitman.
Tiwana, A. (2005). Knowledge Management Toolkit, The: Practical Techniques for Building a Knowledge Management System . Pearson Education.
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Writing project management essays
Here are some key areas for discussion when writing an essay about project management:
Project Planning: The process of defining project objectives, creating a project plan, and developing project schedules and budgets.
Risk Management: The identification, assessment, and management of project risks, including strategies for risk mitigation and contingency planning.
Project Execution: The process of implementing the project plan and managing project resources, including project team members, stakeholders, and external vendors.
Project Monitoring and Control: The process of tracking project progress, monitoring project performance, and taking corrective action when necessary.
Project Closure: The process of completing the project and ensuring that project objectives have been achieved, including finalizing project deliverables, evaluating project performance, and conducting a post-project review.
Project Leadership: The role of project managers as leaders who must motivate and inspire project team members, communicate project goals and objectives, and resolve conflicts and challenges.
Agile Project Management: An iterative and flexible approach to project management that emphasizes collaboration, customer feedback, and rapid prototyping.
Project Portfolio Management: The process of managing multiple projects within an organization to ensure alignment with organizational goals and objectives.
Human Resource Management: The process of identifying, hiring, and developing project team members, including strategies for team building, motivation, and performance management.
Communication Management: The process of planning, executing, and controlling project communication, including communication plans, status reports, and stakeholder engagement strategies.
These are just a few examples of the many possible areas that could be discussed in an essay about project management. Depending on the specific focus and scope of the essay, other topics and areas of discussion could also be explored.
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- Beyond Waterfall: Exploring Innovative Approaches to Project Management
- The Role of Technology in Modern Project Management
- Quality Management in Project Execution: Strategies for Ensuring Excellence
- Lessons Learned: The Value of Post-Project Reviews and Continuous Improvement.
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Project Management Office and Organisational Structure Essay
In most organizations, to ensure the maximization of the Program/portfolio management, there is the need to ensure a suitable and sustainable environment which is integral in creation of an efficient communicational channel within the organization. (Maizlish & Handler 2013:p.32) In consideration of this fact, the entire organization must establish an organizational structure that is to be used for each and every project.
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The project/portfolio management office is influential in defining the scope and managing business opportunities that arise in new markets. (Maizlish & Handler 2013: p.69)This structure is also important in integration of the required resources that are used in the implementation of key business strategies. (Soyka, 2012: p.17)
To maximize and sustain the gains of project /portfolio management, the organizational structure must be designed in consideration of factors such as the mission of the project, the available support for the project, maturity of the portfolio in terms of viability and the criteria for measuring the success of the project or failure. (Tan & Theodorou, 2009:p.48).
To maximize the value of the PMO, there is the need for sponsors who have belief in the success of the PMO. The value of the program portfolio office is based on the attachment of the sponsors of the project. Phillips & Phillips (2015) Posit that however much the sponsorship could be, the attachment and belief that one has towards the project/portfolio office will determine the relevance of the whole process.
Organizations are expected to establish ways through which the members can be made aware of the value of the portfolio management office. (Tan & Theodorou, 2009: p.51). When the whole organization develops an understanding of their expectations towards the project and even their expected contribution, then it is easier to implement the strategies that may arise from the project/portfolio office.
In addition, to maximize the relevance of the PMO’s to every organization, the management is required to ensure that the projects are followed to completion. These managers are expected to review the project portfolio management office as an integral part of the organizational structure. John (2013) argues that the projects that are designed for the portfolio office have to be accomplished for the PMO to be relevant to the organization. ( Maizlish & Handler 2013:p.10)
Tan & Theodorou (2009) discuss that exploitation of the full benefits of the PMO requires that the managers ensure that they follow through with the whole processes involved in the Project/portfolio management office. They further add that there should be careful consideration of the manner in which changes are introduced. The managers have to find new ways of introducing the changes in line with the functionality of the project /portfolio office.
Considerations should be made whether the changes would influence the PMO positively or negatively (Mello 2006:p.15) Organizations can reap the full benefits of the PMO’s by ensuring that the business strategies are in agreement with the concepts presented by the PMO. This would lead to an integrated approach which would have the advantage of the combination. (Soyka, 2012:p.78)
Maizlish, B., & Handler, R. (2013). It (information technology) portfolio management step-by-step unlocking the business value of technology . Hoboken, N.J., Wiley. Web.
Mello, S. (2006 ). Value innovation portfolio management : Achieving double-digit growth through customer value . Ft. Lauderdale, FL, J. Ross Pub.
Phillips, J. J & Phillips, P. P. (2015). Maximizing the Value of Consulting: A guide for internal and external consultants.
Soyka, P. A. (2012). Creating a sustainable organization : approaches for enhancing corporate value through sustainability. Upper Saddle River, N.J., FT Press.
Tan, A. W. K., & Theodorou, P. (2009). Strategic Information Technology and Portfolio Management . Hershey, PA, Information Science Reference.
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1. IvyPanda . "Project Management Office and Organisational Structure." March 30, 2021. https://ivypanda.com/essays/project-management-office-and-organisational-structure/.
IvyPanda . "Project Management Office and Organisational Structure." March 30, 2021. https://ivypanda.com/essays/project-management-office-and-organisational-structure/.
IvyPanda . 2021. "Project Management Office and Organisational Structure." March 30, 2021. https://ivypanda.com/essays/project-management-office-and-organisational-structure/.
IvyPanda . (2021) 'Project Management Office and Organisational Structure'. 30 March.
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Project Management Essay – 3000 words, 2.1, degree level
Business organizations need to have agile, flexible, and reliable work processes and structures. The twenty first century has created an organizational model that is decentralized. It seeks to create scalable and automated business processes that enable the management to take advantage of new opportunities. A number of tools and methodologies have been devised in order to produce superior outcomes. Project management helps organizations to achieve efficiency and effectiveness. The process needs to be conducted in a reliable and consistent manner. This can be achieved only through logical and practical planning. Effective preparation is the key to success in project management. This paper will seek to explore conception and planning phases of a project. It utilizes research resources in order to derive accurate conclusions.
Brooklyn Technologies is a well known and reputed information technology provider. It provides a plethora of innovative software and hardware solutions to public and private enterprises. I have been working as a project manager for the web solutions department of the organization. London Luggage is an influential and well known player operating in the retail luggage industry. The organization sells diverse travel products that are suited for various consumer segments. Further the organization has expanded its operations into major cities of the United Kingdom. Recently the organization felt the need to create an online website. This e-commerce website would enable its customers to make online purchases for various travel accessories. Brooklyn Technologies provided a customized and specified e-commerce solution to the client.
Project management is concerned with developing, mobilizing, and allocating resources in order to accomplish business targets. Projects are defined as initiatives that have a particular aim and time period (Englund & Graham, 1999: Pg 54). The entire process follows a systematic and methodical approach. Projects are initiated in order to acquire tangible and intangible benefits for the business organization. A project is usually a temporary endeavour that has recognized and identified objectives. Project management requires meticulous planning and preparation. Managers must be able to evaluate the requirements and limitations of specific endeavours.
The primary requirements of the project are analyzed and assessed at the first stage. Project conception is a vital and integral element of project management. Managers are able to investigate the efficiency and effectiveness of projects. According to Cooke & Arzymanow , “Any flaws during the conception process lead to poorly executed projects” (2003: Pg 472). Managers conduct an extensive appraisal of the work environment. This helps them to make realistic assessments regarding the demands of the project. Appropriate strategies can be executed in order to ensure the successful completion of the project. Specific weaknesses can be rectified through a systematic approach.
Project planning is the next step in the management process. Blueprints are designed in order to provide a conceptual framework about project objectives and targets. Managers create models in this stage in order to determine the nature and scope of the project. According to Crawford, “Project planning must be able to devise appropriate controls that satisfy customer desires and requirements” (2002: Pg 23). Project planning is dubbed to be successful if it accomplishes a number of tasks. The project must be able to deliver the tangible and intangible benefits. It should maintain high levels of excellence and quality. It should be created within the given time period. Finally it should be able to suppress the constraints and limitations that were encountered during the process.
Globalization and Internet are dynamic forces which have impacted the business environment in the twenty first century. The Internet has emerged as a powerful medium for conducting business transactions (Evrard & Nieto, 2004: Pg 99). Major organizations have created e-commerce websites in order to increase revenues and profits. London Luggage has become a brand name in the United Kingdom travel accessory market. The organization sought to utilize its brand image, equity, loyal customer base, and innovative business approach to move into the online shopping market. The strategic aim of the organization was to create an online platform exclusively for customers. The organization’s customers would have 24/7 access to its products. They could engage in online shopping within the comfort and relaxation of home environment. The organization would also witness a significant decrease in operational costs. It could target a regional and international target audience through the online portal.
Client and Personal Responsibilities
The sponsor was tasked with the responsibility of providing project details, demands, and objectives. Also the client budget was determined and gauged in order to create a feasible proposal. The sponsor was tasked with the responsibility of providing support and assistance to the project team. Coordination and integration with the sponsor was a vital component of the entire process. End users were frequently consulted in order to obtain valuable feedback and guidance. As a project manager, my duties were to ensure that the conception and planning stages were executed in a smart manner. The first responsibility was to analyze the description and scope of the project. This involved creating specifications that would help in minimizing the presence of flaws, weaknesses, and problems (Evrard & Nieto, 2004: Pg 98). Customer demands and requirements were transformed into obtainable targets. Operations process was evaluated and assessed in the context of the business environment. A conceptual framework was developed in order to provide clarity and direction. The human and technological resources required for the project were evaluated in a prudent manner. A budget was created through methodical financial assessment and appraisal. Project expenses were determined in order to create a viable budget. Stakeholder interests and requirements were taken into consideration during this stage. According to Lim & Zain, “A complete document must be created that consists of expenses, responsibilities, targets, and timetables” (1999: Pg 243). The project planning phase involved a number of activities and responsibilities. It sought to create a viable plan based upon organizational, business, and work force demands. The functions of the website were determined by using a smart approach. Quality standards were designed in order to ensure superior outcomes. Monitoring and performance appraisal systems were designed in order to reduce or mitigate problems. Specific control systems were designed in order to track team progress. Team leaders were selected in order to provide frequent updates about the project execution. My duties involved providing regular updates and details to senior management. Extensive documentation and reports were used in order to ensure superior outcomes.
Team Member Selection
Project management teams comprise of qualified and competent members that are able to attain universal targets. The project team is an imperative element of project management. As a project manager, I selected team members based upon the required skills and competencies. Forming has been described as the preliminary step towards the creation of a team. Each team member must be able to demonstrate high levels of organizational dedication and job contentment (Nicholas & Steyn, 2008: Pg 56). Web developers, web designers, database designers, and graphics designers were selected to form the project team. Individual roles were described and defined. I debriefed the work team about the objectives, targets, time period, and budget of the customer. Storming is the second stage of project team formation. According to Nicholas & Steyn, “The project targets are elucidated in a clear and precise manner to the work team during this stage” (2008: Pg 56). During this stage, I addressed the concerns and apprehensions of the work team. Individual members were directed to use their skills for allocated duties. My duty in this stage was to create a supportive and cooperative work environment. Studies have identified norming as the third stage in the formation of project teams. The project team was empowered to apply creativity and innovation in order to accomplish job tasks. Performing is the final stage of the project team creation. I created an assessment instrument in order to monitor the performance of the work team. The system utilized several benchmarks like quality, quantity, cost effectiveness, time management, and communication skills in order to gauge the project progress.
Strengths and Weaknesses
Empirical studies have demonstrated a number of crucial variables that enable the success of project teams. The team must have superior levels of enthusiasm, dedication, and passion during the project implementation. Tasks should be divided amongst the work force in order to ensure quality and excellence (Pinto & Trailer, 1998: Pg 123). Finally the project manager should be able to deliver clear, precise, and accurate instructions to the project team. My project team had high levels of motivation and stimulus. They were enthusiastic in performing the various assigned tasks. A collaborative team environment helped to minimize work force conflicts and disputes. Project objectives and targets were understood in an apparent and lucid manner. I sought to understand and perceive the apprehensions and requirements of the work force. However it is also a fact that a number of constraints were encountered during the process. Website designers and graphics designers had poor communication skills. They were unable to provide consistent and reliable customer services to the sponsor. Delegation and autonomy was also a significant bottleneck during the project execution. Some team members began to procrastinate that temporarily slowed the project pace. The identification and recognition of problems suggests that the team members must be given training and development. Communication skills are vital for the success of any services oriented organization. Customer satisfaction is the main objective of business objectives. According to Turner, “Some individuals are technically proficient but lack basic communication skills” (1999: Pg 87). Training should focus on developing high levels of association and interaction between the staff and sponsor. Finally delegation should be practiced in a systematic and methodical manner. Protocols should be established to reduce or mitigate the chances of procrastination.
Project Quality Standards and Performance Measures
Quality control is an important element of project management. According to Morris, “It comprises of appraisal and testing procedures that ensure completion of project according to appropriate criterion” (1994: Pg 152). Quality checking is involved during the different phases of the project. It does not involve a set of final procedures during project completion. The e-commerce website was designed using practical and logical quality standards. An extensive quality management system was deployed in order to track the progress of the project. The website design was created according to business to consumer standards. Extensive documentation was provided for the various project phases. A series of inspections and tests were periodically performed to determine the efficacy of the website. I designed an information technology business model for the sponsor. This was based upon the sponsor requirements and demands. Quality standards involved the design, functionality, compatibility, flexibility, reliability, and agility of the business website. A number of performance measures were determined through mutual consultation and guidance. Functionality was defined as the ability of the website to execute its proposed purpose. This process involved identifying and recognizing the features available on the website for customers. Performance was another variable utilized to determine the success of the project. This variable sought to establish the ability of the website in satisfying stakeholder objectives (Bryde, 2003: Pg 775). A website can function properly only if it has consistency and reliability. These variables were utilized throughout the project in order to create uniform guidelines. Finally timeliness and suitability were used as variables to establish the performance of the website.
Appropriate Management Plan
Project management can be successful only if it is properly planned and organized. The online portal project for London Luggage involved systematic and methodical planning. My first duty was to conduct an appraisal of the opportunities that the project offered. This process involved conducting assessment of organizational strengths and weaknesses. Risk management was also extensively covered during this phase. Key corporate objectives were identified and recognized for the project. Broad objectives were first determined while operational details were filled at a later time period. A number of viable options were determined according to the customer specifications and requirements. According to Bryde, “The potential outcome of various options needs to be explored and analyzed using various tools” (2003: Pg 777). Finally the appropriate option for the customer was determined and designed. Project planning is successful only if the manager has an accurate illustration of goals and targets (Bryde, 2003: Pg 776). My job was to ensure that efficient and effective procedures would be implemented in order to produce superior business outcomes. A comprehensive and viable project plan was designed by taking into account various variables. I conducted a review in order to determine any flaws or weaknesses. The management plan was finalized after consulting with stakeholders. This plan was proposed as the best course of action. It would seek to accomplish the sponsor targets and objectives. It would be completed within the given timeframe and budget.
Project Planning and Management Tools
Empirical studies have documented a number of superior project planning and management tools. The overall aim of these tools is to ensure that project targets are executed in a smart and prudent manner. Another advantage of these tools is that they help to create an efficient and effective plan. Plus/Minus/Interesting (PMI) was a planning tool utilized during the project conception and planning. This tool helps managers to determine the advantages and disadvantages of a specific approach (Nicholas & Steyn, 2008: Pg 66). PMI helped me to decide the best database for the online portal. Another tool that was utilized was the cost/benefit analysis. This tool helps to determine the operational and administrative expenses incurred during the project. It helped create a viable and realistic business proposal for the sponsor according to the latter’s budget constraints. Force Field Analysis was used in order to understand the external and internal environmental variables that impact the project (Nicholas & Steyn, 2008: Pg 72). This technique helped me to determine the various features that would be available on the website. For instance I determined that two login panels must be created for buyers. These panels would be separate for new and old clients. It would assist the organization in creating promotional schemes for its customers based upon their loyalty and dedication.
Checking Project Plans
Project plans were evaluated through an efficient and logical approach. The first task was to ensure that the project team was accomplishing their targets. Specific benchmarks like schedule, work, and budget were used to assess the performance of the work team (Evrard & Nieto, 2004: Pg 99). Specific data was accumulated in order to monitor the success of the project. I devised a number of contingency plans in order to respond to unforeseeable circumstances. The work team was subdivided into four groups. A team leader provided real time information about the various tasks and procedures. An information management system was installed in order to provide extensive documents and reports about the progress of the project. A number of flaws and loopholes were identified during the project management process. End user training for the sponsor was being conducted in an ad hoc and haphazard manner. This was rectified by an extensive program of debriefing to the work team. End user concerns and apprehensions were documented and collected in order to provide a robust response (Evrard & Nieto, 2004: Pg 99). Another problem occurred during the transfer of organizational data into the website database. London Luggage did not have an advanced database system. This was rectified by systematically and logically sorting out various data. Information was processed in a smart and prudent manner.
Monitoring and Control Measures
Monitoring and control is an integral element of project management. The overall aim of this process is to ensure coordination and harmonization of various activities. Project activities were calculated and estimated by using various procedures. A number of variables were identified and recognized. These variables were evaluated through the basic objectives and aims. The entire process was conducted in a systematic and methodical manner. It was done in order to produce superior business outcomes for the business organization. Project conception and planning stages involved creating milestones. This process involved the application of dynamic and proactive business strategies. It sought to create an optimized and integrated process that would enable superior organizational outcomes. Corrective actions were undertaken during the entire process whenever flaws or inefficiencies were detected. Risk management was conducted in order to ensure success of the program.
Project management is an intricate and complex discipline that involves a number of variables. It is concerned with scheduling, classifying, and allocating resources for project execution. A project is an endeavour that has a specific target and time period. Project management involves a number of different phases. Project conception involves the process of identifying and recognizing objectives. It seeks to develop an efficient and effective plan for attaining organizational goals. Project conception helps the management to devise an appropriate course of action. Another important stage is the project planning. During this phase, a comprehensive and viable execution plan is developed. This phase helps to create a conceptual framework that guides the managers in attaining business goals. London Luggage required an online website that would enhance its sales and revenues. It was designed to take advantage of the information technology revolution. My responsibilities as a project manager were to ensure that goals were accomplished. It consisted of creating an appropriate framework for project execution. Client requirements and demands needed to be satisfied. Budget and time constraints needed to be taken into account during project management. A project team was selected based upon specific competencies and skills. This process involved motivating and stimulating the work force. It consisted of giving them detailed instructions about work duties. Quality and performance standards were designed based upon specific benchmarks. Appropriate project management tools were utilized in order to create an efficient and effective process. Finally monitoring and control procedures were implemented in order to ensure that organizational and business goals were achieved.
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Crawford, J.K. 2002. Project management maturity model: Providing a proven path to project management excellence. Project Management Solutions, Inc. Havertown, Pennsylvania USA
Evrard, D. and Nieto-Rodriguez, A. 2004. Boosting business performance through programme and project management. PriceWaterhouseCoopers
Lim, C.S. and Zain Mohamed, M. 1999. Criteria of project success: An exploratory re-examination, International Journal of Project Management, 17(4), 243-248
Nicholas, J. M. and Steyn, H. 2008. Project management for business and technology, Butterworth-Heinemann, London (in press).
Pinto, J.K. and Trailer, J.T. 1998. Leadership Skills for Project Managers, Project Management Institute, Newton Square, PA.
Turner, J.R. 1999. Handbook of Project-based Management: Improving the Process for Achieving Strategic Objectives, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, London
Morris, P.W.G. 1994. The Management of Projects, Thomas Telford, London
Bryde, J.D. 2003. Project management concepts, methods and application, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 23 No. 7, pp. 775-93.
Essay on Project Management Process
Project management is a tool used to ensure maximum utilization of goods and resources available to achieve specific goals of a project. The main objective of this paper is to show how project management plays an important role in ensuring the project in question succeeds. It also points out the risks that are likely to be encountered and how who can manage them. This is important since it helps the project manager to plan and strategies.
The business has shifted from local to global. As a result of this, there is increased competition among the companies. There is a need for any company to increase and develop new systems to meet the competing environment. Project management is applied to ensure the organization meets its goals within the budget and minimizes the costs while meeting the customers’ expectations. The project manager must look into risks that a project is likely to face and factors that will ensure the project succeeds.
Project Management Process
The company can use various methodologies, and the results are always a success, provided the rules set out by the methodology are followed appropriately. In this project, we consider the kanban methodology. The reason for choosing this methodology is because it carries the best outlines. As a result, an adequate workforce is achieved by following the processes outlined in the methodology. Kanban is adopted procedurally and is employed by employment. The main aim of Kanban is to determine setbacks that are likely to disrupt the management process and correct them to achieve a good flow of the process.
The goal of this methodology is to ensure the company produces only enough to avoid waste of resources. Producing more than what is required will amount to a waste of resources. At first, Kanban was developed by the senior management to avoid inefficiency, and inadequate production of Toyota Company compared to other American rivals. Kanban methodology controls the whole chain from the procedure to the consumer. This methodology perfectly increases efficiency in the company’s reliability and flexibility since it can easily adjust to the outstanding conditions in the market. It also requires the attention of the whole process to achieve a required aim.
Firure 1.Kenboard system
Figure 1.2 Kanboard
Kanban methodology ensures that members in a company access information easily. It is suitable because it is easy to understand, and it ensures a good workflow in the system that is already established. The method is also good because it increases efficiency and effectiveness quickly, helps in easy prioritization of activities, and is good in planning within the company. Since the methodology presents visualization, it cooperates efficiently with the tools of managing workflow.
This methodology minimizes the waste of resources since it is effective in the utilization of the available resources. In the case of human resources, this methodology can determine the right people working on their respective perfect job and in a good way. From this, there is an effective use of human resources within the company. To use Kanban successfully, one must implement some principles. Another importance of this methodology is that it can identify non-active members in the company and easily identify an expensive process to avoid it.
One of the principles of this methodology is, ensuring respect to the system that the current members are using and their roles in the company. Poor management of resources is avoided in this methodology because the end goal is to ensure the extra production of goods for a proper and easy flow of the process, which should emphasize communication among the workforce. The methodology ensures this is achieved. It maintains that any employee is required to alert the other about any move they make. The workforce can achieve effective communication by categorizing it into three parts done, still doing, and not done. This will alert the rest of the employees on what to do.
Another principle is emphasizing incremental change rather than radical change on the existing setup. The reason for this is to avoid opposition by the workforce and the organization. Continuous improvement will be realized in various levels of the company as a result of this. Performance is improved by ensuring members are encouraged to express their views and give their ideas.
If this process is followed effectively, there are high chances of completing the project earlier and no wastage of resources. The project groups should have deliverables to ensure there is effective completion of the projects. There is a need to clearly outline technical problems that are likely to be encountered during the process. The plan should also outline the progress to prepare the comparison to incase of any occurrence.
Effective completion is achieved by ensuring the plan should clearly outlining the timelines. The time project starts to the completion of the project. Also, the plan should propose the costs of the project. If the company puts these deliverables in place, it would be easy to complete the project because it has a clear scope. If a project manager needs to change some of the things on the methodology, there is a clear process that they are supposed to follow. The first step to be followed is initiation. This will give a clue to the members about the change and help them prepare to adapt to the change.
Planning follows initiation. In planning, the manager must write down the steps to be followed in the new initiative—some of the things they should not down include a budget and the need for new employees. The new initiative might require a change in budget allocation and more skilled labor to achieve the new objective. Effective planning will ensure there is a smooth process in achieving the new goal. After planning, execution follows. This is to ensure every department in the company adheres to the new change. In this stage, the management sets the ground for implementing the change by giving the workforce mandates and whatever is required to achieve the initiative. After the senior management reaches an agreement, then it is executed.
In addition, the project scope is required. Project scope ensures that the project is completed on time and within the allocated budget. The project groups need to research the fields they choose. There are risks involved in making certain decisions in business; therefore, the research should include them. The research should also include the following, problems that are likely to be encountered in venturing the business, the amount of capital required in case of any changes in the company, and lastly, the policies to be used to achieve the main goal of the company. (Jovanovic,et.al,2018)
Also, the research should be in a position to identify competitors and how competitors manage to achieve their set goals. This will give the company an overview of how others work and give them ideas on what new methods t use to achieve efficiency and maximum production in the company.
There is a need for the project group to visit a consulting firm. From this, they can write a report about the findings and some of the things the company is doing wrongly. They can now strategize on how to improve from their findings. From the findings, the company will follow the right path in achieving the objectives and ensure the company is satisfied from the consultation.
After completing the research and writing of the report, the company would then draft a conclusion from the research and areas that they need to improve on to ensure the company’s success. All the company sectors are required to carry out this research, the finance department, management sectors, and the workforce sector. From this, the company will easily identify specific problems affecting specific departments. In this case, we use a divisional system where different teams working on specific areas must provide detailed information from their specified areas. (Müller,et.al 2019). The final result is then presented to the consulting; the final report should have clear methods and policies to improve the company’s production. With the new deliverables being put in place, the company will have a clear scope of what is required to guarantee the project’s success.
Nonetheless, when the project manager needs to review some of the parts of the methodology and see through its implementation, clear steps need to be followed. Among the factors that the project manager should look into are the financial requirements. This is to make sure that the changes will not alter the budget plan considering the complexity of the project that they are to implement and ensure that the proposed changes will not negatively impact the organization’s work. The other important factor is the political environment. The project manager should check that the policies they intend to implement align with the government of the day policies. The other important factors that the project manager needs to look into before implementing the changes include the size of the change. It is important to consider the size of the change. Big changes take a considerable amount of time before they are fully implemented and thus will slow the organization’s currently running projects. The project manager should also consider the existing relationships between clients and other parties. The change should serve the purpose of creating more unity between them and their clients; additionally, the project manager should be aware of the penalties that come with the implementation of the changes and that they don’t limit the company negatively.
We should also consider the impact of the change on other projects. With the change projected to result in major changes in other projects, the timing of other projects will be affected, leading to significant delays or even terminations of the running projects, thus raising the case of poor project management. Nonetheless, if all factors are according to plan, the last step will be to test if the company can withstand change. If the company is not capable of withstanding the changes, it will be negatively impacted. Therefore, after the series of tests and it is concluded that the company cannot handle change, outside assistance needs to be reported.
The initial step would be to introduce the changes that need to be implemented. This is a crucial step because it allows people affected by the change to reflect and adapt. The next step would be to planning for the change. This step would require the project manager to draft the steps that are to be followed. This is to include the budget if it exists, the areas that need the change, the amount of change included in the new plan, and if there is a need for any new personnel. When planning, it is important to track the progress as it is important in achieving the desired goal. The next step is the execution of the plan. Execution involves setting the plan in motion and ensuring that each department follows the management stipulated changes. The management should set the stage for implementing the changes and ensure that all the members understand what is expected of them. The execution-only starts after the senior management give it the green light to proceed. The project manager is the overall manager of the project, and they are to ensure that all the changes that are made are to be followed by the task force and rectify any mistake that may arise. Therefore, a good project manager should have their work arranged in terms of priority. This will help in keeping track of the important parts that need to be implemented without any delay. (Weflen,et.al 2021).
In arranging the work in criticality, the best method is the Mo scow prioritization method. M stands for must-have. These are the components required for the project to be completed, and the project will not be considered complete without these features. S stands for should have. These are components required for the project completion, though not urgent but are high priority. C stands for could have. These are components of the project that are highly desired but are not necessary for the completion of the project. W , stands for won’t have. These are the components of the project that have been thought of, but they are not to be implemented in the current project, but they have a chance of being included in the next project.
Fig 2. MosCOWprioritization method
In implementing any project, risk should be factored in. Risk is a condition that what had not been planned for that may occur and affect the project. With that in mind, the project manager needs to have a risk management framework in place. Some of the common risks associated with project management include degraded quality regarding handling a project as less human resources are used. The other risk costs. This occurs when the project uses more resources than the allocated budget. These cost risks can be considered as poor budget planning or inaccurate cost estimations. Cost risks normally lead to performance risks.
The other common risk is the schedule risk. This occurs when the project runs out of schedule by taking more time than the scheduled time, affecting other activities. Schedule risks may lead to cost risks because more resources mean more expenses. In general, the schedule risks will affect the performance of the project. The other risks that may occur are governance risk, deferral risk, which comes from failing to perform the project.
It can noted that project risks can either be internal or external. All projects are subject to face risks if they are to be deemed successful. The risks usually depend on the nature and weight of the possible outcomes and their likelihood. To handle risks in project management, what should apply steps of avoiding or preventing risks. The most effective way to avoid risks is by walking away from them or by mitigation when they can’t void the risk. Mitigations help to prevent the damage from being bigger.
Nowadays, the risk is handled by transferring it to someone else. Typically, this is having the insurance company pay. When risks can’t be avoided or mitigated, acceptance is reported. Risks need to be tackled earlier before it’s too late. A risk management plan provides a clear guideline on how risks are to be handled.
Risks need to be handled by employing different steps. This includes mapping the risk in the picture, the results of these risks, and what happens after. The impact and severity of the risks also need to be measured. How is the risk going to cause a problem? What will be affected as a result of the risk? After that is answered, the next step to be taken is what decisions need to be made. This is where the project manager is crucial in analyzing and determining whether the project should carry on or stop completely and determine the steps for mitigating it. After this part, solutions need to be identified and drafted, after which the risks are constantly analyzed. These steps are crucial in the identification and analysis of the risks. The structure of the project management is important for the success of any project. When the structure is not well organized, it often leads to the failure of the project. The project management structure is organized so that the project manager is the overall leader of the project and has the power and speaks authority over the project.
The powers of the project manager allow him to have a say on the project budget and cost, control the project schedule and the structure of the project task force. On the project team hierarchy, the project manager is at the top, and they manage everything, and the other employees are their juniors. The structure is also organized such that the team members report directly to the project manager, and all the activities of the project work towards the realization of the project’s goal. The project manager assigns tasks to the project members, makes key project decisions, and manages project resources. The project members either work permanently or part-time on the project. To create a uniqueness of the organizational structure, the project team and resources are demobilized on the completion of the project. The company usually tasks different departments of the organization to support the project. The common departments that offer support include human resources and the administration departments. (Cakmakci,et.al,2019).
Most companies have resorted to this type of organization when dealing with their projects as it has proven to be so effective. The project manager is always given major responsibilities because of the skills and abilities they are to possess, which are much needed for the success of a project. (Demirken.et.al,2017). This structure is preferred due to transparency; hence nothing can be compromised. This structure also provides clear communication channels hence no confusion can arise.
The success of a project requires teamwork from the project team. Therefore, team members need to support learning, growth, and improvement based on the different skill sets. The project organizational structure has made the learning curves quicker as it encourages the project team to learn from one another; thus, it takes a much shorter time. The project team concludes that the overall success will depend on the principles and methods adopted; hence the organization needs to employ the best structure.
The project team must handle the limitations of any organizational structure. This includes giving the project manager more power. This can lead to pride and arrogance leading to a misunderstanding between the project manager and the project team. This structure also includes inflexible and tight schedules. This is not a healthy technique because it brings fatigue and can lead to stress. For the part-time members, it can bring un-commitment because they know their job ends once the project is completed.
The project life cycle costing gives the company a tool for breaking down the cost of the project. This cycle is also a technique for evaluating and determining all the expenses incurred as the project is being implemented. The project’s costs are divided into three important components; project maintenance, operation & design, and development. These three need to be incorporated for the project costing to be completed. After these three parts are considered, the costs incurred in making purchases, investment costs, development, and the actual value of the technological products being used should also be added by the project manager.
Some of the potential employers in the project are employees, suppliers, community, suppliers, investors, customers, community, vendors, trade unions, and government.
The project management cycle is a clear framework that helps a project manager take a project through a systematic process to ensure the project is cleared within a short period and is done successfully. The project cycle ensures the project is subdivided into small steps that would be easier to understand and implement easily. This will make work easier for the project manager because they would take steps assigned for the specific project and go to the next when it is done. There is a coincidence with the Kanban methodology because members must communicate every step they undertake to avoid messing up with the project. Poor communication and taking the project as a whole will mess up the project. Therefore there is a need to follow the steps keenly.
The project cycle is required to outline clearly a few aspects. These aspects include project deliverables, project monitoring through each phase, the projects’ final goal, and the people involved in the project group. The different phases are followed using the life cycle. There is a need to complete a previous project phase in the sequential phase before going to the project phase. The overlapping phase implies that the start of another project phase does not necessarily require the end of the other phase (Bibarsov et al., 2017). This kind of project requires an adaptive life cycle because it outlines easy adaptation in rapid changes.
The project cycle always starts with the initiation phase. In this phase, the project goals are outlined and ensuring that project groups understand the goals that have been set out. Also, it shows the priorities of the project and the risks that the project is likely to encounter. From this, the project group will get the scope required to complete the project effectively. After completing the initiation phase, planning follows. In this stage, the project schedule is outlined; it shows the beginning of the project, and the time it will take to complete the project effectively and systematically. Also, there is a need to include the project’s budget during planning, which will ensure the company has an entire scope of what is required to complete the project in time. Available sources should also be considered. This is in terms of human resources and other available resources that would be esse3ntial AMD of importance in completing the project.
Fig 3. WBS of the required project
After all the resources have been gathered and proper planning put in place, the execution phase follows. This is the phase where the actual project starts. After the execution of the project, there is a need to monitor. Monitoring ensures that every step is followed and every policy put in place is followed effectively to the latter. The project is divided into small cycles. By doing this, it is necessary to ensure that a step is completed before starting a new step to ensure the effectiveness of the process, so long as the sequential cycle is used. From this cycle, performance can be easily measured. Project groups are rated depending on how they perform their duties. Monitoring is required to continue until the project reaches the completion stage.
Project management is an important factor in governing a project. A project manager or group leader must understand project lifecycle and risk management to provide a clear strategy to ensure the project’s success. In addition, they are using a proper tool in bringing changes within an organization to achieve the major goal. The project manager must ensure the project does not go beyond its budget, and if it goes beyond the budget, there is a need to stop it.
Bibarsov, K. R., Khokholova, G. I., & Okladnikova, D. R. (2017). Conceptual basics and mechanism of innovation project management.
Cakmakci, M., Kucukyasar, M., Aydin, E. S., Aktas, B., Sarikaya, M. B., & Bekar, E. T. (2019). KANBAN optimization in the relationship between industry 4.0 and project management approach. In Agile Approaches for Successfully Managing and Executing Projects in the Fourth Industrial Revolution (pp. 210-227). IGI Global.
Demirkesen, S., & Ozorhon, B. (2017). Impact of integration management on construction project management performance. International Journal of Project Management , 35 (8), 1639-1654
Müller, R., Drouin, N., & Sankaran, S. (2019). Modeling organizational project management. Project Management Journal , 50 (4), 499-513.
Jovanovic, P., & Beric, I. (2018). Analysis of the available project management methodologies. Management: Journal of Sustainable Business and Management Solutions in Emerging Economies , 23 (3), 1-13.
Weflen, E., MacKenzie, C. A., & Rivero, I. V. (2021). An Influence Diagram Approach to Automating Lead Time Estimation in Agile Kanban Project Management. Expert Systems with Applications , 115866.
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