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- The four main types of essay | Quick guide with examples
The Four Main Types of Essay | Quick Guide with Examples
Published on September 4, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on July 23, 2023.
An essay is a focused piece of writing designed to inform or persuade. There are many different types of essay, but they are often defined in four categories: argumentative, expository, narrative, and descriptive essays.
Argumentative and expository essays are focused on conveying information and making clear points, while narrative and descriptive essays are about exercising creativity and writing in an interesting way. At university level, argumentative essays are the most common type.
In high school and college, you will also often have to write textual analysis essays, which test your skills in close reading and interpretation.
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Argumentative essays, expository essays, narrative essays, descriptive essays, textual analysis essays, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about types of essays.
An argumentative essay presents an extended, evidence-based argument. It requires a strong thesis statement —a clearly defined stance on your topic. Your aim is to convince the reader of your thesis using evidence (such as quotations ) and analysis.
Argumentative essays test your ability to research and present your own position on a topic. This is the most common type of essay at college level—most papers you write will involve some kind of argumentation.
The essay is divided into an introduction, body, and conclusion:
- The introduction provides your topic and thesis statement
- The body presents your evidence and arguments
- The conclusion summarizes your argument and emphasizes its importance
The example below is a paragraph from the body of an argumentative essay about the effects of the internet on education. Mouse over it to learn more.
A common frustration for teachers is students’ use of Wikipedia as a source in their writing. Its prevalence among students is not exaggerated; a survey found that the vast majority of the students surveyed used Wikipedia (Head & Eisenberg, 2010). An article in The Guardian stresses a common objection to its use: “a reliance on Wikipedia can discourage students from engaging with genuine academic writing” (Coomer, 2013). Teachers are clearly not mistaken in viewing Wikipedia usage as ubiquitous among their students; but the claim that it discourages engagement with academic sources requires further investigation. This point is treated as self-evident by many teachers, but Wikipedia itself explicitly encourages students to look into other sources. Its articles often provide references to academic publications and include warning notes where citations are missing; the site’s own guidelines for research make clear that it should be used as a starting point, emphasizing that users should always “read the references and check whether they really do support what the article says” (“Wikipedia:Researching with Wikipedia,” 2020). Indeed, for many students, Wikipedia is their first encounter with the concepts of citation and referencing. The use of Wikipedia therefore has a positive side that merits deeper consideration than it often receives.
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An expository essay provides a clear, focused explanation of a topic. It doesn’t require an original argument, just a balanced and well-organized view of the topic.
Expository essays test your familiarity with a topic and your ability to organize and convey information. They are commonly assigned at high school or in exam questions at college level.
The introduction of an expository essay states your topic and provides some general background, the body presents the details, and the conclusion summarizes the information presented.
A typical body paragraph from an expository essay about the invention of the printing press is shown below. Mouse over it to learn more.
The invention of the printing press in 1440 changed this situation dramatically. Johannes Gutenberg, who had worked as a goldsmith, used his knowledge of metals in the design of the press. He made his type from an alloy of lead, tin, and antimony, whose durability allowed for the reliable production of high-quality books. This new technology allowed texts to be reproduced and disseminated on a much larger scale than was previously possible. The Gutenberg Bible appeared in the 1450s, and a large number of printing presses sprang up across the continent in the following decades. Gutenberg’s invention rapidly transformed cultural production in Europe; among other things, it would lead to the Protestant Reformation.
A narrative essay is one that tells a story. This is usually a story about a personal experience you had, but it may also be an imaginative exploration of something you have not experienced.
Narrative essays test your ability to build up a narrative in an engaging, well-structured way. They are much more personal and creative than other kinds of academic writing . Writing a personal statement for an application requires the same skills as a narrative essay.
A narrative essay isn’t strictly divided into introduction, body, and conclusion, but it should still begin by setting up the narrative and finish by expressing the point of the story—what you learned from your experience, or why it made an impression on you.
Mouse over the example below, a short narrative essay responding to the prompt “Write about an experience where you learned something about yourself,” to explore its structure.
Since elementary school, I have always favored subjects like science and math over the humanities. My instinct was always to think of these subjects as more solid and serious than classes like English. If there was no right answer, I thought, why bother? But recently I had an experience that taught me my academic interests are more flexible than I had thought: I took my first philosophy class.
Before I entered the classroom, I was skeptical. I waited outside with the other students and wondered what exactly philosophy would involve—I really had no idea. I imagined something pretty abstract: long, stilted conversations pondering the meaning of life. But what I got was something quite different.
A young man in jeans, Mr. Jones—“but you can call me Rob”—was far from the white-haired, buttoned-up old man I had half-expected. And rather than pulling us into pedantic arguments about obscure philosophical points, Rob engaged us on our level. To talk free will, we looked at our own choices. To talk ethics, we looked at dilemmas we had faced ourselves. By the end of class, I’d discovered that questions with no right answer can turn out to be the most interesting ones.
The experience has taught me to look at things a little more “philosophically”—and not just because it was a philosophy class! I learned that if I let go of my preconceptions, I can actually get a lot out of subjects I was previously dismissive of. The class taught me—in more ways than one—to look at things with an open mind.
A descriptive essay provides a detailed sensory description of something. Like narrative essays, they allow you to be more creative than most academic writing, but they are more tightly focused than narrative essays. You might describe a specific place or object, rather than telling a whole story.
Descriptive essays test your ability to use language creatively, making striking word choices to convey a memorable picture of what you’re describing.
A descriptive essay can be quite loosely structured, though it should usually begin by introducing the object of your description and end by drawing an overall picture of it. The important thing is to use careful word choices and figurative language to create an original description of your object.
Mouse over the example below, a response to the prompt “Describe a place you love to spend time in,” to learn more about descriptive essays.
On Sunday afternoons I like to spend my time in the garden behind my house. The garden is narrow but long, a corridor of green extending from the back of the house, and I sit on a lawn chair at the far end to read and relax. I am in my small peaceful paradise: the shade of the tree, the feel of the grass on my feet, the gentle activity of the fish in the pond beside me.
My cat crosses the garden nimbly and leaps onto the fence to survey it from above. From his perch he can watch over his little kingdom and keep an eye on the neighbours. He does this until the barking of next door’s dog scares him from his post and he bolts for the cat flap to govern from the safety of the kitchen.
With that, I am left alone with the fish, whose whole world is the pond by my feet. The fish explore the pond every day as if for the first time, prodding and inspecting every stone. I sometimes feel the same about sitting here in the garden; I know the place better than anyone, but whenever I return I still feel compelled to pay attention to all its details and novelties—a new bird perched in the tree, the growth of the grass, and the movement of the insects it shelters…
Sitting out in the garden, I feel serene. I feel at home. And yet I always feel there is more to discover. The bounds of my garden may be small, but there is a whole world contained within it, and it is one I will never get tired of inhabiting.
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Though every essay type tests your writing skills, some essays also test your ability to read carefully and critically. In a textual analysis essay, you don’t just present information on a topic, but closely analyze a text to explain how it achieves certain effects.
A rhetorical analysis looks at a persuasive text (e.g. a speech, an essay, a political cartoon) in terms of the rhetorical devices it uses, and evaluates their effectiveness.
The goal is not to state whether you agree with the author’s argument but to look at how they have constructed it.
The introduction of a rhetorical analysis presents the text, some background information, and your thesis statement; the body comprises the analysis itself; and the conclusion wraps up your analysis of the text, emphasizing its relevance to broader concerns.
The example below is from a rhetorical analysis of Martin Luther King Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” speech . Mouse over it to learn more.
King’s speech is infused with prophetic language throughout. Even before the famous “dream” part of the speech, King’s language consistently strikes a prophetic tone. He refers to the Lincoln Memorial as a “hallowed spot” and speaks of rising “from the dark and desolate valley of segregation” to “make justice a reality for all of God’s children.” The assumption of this prophetic voice constitutes the text’s strongest ethical appeal; after linking himself with political figures like Lincoln and the Founding Fathers, King’s ethos adopts a distinctly religious tone, recalling Biblical prophets and preachers of change from across history. This adds significant force to his words; standing before an audience of hundreds of thousands, he states not just what the future should be, but what it will be: “The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges.” This warning is almost apocalyptic in tone, though it concludes with the positive image of the “bright day of justice.” The power of King’s rhetoric thus stems not only from the pathos of his vision of a brighter future, but from the ethos of the prophetic voice he adopts in expressing this vision.
A literary analysis essay presents a close reading of a work of literature—e.g. a poem or novel—to explore the choices made by the author and how they help to convey the text’s theme. It is not simply a book report or a review, but an in-depth interpretation of the text.
Literary analysis looks at things like setting, characters, themes, and figurative language. The goal is to closely analyze what the author conveys and how.
The introduction of a literary analysis essay presents the text and background, and provides your thesis statement; the body consists of close readings of the text with quotations and analysis in support of your argument; and the conclusion emphasizes what your approach tells us about the text.
Mouse over the example below, the introduction to a literary analysis essay on Frankenstein , to learn more.
Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein is often read as a crude cautionary tale about the dangers of scientific advancement unrestrained by ethical considerations. In this reading, protagonist Victor Frankenstein is a stable representation of the callous ambition of modern science throughout the novel. This essay, however, argues that far from providing a stable image of the character, Shelley uses shifting narrative perspectives to portray Frankenstein in an increasingly negative light as the novel goes on. While he initially appears to be a naive but sympathetic idealist, after the creature’s narrative Frankenstein begins to resemble—even in his own telling—the thoughtlessly cruel figure the creature represents him as. This essay begins by exploring the positive portrayal of Frankenstein in the first volume, then moves on to the creature’s perception of him, and finally discusses the third volume’s narrative shift toward viewing Frankenstein as the creature views him.
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At high school and in composition classes at university, you’ll often be told to write a specific type of essay , but you might also just be given prompts.
Look for keywords in these prompts that suggest a certain approach: The word “explain” suggests you should write an expository essay , while the word “describe” implies a descriptive essay . An argumentative essay might be prompted with the word “assess” or “argue.”
The vast majority of essays written at university are some sort of argumentative essay . Almost all academic writing involves building up an argument, though other types of essay might be assigned in composition classes.
Essays can present arguments about all kinds of different topics. For example:
- In a literary analysis essay, you might make an argument for a specific interpretation of a text
- In a history essay, you might present an argument for the importance of a particular event
- In a politics essay, you might argue for the validity of a certain political theory
An argumentative essay tends to be a longer essay involving independent research, and aims to make an original argument about a topic. Its thesis statement makes a contentious claim that must be supported in an objective, evidence-based way.
An expository essay also aims to be objective, but it doesn’t have to make an original argument. Rather, it aims to explain something (e.g., a process or idea) in a clear, concise way. Expository essays are often shorter assignments and rely less on research.
The key difference is that a narrative essay is designed to tell a complete story, while a descriptive essay is meant to convey an intense description of a particular place, object, or concept.
Narrative and descriptive essays both allow you to write more personally and creatively than other kinds of essays , and similar writing skills can apply to both.
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The Modes of Discourse—Exposition, Description, Narration, Argumentation (EDNA)—are common paper assignments you may encounter in your writing classes. Although these genres have been criticized by some composition scholars, the Purdue OWL recognizes the wide spread use of these approaches and students’ need to understand and produce them.
This resource begins with a general description of essay writing and moves to a discussion of common essay genres students may encounter across the curriculum. The four genres of essays (description, narration, exposition, and argumentation) are common paper assignments you may encounter in your writing classes. Although these genres, also known as the modes of discourse, have been criticized by some composition scholars, the Purdue OWL recognizes the wide spread use of these genres and students’ need to understand and produce these types of essays. We hope these resources will help.
The essay is a commonly assigned form of writing that every student will encounter while in academia. Therefore, it is wise for the student to become capable and comfortable with this type of writing early on in her training.
Essays can be a rewarding and challenging type of writing and are often assigned either to be done in class, which requires previous planning and practice (and a bit of creativity) on the part of the student, or as homework, which likewise demands a certain amount of preparation. Many poorly crafted essays have been produced on account of a lack of preparation and confidence. However, students can avoid the discomfort often associated with essay writing by understanding some common genres.
Before delving into its various genres, let’s begin with a basic definition of the essay.
What is an essay?
Though the word essay has come to be understood as a type of writing in Modern English, its origins provide us with some useful insights. The word comes into the English language through the French influence on Middle English; tracing it back further, we find that the French form of the word comes from the Latin verb exigere , which means "to examine, test, or (literally) to drive out." Through the excavation of this ancient word, we are able to unearth the essence of the academic essay: to encourage students to test or examine their ideas concerning a particular topic.
Essays are shorter pieces of writing that often require the student to hone a number of skills such as close reading, analysis, comparison and contrast, persuasion, conciseness, clarity, and exposition. As is evidenced by this list of attributes, there is much to be gained by the student who strives to succeed at essay writing.
The purpose of an essay is to encourage students to develop ideas and concepts in their writing with the direction of little more than their own thoughts (it may be helpful to view the essay as the converse of a research paper). Therefore, essays are (by nature) concise and require clarity in purpose and direction. This means that there is no room for the student’s thoughts to wander or stray from his or her purpose; the writing must be deliberate and interesting.
This handout should help students become familiar and comfortable with the process of essay composition through the introduction of some common essay genres.
This handout includes a brief introduction to the following genres of essay writing:
- Expository essays
- Descriptive essays
- Narrative essays
- Argumentative (Persuasive) essays
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Letter Format Example and Writing Tips
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What To Include in a Formal Letter
Writtten letter format, email letter format, letter template to download, professional written letter example, professional email example, tips for formatting your letter, proofread, spellcheck, and print, how to address the envelope.
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A printed letter is usually reserved for important professional communications, such as recommendation letters, cover letters, resignation letters, business and legal correspondence, and company communications. Since a letter is a formal mode of communication, you'll want to know how to write one that is professional.
Correct formatting is especially important if you're sending a hard copy to the recipient rather than an email, because the letter needs to fit the page, be clear and concise, be easy to read, and look professional.
Review information on what you need to include when writing a professional letter, examples, and advice on the appropriate font, salutation, spacing, closing, and signature for business correspondence.
- A formal letter should include details about why you’re writing, an expression of your appreciation to the recipient for considering your request, and your contact information.
- Correspondence can be sent as a written letter or in an email. When sending an email message, list the reason you are writing in the subject line of the message.
- When writing a professional letter, carefully proofread and spellcheck before you print or send it.
Formal correspondence should include the details of why you’re writing, your contact information so the recipient can follow up, a greeting and closing, and your signature.
Contact Information (Written Letter): A written letter should include your and the recipient’s contact information (name, title, company name, address, phone number, email), followed by the date.
Contact Information (Email): When sending an email, you don’t need to include the recipient’s contact information. List your contact information at the end of the letter, after your signature.
Greeting: Address the letter using a professional greeting and formal title ("Dear Mr./Ms./Dr.").
Body of Letter
- The first paragraph of your letter should provide an introduction as to why you are writing, so that your reason for contacting the person is obvious.
- Then, in the following paragraphs , provide specific details about your request or the information you are providing.
- The last paragraph of your letter should reiterate the reason you are writing and thank the reader for reviewing your request. If appropriate, it should also politely ask for a written response or for the opportunity to arrange a meeting to further discuss your request.
Closing: Use a formal sign-off , such as "Sincerely" or "Best regards."
Signature (Written Letter): End the letter with your handwritten signature followed by your typed name.
Signature (Email): Include your typed name followed by your contact information.
It’s important to include enough detail so that the recipient understands why you’re writing and the response you expect to the letter.
Here’s a template for each section of a formal letter:
Your Contact Information Name Address City, State Zip Code Phone Number Email Address
Recipient Contact Information Name Title Company Address City, State Zip Code
Greeting Dear Mr./Ms. Last Name,
Use a formal salutation , not a first name, unless you know the person well. If you do not know the person's gender, you can write out their full name. For instance, write, "Dear Pat Crody" instead of "Dear Mr. Crody" or "Dear Ms. Crody." If you do not know the recipient’s name, it’s still common and acceptable to use the old-fashioned “ To Whom It May Concern .”
Body of Letter
- Paragraph 1: State the reason you are writing, for example, you are asking for something or sharing a piece of information.
- Paragraph 2: Provide details about your request or the information you’re sharing.
- Paragraph 3: If necessary, include additional information on the purpose of your letter.
- Paragraph 4: Thank the reader for considering your request, and ask for a response to your letter.
Closing Best regards,
Signature Handwritten signature (use black or blue ink to sign a written letter)
Typed Signature Your typed name
Here’s a template for each section of a professional email:
Subject Line Subject: Your Name — Reason for Writing
Greeting Dear Mr./Ms. Last Name,
Body of Message Your message should be two or three paragraphs at most and should explain why you’re writing and what you’re requesting.
Typed Signature and Contact Information Mikala Schwartz email@example.com 617-123-1234
When sending email correspondence, include the reason you are writing in the subject line of the message. List your contact information under your typed signature at the end of the message.
Here is a letter template that you can download (compatible with Google Docs and Word Online), or review the text version below.
Nicole Thomas 35 Chestnut Street Dell Village, Wisconsin 54101 555-555-5555 firstname.lastname@example.org
September 5, 2022
Jason Andrews Manager LMK Company 53 Oak Avenue, Ste 5 Dell Village, Wisconsin 54101
Dear Mr. Andrews,
I’m writing to resign from my position as customer service representative, effective September 16, 2022.
I’ve recently decided to go back to school, and my program starts in late September. I’m tendering my resignation now so that I can be as helpful as possible to you during the transition.
I’ve truly enjoyed my time working with you and everyone else on our team at LMK. It’s rare to find a customer service role that offers as much opportunity to grow and learn, and perhaps more rare to find such a positive, inspiring team of people to grow and learn with.
I’m particularly grateful for your guidance while I was considering furthering my education. Your support has meant so much to me.
Please let me know if there’s anything I can do to help you find and train my replacement.
Thanks and best wishes,
Signature (hard copy letter)
Subject: Annual Meeting
Thank you so much for your assistance in planning our annual meeting. Your expertise in handling the meeting arrangements, booking the conference facilities and hotel, coordinating travel, scheduling events, and organizing the meeting is greatly appreciated.
I appreciate your help and advice, and I am hoping we can plan on having your assistance with next year’s event. It’s tentatively scheduled for January 16–20, 2023, in Tampa, Florida. If you can confirm your availability, I’ll be in touch when we’re ready to start planning.
I look forward to working with you in the future, and thank you again.
Professional letters should be simple, short, and written in business format using a traditional font.
- Length of the Letter: Most formal letters are no more than one typed page.
- Font Style and Size: Use a plain font such as Times New Roman, Arial, or Calibri. Your font size should be between 10 and 12 points.
- Margins: Use one-inch margins and left justify your text.
- Spacing: Single space your letter and leave a space between each paragraph. Use one-inch margins and align your text to the left. Leave an extra space after the salutation, before the closing, and before and after your handwritten signature in a printed letter.
- Printing the Letter: Business letters should be printed on plain white paper.
Once you have written your letter, proofread it and carefully spellcheck it on the screen. Then print it out and read it through aloud at least one more time, checking for any errors or typos. This is important as it's often easier to spot errors on a hard copy.
Reading your letter out loud is a good way to catch a mistake.
Check for formatting errors, such as two paragraphs that don’t have a space between them or lines that are indented incorrectly. Then, before putting your letter in an envelope, sign above your typed name using black or blue ink.
If you’re emailing your letter, send a copy to yourself to be sure it’s perfect. Then send the final version to the recipient.
Print a copy of your written letter so you have it for your records. Your email will be saved in your “sent” email folder.
When your letter is ready to mail, fold it in thirds so it fits into a business-size envelope. You can use your word processing program to print the addresses on the envelope or handwrite them.
Print your name on the top left corner of the front of envelope. Print the recipient’s address in the center of the envelope, parallel with the long side. Add a stamp to the top right of the envelope.
NMU Writing Center. " Parts of a Business Letter. "
University of Arizona. " Writing a Professional Letter ."
USPS. " How to Send a Letter or Postcard: Domestic ."
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Essay Writing Guide
Essay Format: A Basic Guide With Examples
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Published on: Sep 24, 2017
Last updated on: Oct 19, 2023
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Are you having trouble making your essay look just right? Lots of students find formatting tricky, so you're not alone.
This guide is here to help you figure out how to format your essay. We've got examples of essays in APA, MLA, Chicago, and other styles to make it easier for you to learn.
So, keep reading – we've got you covered!
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What is an Essay Format?
An essay format refers to a set of guidelines that decides how the elements of your paper should be arranged. No matter what type of essay you’re writing, formatting is an essential step in the essay writing process.
The format guidelines cover the essay structure, title, citations, and the basic outline of the essay.
When formatting a paper, there are certain things that you need to pay attention to. These include the structure of an essay, title page, works cited page, and citation styles .
Here is a basic essay format template:
How To Format Essay in MLA Style
Formatting an essay in MLA style is a common requirement in many academic settings, particularly in the humanities.
MLA provides guidelines for various aspects of your essay, from font and margins to citations and bibliography. Here’s an essay format MLA you can use as a reference:
MLA Essay Format Template
- Title Page: MLA does not typically require a separate title page. Instead, place your title at the top of the first page, centered, and do not use bold, italics, or underline for the title. Below the title, include your name, the instructor's name, the course name and number, and the due date, each on a separate line, left-aligned.
- Header and Page Numbers: Create a header with your last name and page number in the upper right corner of every page, half an inch from the top, and flush with the right margin. For example: Smith 1.
- Margins and Spacing: Set all margins to 1 inch, and use double-spacing throughout the essay.
- Font and Size: Use a legible font like Times New Roman or Arial, size 12.
- Indentation: Indent the first line of each paragraph by 0.5 inches, which can be done automatically using the "Tab" key.
- Paragraphs: Leave only one space after periods or other punctuation marks within sentences.
- Title: Place the title of your essay (centered) at the top of the first page. Do not use bold, italics, or underlining for the title. Capitalize major words.
- Citations: MLA uses in-text citations to acknowledge sources. When quoting or paraphrasing, include the author's last name and the page number (e.g., Smith 45).
- Works Cited Page: At the end of your essay, include a separate page titled "Works Cited." List all sources alphabetically by the author's last name. Follow the specific MLA citation style for different types of sources (books, articles, websites, etc.).
Sample MLA Essay
How to Format Essay in APA
Formatting an essay in APA style is commonly used in the social sciences and psychology.
APA provides a set of guidelines for various elements of your essay, including formatting, citations, and references. Here’s how to format essay in apa:
APA Essay Format Template
- Title Page: The title page in APA includes: Title of the Essay (centered, bold, and in title case) Your Name (centered) Institutional Affiliation (centered) Running head: [Shortened Title] (flush left, in uppercase) Page Number (flush right)
- Header and Page Numbers: Create a header with the title of your essay in all capital letters, followed by a colon and a shortened version of the title (up to 50 characters), in the upper left corner of every page. The page number should be in the upper right corner.
- Font and Size: Use a clear and readable font like Times New Roman or Arial, size 12.
- Paragraphs: Indent the first line of each paragraph by 0.5 inches. Use a hanging indent for references on the reference page.
- Citations: Use in-text citations to acknowledge sources. Include the author's last name and the publication year (e.g., Smith, 2023) when quoting or paraphrasing.
- Title: Use bold and title case for the title of your essay on the title page. On subsequent pages, use a shortened version of the title (in uppercase) as the header.
- References Page: At the end of your essay, create a separate page titled "References." List all sources alphabetically by the author's last name. Follow the specific APA citation style for different types of sources (books, articles, websites, etc.).
Sample APA Essay
How to Format Essay in Chicago Style
Formatting an essay in Chicago style, often used in history and some other humanities disciplines, requires specific guidelines for citations and formatting. Here are the guidelines to format your essay in Chicago style:
Chicago Essay Format Template
- Title Page: The title page in Chicago style includes: Title of the Essay (centered, in headline-style capitalization) Your Name (centered) Course Name and Number (centered) Instructor's Name (centered) Date (centered)
- Margins and Spacing: Set all margins to 1 inch. Use double-spacing throughout the essay.
- Page Numbers: Number pages in the upper right corner of each page, beginning with the first page of the main text (usually page 1). Page numbers should be in Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, etc.).
- Paragraphs: Indent the first line of each paragraph by 0.5 inches. Use a block paragraph style with no extra space between paragraphs.
- Citations: In Chicago style, you have two citation options: footnotes and endnotes. In your text, place a superscript number (e.g., ^1) at the end of the sentence containing the cited information. Corresponding footnotes or endnotes should provide full citation details.
- Title: Use headline-style capitalization for the title of your essay (e.g., "The History of Ancient Civilizations").
- Bibliography: At the end of your essay, include a separate page titled "Bibliography." List all sources alphabetically by the author's last name. Follow the specific Chicago citation style for different types of sources (books, articles, websites, etc.).
Sample Chicago Essay
Formatting In-Text Citations: APA, MLA, and Chicago Styles
An in-text citation is a brief reference within the body of your essay or research paper that indicates the source of information you have incorporated into your writing.
Each of the formatting style have a unique way for adding in-text citations:
In APA style, remember to include the author's last name, the publication date, and the page number (if applicable) within parentheses.
Example: "The impact of climate change on biodiversity is a growing concern (Smith, 2020, p. 27)."
In MLA style, provide the author's last name and the page number without any punctuation between them.
Example: "The impact of climate change on biodiversity is a growing concern (Jones 42)."
Chicago Style Format
The Chicago Manual of Style offers two distinct options for in-text citations:
- Author-Date Style: In this approach, you place your citations within parentheses directly within the text. This style involves citing the author's last name and the publication date within the body of your text. Example: (Smith 2021) or "According to Smith (2021),..."
- Notes and Bibliography Style: This style utilizes numbered footnotes or endnotes to provide citations. Instead of placing citations within the text, you include a superscript number at the end of the relevant sentence, which corresponds to a full citation located in a footnote at the bottom of the page (or endnotes at the end of the document). Example: Johnson argues that "the data is unconvincing."¹ Nevertheless, Smith contends that the study makes "a compelling case" for this plan of action.²
Each of these Chicago citation styles has its unique advantages and is chosen based on the requirements of the assignment or the preferences of the writer.
How to Determine What Format to Follow
Selecting the appropriate citation format for your academic writing is essential to ensure that your work meets the expected standards. To make an informed decision, consider the following factors:
Subject and Discipline
- APA Style: Primarily used in the social sciences, such as psychology, sociology, and education. It is also common in business and nursing disciplines.
- MLA Style: Commonly employed in humanities disciplines, including literature, languages, and cultural studies. It's widely used for papers related to literature and the arts.
- Chicago Style: Used in history, some social sciences, and certain humanities disciplines. Chicago offers both author-date and notes and bibliography styles, making it versatile for various subjects.
Always adhere to your professor's specific instructions regarding citation style and writing convention . Professors may have preferences or requirements based on the nature of the course or assignment.
For instance, an English professor might prefer MLA for literary analysis, while a psychology professor may opt for APA to encourage familiarity with research norms. However, when formatting styles are not specified by the instructor, you can follow whatever is appropriate for your subject.
Your educational institution may have established guidelines or standards for citation formats.
Check your institution's style guide or consult with academic advisors to ensure compliance with their specific requirements.
By considering the subject matter, your professor's preferences, and your institution's guidelines, you can confidently choose the appropriate citation style to enhance the clarity and professionalism of your academic writing.
Now that you've gained a solid understanding of the basics for three major formatting styles, you're well-prepared to tackle your essay formatting with confidence.
Whether you're crafting an essay, a research paper, or any academic document, these formatting principles will help you present your ideas professionally.
If you find yourself in a time crunch, our expert writers are here to help you tackle your academic challenges in no time.
With our essay writing service , you get reliable help with any type of assignment, even with tight deadlines. Our writers are sure to deliver you 100% original papers that meet your requirements.
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How to Write a Personal Essay for Your College Application
What does it take to land in the “accept” (instead of “reject”) pile?
How can you write an essay that helps advance you in the eyes of the admissions officers and makes a real impression? Here are some tips to get you started.
- Start early. Do not leave it until the last minute. Give yourself time when you don’t have other homework or extracurriculars hanging over your head to work on the essay.
- Keep the focus narrow. Your essay does not have to cover a massive, earth-shattering event. Some people in their teens haven’t experienced a major life event. Some people have. Either way, it’s okay.
- Be yourself. Whether writing about a painful experience or a more simple experience, use the narrative to be vulnerable and honest about who you are. Use words you would normally use. Trust your voice and the fact that your story is interesting enough in that no one else has lived it.
- Be creative. “Show, don’t tell,” and that applies here — to an extent. The best essays typically do both. You can help your reader see and feel what you are describing by using some figurative language throughout your piece.
- Make a point. As you finish your final body paragraphs ask yourself “So what?” This will help you hone in on how to end your essay in a way that elevates it into a story about an insight or discovery you made about yourself, rather than just being about an experience you had.
Where your work meets your life. See more from Ascend here .
We’ve all heard about the dreaded “college essay,” the bane of every high school senior’s existence. This daunting element of the college application is something that can create angst for even the most accomplished students.
- AA Amy Allen is a writer, educator, and lifelong learner. Her freelance writing business, All of the Write Words , focuses on providing high school students with one-on-one feedback to guide them through the college application process and with crafting a thoughtful personal essay. A dedicated poet, Amy’s work has also been published in several journals including Pine Row Press , Months to Years, and Atlanta Review .
Before the advent of modern technology made communication so easy, the art of writing a letter was considered an important requirement. Even today a letter is an important means of communication in both the workspace as well as our personal lives. So let us educate ourselves with the nuances of letter writing.
A letter is a written message that can be handwritten or printed on paper. It is usually sent to the recipient via mail or post in an envelope, although this is not a requirement as such. Any such message that is transferred via post is a letter, a written conversation between two parties.
Now that E-mails ( Advantages and disadvantages ) and texts and other such forms have become the norm for communication, the art of letter writing has taken a backseat. However, even today a lot of our communication, especially the formal kind , is done via letters. Whether it is a cover letter for a job, or the bank sending you a reminder or a college acceptance letter, letters are still an important mode of communication. Which is why it is important that we know the intricacies of letter writing.
Types of Letters
Let us first understand that there are broadly two types of letter, namely Formal Letters, and Informal Letters. But then there are also a few types of letters based on their contents, formalities, the purpose of letter writing etc. Let us have a look at the few types of letters .
- Formal Letter : These letters follow a certain pattern and formality. They are strictly kept professional in nature, and directly address the issues concerned. Any type of business letter or letter to authorities falls within this given category.
- Informal Letter : These are personal letters. They need not follow any set pattern or adhere to any formalities. They contain personal information or are a written conversation. Informal letters are generally written to friends, acquaintances, relatives etc.
- Business Letter : This letter is written among business correspondents, generally contains commercial information such as quotations, orders, complaints, claims, letters for collections etc. Such letters are always strictly formal and follow a structure and pattern of formalities.
- Official Letter : This type of letter is written to inform offices, branches, subordinates of official information. It usually relays official information like rules, regulations, procedures, events, or any other such information. Official letters are also formal in nature and follow certain structure and decorum.
- Social Letter : A personal letter written on the occasion of a special event is known as a social letter. Congratulatory letter, condolence letter, invitation letter etc are all social letters.
- Circular Letter : A letter that announces information to a large number of people is a circular letter. The same letter is circulated to a large group of people to correspond some important information like a change of address, change in management, the retirement of a partner etc.
- Employment Letters : Any letters with respect to the employment process , like joining letter, promotion letter, application letter etc.
Browse more Topics under Writing
- Descriptive Essay
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- Formal Letters
- Informal Letters
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- Story: Setting
Letter Writing Tips
Now that we have learned the basics of communicating via letters and the types of letters as well, let us focus on some tips for the actual letter writing.
1] Identify the type of letter
This obviously is the first step of the letter writing process. You must be able to identify the type of letter you are to be writing. This will be dictated by the person the letter is addressed to and the information that will be conveyed through the letter. Suppose you were writing to the principal of your college to ask for leave, this would be a formal letter ( Types of formal letters with samples ). But say you were writing to your old college professor catching up after a long time. Then this would be a personal ( informal ) letter.
2] Make sure you open and close the letter correctly
Opening a letter in the correct manner is of utmost importance. Formal letters open with a particular structure and greeting that is formal in nature. Informal letters can be addressed to the person’s name or any informal greeting as the writer wishes.
Even when closing the letter, it must be kept in mind what type of letter is being written. Formal letters end respectfully and impersonally, whereas informal letters may end with a more personal touch.
3] Establish the main intent of the letter
Once you start writing, make sure to get to the point as soon as possible. Especially in formal letters, it is important to immediately make clear the purpose of the letter.
4] Be careful of the language
A letter is always supposed to be polite and considerate. Even if it is a complaint letter, the point must be made in a careful and courteous manner. So it is necessary to use polite expressions and civil language in all types of letters.
5] Length of the letter
And the other important factor to be considered is the length of the letter you are writing. It should be kept in mind that formal letters are generally to the point, precise and short. Lengthy formal letters tend to not have the desired effect on the reader. The length of an informal letter is determined by the message in the letter and the relation to the recipient.
Solved Example for You
Q: Alex was to write a letter to her class teacher asking permission to remain absent from school for 2 days on account of some personal matter. What type of letter will he be writing?
- Personal Letter
- Business Letter
- Formal Letter
- Any of the above
Ans: The correct option is C. While the teacher is a personal acquaintance of Alex, the situation demands a formal letter and not a personal letter.
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IELTS Writing Samples: Essay, Letter, Report
If you have no idea what an IELTS essay looks like or need to improve your writing skills – you’re in the right place. I add new essays almost every day – subscribe and get them seconds after they’ve been published.
Here you will find IELTS Writing samples (essays, letters, reports), written by students and graded by an IELTS teacher. Every task is checked, marked, has comments and suggestions. Hold the mouse over to see suggested corrections. The teacher’s summary is at the bottom of each essay.
- IELTS 2019-2020 Writing Questions with Answers
IELTS Essay – Band 9
- IELTS Essay Samples of Band 9
- IELTS essay, topic: Traffic on roads has become a problem in nearly every country in the world (solutions)
- IELTS essay, topic: In some cities the numbers of tourists seem overwhelming, why is this happening?
- IELTS essay, topic: There is a moral necessity for the richer countries to help the poorer countries (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: Some people like to own their home while others prefer to rent it (discuss)
- IELTS essay, topic: People today find their lives more and more dominated by their jobs (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: Women, not men, should stay at home to care for children (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: The advantages and disadvantages of high-rise apartment living
- IELTS essay, topic: Is fashion a significant part of society, or a waste of time and money (opinion)?
- IELTS essay, topic: Is studying at university better than getting a job straight after school (opinion)?
- IELTS essay, topic: Ending the world’s reliance on fossil fuels will be a positive development (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: Artificial Intelligence will take over the role of teachers (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: Having a salaried job is better than being self-employed (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: Is learning a foreign language essential or a waste of time (opinion)?
- IELTS essay, topic: Libraries are not a necessity anymore because of the digital resources available today (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: Individuals should be responsible for funding their own retirement (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: Is banning cars from city centres a positive or negative development?
- IELTS essay, topic: Schoolchildren today take part in short work experience sessions instead of school (positive/negative)
- IELTS essay, topic: The number of advertisements for charities is increasing, what is causing this?
- IELTS essay, topic: Should school children be given homework (opinion)?
- IELTS essay, topic: The majority of former prisoners commit further crime after their release (reasons and solutions)
- IELTS essay, topic: Only people over 18 years old should be allowed to use social media (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: With the scale of globalisation today, it would be best to have a single world currency (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: Should boys and girls be educated separately (opinion)?
- IELTS essay, topic: Everybody should pay a small amount from their income to help people in poverty (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: Households should have a government-imposed limit on the amount of rubbish they produce (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: Is it acceptable that enormous sums are paid for pieces of art when many people around the world live in poverty?
- IELTS essay, topic: Athletes and entertainers’ enormous salaries reflect our dependence on entertainment (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: Is using physical force to discipline children acceptable (opinion)?
- IELTS essay, topic: Should governments impose extra taxes to restrict tourism in order to reduce pollution?
- IELTS essay, topic: Unemployment payments encourage people not to seek work (opinion)
- IELTS essay, topic: Do schools still need to teach handwriting and mental mathematics skills?
- IELTS essay, topic: What is the best motivation for workers – salary, job satisfaction or helping others?
- IELTS Essay, topic: In some countries private cars are now banned from city centres (advantages / disadvantages)
- IELTS Essay, topic: Some people believe that the problem of illegal drugs can be solved by legalising all drugs (agree/disagree)
- IELTS Essay, topic: Should governments or teachers be responsible for what is to be taught in schools (opinion)?
- IELTS essay, topic: Can the society cope with the larger number of elderly people and how?
- IELTS essay, topic: Should copyright materials such as music, films and books be freely available on the Internet (opinion)?
- IELTS essay, topic: Some parents think that children must do house chores (opinion)
- IELTS essay, topic: Since obesity may be caused by fast food, should the government put a tax on fast food?
- IELTS essay, topic: Some people think that sport in schools is a waste of time and resources, while others believe it is a vital part of education (opinion)
- IELTS Band 9 essay, topic: Some schools insist that students have laptops in class (advantages / disadvantages)
- IELTS Band 9 essay, topic: Today’s governments struggle to create enough housing for increasing populations while protecting the environment (opinion)
- IELTS Band 9 essay, topic: The world today is a safer place and governments should stop spending large amounts of money on their armed forces (agree/disagree).
- IELTS Band 9 essay, topic: Many people nowadays travel abroad for their university education (discuss)
- IELTS Band 9 essay, topic: Some people believe that everyone has a right to access to the Internet and governments should provide it free (agree/disagree)
- IELTS Band 9 essay, topic: Breakthroughs in medical science are the most significant advances over the last two centuries (opinion)
- IELTS Band 9 essay, topic: Some say that people should diet and exercise to lose weight, while others think they should eat better and change their lifestyle (opinion)
- IELTS Band 9 essay, topic: Should teachers be required to conform to a dress code?
- IELTS Band 9 essay, topic: Increases in fuel prices are the only way to reduce world consumption of fuel (agree/disagree)
- IELTS Band 9 essay, topic: Some people believe that teaching music in schools is vital, while others think it is unnecessary (opinion)
- IELTS Band 9 essay, topic: Some people believe that the world’s increase in population is unsustainable, while others think it is necessary and beneficial (opinion)
- IELTS Band 9 essay, topic: Wildlife population around the world has decreased by around 50 per cent, what can we do to protect wildlife?
- IELTS Band 9 essay, topic: Schools should teach their students how to survive financially in the world today (agree/disagree)
IELTS Essay – Band 8
- IELTS Essay Samples of Band 8
- IELTS essay, topic: New parents should attend parenting classes to learn how to bring up their children well (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: Some people believe that countries should produce all the food necessary to feed their populations and import as little food as possible (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: If a child commits a crime, should the child or the parents be punished? (discuss + opinion)
- IELTS essay, topic: The role of parents and family in the future success of a person is more important than knowledge and skills learnt at school (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: Social media helps people to keep in touch with friends and stay on top of news and events (advantages/disadvantages)
- IELTS essay, topic: Part time courses are on the rise and students are taking them up as an alternative to full time courses (advantages/disadvantages)
- IELTS essay, topic: Some people think it is better to make more money rather than have free time (discuss + opinion)
- IELTS essay, topic: Some people argue that sports are essential, while others view sports as a leisure time activity (discuss + opinion)
- IELTS essay, topic: People in senior positions should be compensated with significantly higher salaries (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: More and more people participate in extreme sports (reasons and solutions)
- IELTS essay, topic: Some people tend to buy products or get services instantly (reasons and effects)
- IELTS essay, topic: Many university students nowadays live away from home and their parents (advantages/disadvantages)
- IELTS essay, topic: Young people don’t communicate with older people as much as they used to (reasons and solutions)
- IELTS essay, topic: Many people do not exercise enough and eat an unhealthy diet (reasons and solutions)
- IELTS essay, topic: Some argue that governments should create nutrition and food choice laws to improve public health (discuss + opinion)
- IELTS essay, topic: Many people today are drinking sugar-based drinks (reasons and solutions)
- IELTS essay, topic: Celebrities can be poor role models for teenagers (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: Many people try to achieve a work-life balance but fail (reasons and solutions)
- IELTS essay, topic: In many workplaces online communication has overtaken face to face meetings (advantages/disadvantages)
- IELTS essay, topic: Despite the benefits of walking, very few people walk nowadays (reasons and solutions)
- IELTS essay, topic: In many countries a lot of food is wasted (reasons and solutions)
- IELTS essay, topic: Newspapers have a significant influence on people’s ideas and opinions (reasons and solutions)
- IELTS essay, topic: The best way to solve environmental problems is to increase the price of fuel (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: Who should discipline the children, parents or the government? (discuss + opinion)
- IELTS essay, topic: Young people aren’t spending their weekends doing outdoor activities such as hiking or mountaineering (reasons and solutions)
- IELTS essay, topic: Some think that hosting an international sporting event is beneficial for a country while others disagree (advantages / disadvantages)
- IELTS essay, topic: People should follow the customs and traditions of their new country (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: Museums and art galleries should present only the national art (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: Young people are facing problems at school and at home, what problems and how can parents help?
- IELTS essay, topic: Crime rates are likely to decline due to the advancements in technology (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: Some people say that all popular TV entertainment programmes should aim to educate viewers about important social issues (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: Young people are finding it harder to find permanent jobs (reasons and solutions)
- IELTS essay, topic: Some say that new homes should be constructed in existing cities while others argue that new towns should be built (advantages/disadvantages)
- IELTS essay, topic: Some think that young people should be free to choose any career they like, while others say that they should think more realistically about their future (opinion)
- IELTS essay, topic: In the modern world it is possible to shop, work and communicate online without face-to-face contact, is it a positive or a negative development?
- IELTS essay, topic: Excessive use of modern technologies is negatively affecting the reading and writing skills of children (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: People who read for pleasure develop their imagination more and acquire better language skills compared to people who prefer watching television (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: Who should be responsible for protecting the environment, individuals or the government?
- IELTS essay, topic: Children today are spending more time watching TV than in the past, is it a positive or a negative change?
- IELTS essay, topic: High-rise vs. low-rise buildings, which solution is better for a growing population?
- IELTS Essay, topic: Nowadays celebrities earn more money than politicians, what are the reasons for this?
- IELTS essay, topic: Some people think that it is fine for professional athletes to misbehave on or off the field, as long as they are playing well (opinion)
- IELTS essay, topic: Some people believe that women should be treated as equal to men when applying for a job with the police or the military, while others disagree (opinion)
- IELTS essay, topic: In many countries young people start living on their own after high school, is this a positive or negative development?
- IELTS essay, topic: In the past people wore their traditional clothes, but these days most people wear similar clothes, is this a positive or negative development?
- IELTS essay, topic: Many people support animal testing while others believe it isn’t appropriate (discuss)
- IELTS essay, topic: Some think that children should leave their family home as soon as possible while others believe they should stay for as long as they like (discuss)
- IELTS essay, topic: When new towns are planned, it is important to build more public parks or sports facilities than shopping centers (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: Some people think that public health in a country can be improved by government making laws regarding nutritious food (agree/disagree).
- IELTS essay, topic: Nowadays many people choose ready-made food and refuse to cook at home, why and what are the advantages/disadvantages?
- IELTS essay, topic: Nowadays that many women have full time jobs, it is logical to share the housework evenly between men and women (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: Some believe the government should take care of retirees, while others think everyone should save for their own retirement (opinion)
- IELTS essay, topic: Some people say that arts subjects are as essential as academic ones and should be part of school syllabus (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: Nowadays people waste a lot of food, why is this happening and how to reduce waste?
- IELTS essay, topic: Some parents encourage young people to leave home while others think they should stay with the family, discuss and give your opinion
- IELTS essay, topic: What are the difficulties of learning a foreign language, and how to overcome them?
- IELTS essay, topic: Should employers pay more attention to personal qualities rather than qualifications?
- IELTS essay, topic: Some people use the Internet to search for solutions to their medical problems, is this a positive or negative development?
- IELTS essay, topic: Nowadays more and more people want to live by themselves, why is this happening?
- IELTS essay, topic: The education system is the only critical factor in the development of a country, agree/disagree (from Target Band 7 book)
- IELTS essay, topic: Obesity is becoming common among children, give reasons and solutions (from Target Band 7 book)
- IELTS essay, topic: Education in financial management should be a mandatory component of the school program, agree/disagree (from Target Band 7 book)
- IELTS essay, topic: Dieting can change a person’s life for better or worse (from Target Band 7 book)
- IELTS essay, topic: Changing drivers age limits is the best way to reduce traffic accidents (from Target Band 7 book)
- IELTS Essay, topic: Some believe that modern technology is increasing the gap between the rich and poor, while others disagree (discuss)
- IELTS essay, topic: Childcare training courses should be mandatory for all parents (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: Many people believe that reducing speed limits is the best option for road safety improvement (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: Nowadays families move to different countries for work and some think it has a negative effect on children (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: Some people believe that preserving natural environment is crucial, but make no effort to do so (reasons and solutions)
- IELTS Essay, topic: Teachers are more responsible for social and intellectual development of students than parents (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: People should not work beyond the retirement age (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: The proportion of older people is increasing, what problems will this cause and what solutions can be suggested?
- IELTS essay, topic: Senior managers should have higher salaries than other employees (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: Advertising affects what people think is important and has a negative effect on their lives (agree/disagree)
- IELTS essay, topic: Many believe that international tourism is bad for their country (reasons and solutions)
- IELTS essay, topic: Many museums charge for admission while others are free. Do the advantages of this outweigh the disadvantages?
- IELTS essay, topic: Some people claim that it is acceptable to use animals in medical research (discuss)
- IELTS essay, topic: should children grow up in the city or countryside (advantages/disadvantages)?
- IELTS essay, topic: should unpaid community work be mandatory in high school (agree/disagree)?
- IELTS essay, topic: the development of technology causes traditional skills to die out, agree or disagree?
- IELTS essay, topic: Why do criminals commit another offence after being punished?
- IELTS essay, topic: Schools should select students by their academic abilities, agree or disagree?
- IELTS essay, topic: Children these days are suffering from obesity, why and how can it be solved?
- IELTS essay, topic: Public libraries should only provide books, not videos or DVD, agree or disagree?
- IELTS essay, topic: Children should be engaged in paid work, agree or disagree?
- IELTS essay, topic: Should people spend a lot on weddings and birthday parties?
- IELTS Essay, topic: the positive and the negative sides of globalization
- IELTS Essay, topic: children and rules
- IELTS Essay, topic: The advantages and disadvantages of globalization
- IELTS Essay, topic: Financial education
- IELTS Essay, topic: Computers replacing teachers
- IELTS Essay, topic: Rich countries should help the poor
- IELTS Essay, topic: Events bringing people together
- IELTS Essay, topic: Computers instead of teachers
IELTS Essay – Band 7
- IELTS Essay Samples of Band 7
- IELTS essay, topic: Some people say protecting the environment is the government’s responsibility, others believe individuals should be responsible for it (opinion)
- IELTS Essay, topic: Should students travel?
- IELTS Essay, topic: Computers in the future
- IELTS Essay, topic: Working children
- IELTS Essay, topic: The Internet and communication
- IELTS Essay, topic: News on TV
- IELTS Essay, topic: Environmental problems
- IELTS Essay, topic: Capital punishment
- IELTS Essay, topic: Should tobacco be prohibited?
- IELTS Essay, topic: Should wealthy nations share their wealth?
- IELTS Essay, topic: Advertising
- IELTS Essay, topic: Computers in our life
- IELTS Essay, topic: The Internet as a source of information
- IELTS Essay, topic: Smoking in public places
- IELTS Essay, topic: Children and rules
- IELTS Essay, topic: Space exploration
- IELTS Essay, topic: Internet connecting people
- IELTS Essay, topic: Popular events
IELTS Essay – Band 6
- IELTS Essay Samples of Band 6
- IELTS essay, topic: Students from rural areas should get a subsidized university education, agree or disagree?
- IELTS essay, topic: Should students do other activities in addition to studying?
- IELTS essay, topic: Change is always a good thing, agree or disagree?
- IELTS essay, topic: The advantages and disadvantages of studying in another country
- IELTS Essay, Topic: Is financial education at school a must?
- IELTS Essay, Topic: Avoiding traffic accidents
- IELTS Essay, Topic: Reasons for and against dieting
- IELTS Essay, Topic: The positive and negative sides of globalization
- IELTS essay, topic: Should children be working?
- IELTS essay, topic – Getting the news from the radio, TV or the Internet
- IELTS essay, topic – People moving into English speaking countries
- IELTS Essay, topic: Traffic accidents
- IELTS Essay, topic: Financial education at school
- IELTS Essay, topic: Aspects of globalization
- IELTS Essay, topic: Dieting changes a person’s life
- IELTS Essay, topic: Reasons to attend college
- IELTS Essay, topic: Education as a critical factor
- IELTS Essay, topic: Learning about the past
- IELTS Essay, topic: Globalization
- IELTS Essay, topic: Leisure time activities
- IELTS Essay, topic: Critical factors to the development of a country
- IELTS Essay, topic: Women in power
- IELTS Essay, topic: Overpopulation
IELTS Essay – Band 5
- IELTS Essay Samples of Band 5
- IELTS Essay, topic: Natural resources cannot sustain economic growth, agree or disagree?
- IELTS Essay, topic: keeping pets to live a more enjoyable life
- IELTS Essay, topic: the mother’s and father’s role in a family
- IELTS Essay, topic: Capital Punishment
- IELTS Essay, topic: Education with or without a teacher
- IELTS Essay, topic: A popular hobby rather than a favorite passtime
- IELTS Essay, topic: University money better spent on libraries or sports
- IELTS Essay, topic: Modern medicine helps to live longer
IELTS Letter – Band 9
- IELTS Letter Samples of Band 9
- IELTS Letter, topic: Asking your boss for some time off
- IELTS Letter, topic: Describing your visit to the museum
- IELTS Letter, topic: Applying for a job at a shop
- IELTS Letter, topic: Complaining about problems on your train journey
- IELTS Letter, topic: Writing to a friend to borrow a good camera
- IELTS Letter, topic: Introduction of an exchange student to a host family
- IELTS Letter, topic: Letting a friend know about your change of plans
- IELTS Letter, topic: Requesting information about a venue you would like to rent
- IELTS Letter, topic: Inviting an old friend to your new house
- IELTS Letter, topic: Notifying a bank about a missing credit card
- IELTS Letter, topic: Asking a friend if he would like to buy your car
- IELTS Letter, topic: Complaining about some food you bought at a supermarket
- IELTS Letter, topic: Apologising to a customer who received poor service
- IELTS Letter, topic: Requesting information about a foreign language course
- IELTS Letter, topic: Asking your friend to accompany you on a holiday
- IELTS Letter, topic: Complaining about rubbish collection services
- IELTS Letter, topic: Complaining about an unsatisfactory rental apartment
- IELTS Letter, topic: Thanking a friend for a nice birthday present
- IELTS Letter, topic: writing to apply for a part-time job
IELTS Letter – Band 8
- IELTS Sample Letters of Band 8
- IELTS Letter, topic: writing to recommend a friend for a job at a summer school camp
- IELTS Letter, topic: writing to thank a bus company employee for helping you
- IELTS Letter, topic: writing to a friend about an article that captured your attention
- IELTS Letter, topic: complaining to a company about receiving the wrong product
- IELTS Letter, topic: informing your manager about a presentation you were asked to prepare
- IELTS Letter, topic: Inviting a friend to a music concert
- IELTS Letter, topic: Resigning from a part time job
- IELTS Letter, topic: Inviting a friend to a family party
- IELTS Letter, topic: Enquiring about lost clothes
- IELTS Letter, topic: Complaining about airport services
- IELTS Letter, topic: Applying for an advertised position
- IELTS letter, topic: Business letter about organising a corporate event (from Ace the IELTS book)
- IELTS letter, topic: request for information about a seminar (from Ace the IELTS book)
- IELTS letter, topic: a complaint about a rental car (from Ace the IELTS book)
- IELTS letter, topic: ask the college principal for information about a scholarship (from Ace the IELTS book)
- IELTS Letter, topic: Invite a friend to your new house
- IELTS Letter, topic: Your friend is coming over to stay with you
- IELTS Letter, topic: Get well wishes for a team-mate
- IELTS Letter, topic: Leaving your current employment
- IELTS Letter, topic: An explanation for a relative
- IELTS Letter, topic: Telling a friend about a new job
- IELTS Letter, topic: Complaining to neighbours about their noisy dog
- IELTS Letter, topic: Explaining to a friend how to look after your house
- IELTS Letter, topic: Expressing dissatisfaction with a course at college
- IELTS Letter, topic: A complaint about a purchase made online
- IELTS Letter, topic: Booking a hotel room
- IELTS Letter, topic: Personal, asking for the forgotten file
- IELTS Letter, topic: An explanation for the boss
IELTS Letter – Band 7
- IELTS Sample Letters of Band 7
- IELTS Letter, topic: Complaint about a laptop
- IELTS Letter, topic: Asking for information about an executive event
- IELTS Letter, topic: Asking for information about a seminar
- IELTS Letter, topic: Writing to a pen pal
- IELTS Letter, topic: Writing to a manager about problems at work
- IELTS Letter, topic: Complaint about a faulty mobile phone
- IELTS Letter, topic: Complaint about a rental car
- IELTS Letter, topic: a migrant writes a letter to a friend
- IELTS Letter, topic: item left on the bus
- IELTS Letter, topic: Explanation of delayed first working day
- IELTS Letter, topic: Asking for information on scholarships
- IELTS Letter, topic: Cleaning job application
IELTS Report – Band 9
- IELTS Report Samples of Band 9
- IELTS Report, topic: Table describing the amount of road traffic in London (from IELTS High Scorer’s Choice series, Academic Set 4)
- IELTS Report, topic: Double line graph of lengths of hospital stay (from IELTS High Scorer’s Choice series, Academic Set 4)
- IELTS Report, topic: Pie charts of greenhouse gas emissions (from IELTS High Scorer’s Choice series, Academic Set 4)
- IELTS Report, topic: Flow charts of circles of poverty (from IELTS High Scorer’s Choice series, Academic Set 3)
- IELTS Report, topic: Multiple Bar Chart of US’ Processed Food Export Markets (from IELTS High Scorer’s Choice series, Academic Set 3)
- IELTS Report, topic: Five line graphs showing the annual visitor spend in New Zealand (from IELTS High Scorer’s Choice series, Academic Set 3)
- IELTS Report, topic: Two bar charts showing the prevalence of obesity among boys and girls (from IELTS High Scorer’s Choice series, Academic Set 3)
- IELTS Report, topic: Bar chart describing Scotland’s exports (from IELTS High Scorer’s Choice series, Academic Set 3)
- IELTS Report, topic: Process diagram describing the life-cycle of the car (from IELTS High Scorer’s Choice series, Academic Set 2)
- IELTS Report, topic: Two pie charts describing the proportions of visits to Ireland by age, gender and type of visit (from IELTS High Scorer’s Choice series, Academic Set 2)
- IELTS Report, topic: Table and pie chart describing day and overnight stays in public and private hospitals in Australia (from IELTS High Scorer’s Choice series, Academic Set 2)
- IELTS Report, topic: Multiple line graph describing the percentage of students learning a second language (from IELTS High Scorer’s Choice series, Academic Set 2)
- IELTS Report, topic: Two pie charts describing UK tax revenue and government spending (from IELTS High Scorer’s Choice series, Academic Set 2)
- IELTS Report, topic: Process diagram describing the cycle of pollution (from IELTS High Scorer’s Choice series, Academic Set 1)
- IELTS Report, topic: Bar chart and pie chart describing Australian water consumption (from IELTS High Scorer’s Choice series, Academic Set 1)
- IELTS Report, topic: Two tables comparing workers of foreign and US birth in the United States (from IELTS High Scorer’s Choice series, Academic Set 1)
- IELTS Report, topic: Pie charts of electricity generation by source (from IELTS High Scorer’s Choice series, Academic Set 1)
- IELTS Report, topic: Bar chart of average rainfall by month (from IELTS High Scorer’s Choice series, Academic Set 1)
IELTS Report – Band 8
- IELTS Sample Reports of Band 8
- IELTS Report, topic: Bar chart describing the percentage of people who ate at least five portions of fruit and vegetables per day
- IELTS Report, topic: Table describing postgraduate course fees in 3 countries
- IELTS Report, topic: Line graph describing production of 3 different fuels in the UK
- IELTS Report, topic: Table describing the use of water in 6 countries
- IELTS Report, topic: Four pie charts describing sectors of employment in two towns, in 2009 and 2020
- IELTS Report, topic: Table describing the viewers’ preferences for TV programs
- IELTS Report, topic: Bar charts describing the hours worked by men and women in 3 countries
- IELTS Report, topic: Bar chart describing the spending on R&D in 5 countries between 2001 and 2011
- IELTS Report, topic: Two bar graphs showing how often people exercised in Europe in 2016
- IELTS Report, topic: Comparing two plans of a cinema, in 1980 and now
- IELTS Report, topic: Describing two maps of a city, in 1960 and now
- IELTS report, topic: Shopping centre map comparison
- IELTS report, topic: Bar chart and pie chart describing residential water consumption (from IELTS High Scorer’s Choice series, Academic Set 1)
- IELTS Report, topic: Table describing number of students studying foreign languages (from Target Band 7 book)
- IELTS Report, topic: Table describing data on home schooled children (from Target Band 7 book)
- IELTS Report, topic: Comparing current and future floor plans of a museum (from Target Band 7 book)
- IELTS Report, topic: Pie chart and bar graph describing employment percentages (from Target Band 7 book)
- IELTS Report, topic: Double bar graph describing water usage by industries (from Target Band 7 book)
- IELTS Report, topic: Double bar graph describing investment in stocks and bonds (from Target Band 7 book)
- IELTS Report, topic: Double line graph showing average house prices (from Target Band 7 book)
- IELTS Report, topic: Double line graph showing high tech gadgets prices (from Target Band 7 book)
- IELTS Report, topic: Map of a town before and after redevelopment
- IELTS Report, topic: Bar chart of average house prices
- IELTS Report, topic: Bar graph describing trends in consumption of fast food
- IELTS Report, topic: Map with two sites for a shopping mall
IELTS Report – Band 7
- IELTS Sample Reports of Band 7
- IELTS Report, topic: Bar graphs describing unemployment rates and average earnings by level of education
- IELTS Report, topic: Flow chart describing how laundry service works (from Target Band 7 book)
- IELTS Report, topic: Single line graph describing rainfall statistics (from Target Band 7 book)
- IELTS Report, topic: Bar graph describing average house prices
- IELTS Report, topic: Table describing the satisfaction of sports club’s members
- IELTS Report, topic: Line graph describing the consumption of fish and meat
- IELTS report, topic: Double line graph describing the birth rate in China and the USA
- IELTS report, topic: Table describing different types of families living in poverty
- IELTS Report, topic: a pie chart of leisure activities
- IELTS Report, topic: bar graph of water usage
- IELTS Report, topic: A line graph of wages growth
- IELTS Report, topic: Table of home schooled students’ percentages
Note: the tasks are checked by an IELTS teacher, not an IELTS examiner or examiner trainer. All the bands are approximate.
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The essays are well organised and set perfect example for various band requirement
General Ielts material required
You can find General Training writing task 1 letters here. Is that what you were looking for, or something else?
Need sample answer for this topic The graph below describe rainfall statistics for somecountry
Awesome website good looking Thanks for sharing.
Dear Mr Braverman, I have heard that your website can help us in correcting our essays, so wanted to know how it is possible to send my task 2 essays for correction?
Hi Ava, yes we will be happy to correct your essays. Please visit this page to purchase a writing correction package , so that we can start checking your essays straight away.
Sir I need gernal ielts knowledge
Sir I need general Ielts knowledge
Plz send me letter types
Hi Shahlo, you can find model letters that would score Band 9 in IELTS here . If you’d like to start receiving the latest IELTS questions and model answers to your email, go here and subscribe (it’s free)
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How to Write a Letter or an Essay in English | Useful Tips
How to write a letter or how to write an essay in English? Useful tips for writing letters, essays in English.
Table of Contents
How to Write a Letter
How to write a cover letter.
How to Write Informal Letters
How to end a letter in english.
Useful Words and Phrases for Writing Formal Letters
Writing a letter or an email.
How to Write a Great Essay Quickly
English Listening Practice: Fill in the Blanks (TED Talks: Your body language shapes who you are)
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English Listening Practice with Songs [Avicii – Hey Brother]
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Get Help from an Online Essay Writer Now
If you aren’t sure yet whether to place your order on our platform, let’s summarize all the benefits you can get from us. Before making a list of benefits and perks, which will never be complete, let’s highlight our company’s reputation.
You can read our customers’ reviews on special independent forums and websites. More than 95% of our clients are satisfied with our services, and more than half of them return to us for the second and all the following orders.
We highly appreciate our customers’ loyalty and do our best to make our services even more updated, high-quality, and customized to our users’ individual needs.
Therefore, let’s look at the benefits of cooperating with us.essaywriting.org:
- customized content that meets all the academic requirements;
- no plagiarism, rewritten, or recycled papers;
- free revisions with thorough consideration of all the additional requirements within 2 weeks after the delivery;
- a wide variety of topics, subjects, and fields of study with the narrow specialization of our authors;
- no missed deadlines and the chance to get urgent help within 3 hours if needed;
- professional help from the most experienced academic writers without any errors and faults;
- the highest level of anonymity and confidentiality (by the way, even your nickname will never be stored in our database) to protect your sensitive information;
- discounts for recurring orders and welcome bonuses for orders that cost more than $500 (5%) and $1,000 (10%);
- reliability and protection with the possibility of a refund if you don’t like what we have done.
Nevertheless, the most precious bonus you can ever expect from our online platform is your peace of mind. You’ll get rid of most academic problems and eliminate stress and pressure.
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FAQ Essay Writing Service
What is the essay writing service.
The essay writing service is a website that provides the online services of writing academic papers to students and any kind of paper writing work for different fields of study and industries. You can find many platforms of this kind on the Internet nowadays. You can place your order here, give the details of your assignment and obtain a ready paper done from scratch for you.
Our reputable company is appreciated by students because we can cope with big scopes of writing tasks they may not be able to deal with because of the lack of knowledge, time, or interest in a specific subject or topic.
Is an essay writing service legal?
Most academic institutions don’t allow their students to use such services because they see it as breaking the rules or cheating. However, all the online companies that work on the market today with proper registration, certification, and tax payments are entirely legal. You don’t break any laws while using their services. The only thing is that such companies should provide plagiarism-free papers because plagiarism is considered the heaviest violation of academic rules and laws.
If an online paper writing platform has a good reputation like ours and can create papers from scratch, you don’t have anything to worry about. All your actions are legal, and paying someone to write your papers is never forbidden.
What are the benefits of using an essay writing service?
There’re a lot of benefits for students if they use our paper writing service. First of all, you can improve your academic performance and grades because you’ll manage to submit all writing assignments on time without much stress and a range of sleepless nights. You can spend more time on the subjects and academic activities you’re more interested in or have a part-time job to pay for your course. You won’t suffer from continuous stress and pressure and feel more relaxed and happier.
Moreover, you’ll hire a professional academic writer, so all your papers will be composed in correspondence with all the instructions and requirements. It’s especially important if you’re an ESL student whose command of English doesn’t allow completing the assignments for the highest grades.
What can you help me with?
We can help you with all types of writing assignments, either in the sciences or humanities. They can be home tasks, multiple-choice questions and tests, research papers, lab reports, theses and dissertations, term and course papers, all kinds of essays, and personal statements. You can order an essay from an experienced author with tight deadlines and get it ready within 3 hours if some emergencies happen.
You can ask for free revisions within 2 weeks after you have got access to your draft paper because of new requirements provided by your professor or the need for corrections. We’ll help you with the rarest topics and subjects if you need.
Who can help write my essay?
If you need help with your writing assignments, you can ask someone around you to help you. Though, it should be someone who knows how to write academic papers well. Your family or friends may not be the best choice. Or you can ask some senior students, your groupmate, or even a tutor or instructor to help you. You’re sure to pay them for such help because they’ll spend some time and effort doing this. You can also look for an academic writing freelancer on the Internet. It’ll cost you a lot, and you’ll never have a guarantee that your paper will be high-quality. That’s why the best way to seek help is to use a reputable paper writing online platform, us.essaywriting.org. You’ll get help from professionals here to resolve all your academic issues.
Who will write my essay?
You can rely on the academic mastery of the most experienced and knowledgeable writers working on the Internet. We have a great team of true experts who can share many new ideas and unexpected approaches your instructor will be delighted with. They’re advanced or native English speakers whose academic language is great. You’ll never come across any errors or typos in your paper. Your work will be properly cited and formatted following the requirements of one of the citation styles or your institution’s instructions.
The writers create papers from scratch, so they’ll never contain the slightest traces of plagiarism. The latter is crucial because plagiarism is punished in the academic environment. You can entirely rely on the professionalism and expertise of all the authors in any field of study.
How much does an essay cost?
Our pricing policy considers the financial capacity of students whose budget doesn’t allow for paying big sums for essays. That’s why our prices start at $10 per page for an essay with a deadline of 14 days. However, the prices may differ, and specific factors influence that. First of all, it’s the deadline. If you need your paper urgently, it’ll cost you more. The number of pages also matters, of course.
The authors’ specializations can also influence the price. You’ll be charged more if you need your paper on a rare or complicated topic. The academic level of a student is taken into consideration as well as the type of paper can also matter.
How do I pay for essay writing services?
First of all, you can use an online calculator to make a preliminary estimate. It won’t change much because we don’t practice any hidden fees and never offer the services that our clients don’t need to make them pay more. As soon as you enter all the details and specifications of your paper, the calculator will show you the sum. You can also consult with the Customer Support representative because there may be some recommendations on reducing the cost or getting a discount you may not know about.
After the final estimate is calculated, you need to make an online payment to let your order be processed immediately after the payment is confirmed. You can use your debit or credit card or e-wallet to make the payment. Or you may prefer to use some international payment system that is convenient for you.
When do I pay for an essay?
You need to pay for the essay before our writer starts working on it. It’s required because your author should get some guarantees that their successful work and the time spent on will be reimbursed. However, you don’t need to worry about your costs if something goes wrong. You’ll be able to ask for free revisions if you see that something needs improvement, or you can always claim a refund if you don’t like the work entirely. The company’s policies are fair and straightforward in this respect. So, most students return to the platform repeatedly and never feel frustrated.
Can you write my essay fast?
Yes, we understand that there’re some emergencies when our customers need to get their papers ready quickly. You may completely forget about the paper and its deadlines, or some emergency can happen, so you’ll need to order your assignment with the tightest deadline ever. Family problems, personal issues, or health conditions can cause severe emergencies, and we’re ready to help you with them.
We can write a good-quality paper for you within a minimum of 3 hours. However, be aware of the number of pages. Unfortunately, it won’t be possible if you ask us to create a paper of 20 or more pages within this time. That’s why it’s always better to consider all the deadlines in advance to be on the safe side. And don’t forget that an urgent paper will cost you more per page.
What if I am not satisfied with Write My Essay for Me?
We’re a team of professional and experienced writers and editors, so it’s almost impossible that you’ll be entirely dissatisfied with the quality of your paper or your author’s work. However, things happen, and you’ll get all possible refund guarantees from us if you don’t like our work. You can try addressing the problem to our Customer Support first to explain your problem. They’ll offer you free revisions that are possible within 2 weeks after the paper is delivered.
Asking for a refund is a final point if you’re still frustrated with the quality. Our customers have never referred to that, but the company’s policy about it’s fair and straightforward. You’ll get a refund if your paper is of bad quality.
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The Republican Alternatives to Trump
More from our inbox:, whatever happened to civil presidential debates, questions for hamas, questions for israel, advice for these fraught times, antipsychotic drugs and weight gain.
To the Editor:
Re “ If You’re Going to Win the Nomination, Here’s Step 1 ,” by Kristen Soltis Anderson (Opinion guest essay, Nov. 8):
Ms. Anderson says that many Republicans are open to opponents of Donald Trump who can articulate a new direction for the party, but that those candidates are running out of time to make their case.
Ms. Anderson mentions the former South Carolina governor Nikki Haley as a viable alternative to Mr. Trump. But in terms of good fiscal governance and foreign policy, I believe that Ms. Haley is even more misguided than Mr. Trump.
For example, she has recommended ending the federal gas tax , enacting a new middle-class tax cut and extending the 2017 Trump administration tax cut. While such policies might attract some voters to Ms. Haley, they would greatly diminish the revenue needed to pay for essential services, not to mention blowing up the national debt.
As for international affairs, she has recommended sending special forces to “take out the cartels” in Mexico. Imagine how Mexico and other countries might react to such an invasion.
Serious Republicans don’t need to look far to find a better presidential candidate than Ms. Haley.
Eric Murchison Vienna, Va.
Ron DeSantis, Nikki Haley and the other G.O.P. candidates must know that the most likely path to a nomination for them is if Donald Trump is convicted or forced to drop out of the race. In that scenario, many Republican voters are likely to be very angry, and they will rally behind the candidate who can most compellingly channel their indignation. Anyone who has been seen as significantly anti-Trump will be out of the running.
It is strategically savvy of them not to level any direct harsh criticism at Mr. Trump. If the time comes that Mr. Trump is forced out of the race, the last thing his competitors will do in that situation is suggest that the charges against him are anything other than politically motivated.
William Sherman Huntington, N.Y.
This guest essay suggested that the candidates explain why they are running against Donald Trump, which in fact was one of the questions asked during Wednesday’s debate. Perhaps the reason they have not yet done so convincingly is that they are not running “against” Mr. Trump.
Several of them are likely running for vice president, and that would preclude discussing their differences.
Carolyn Bross Bloomingdale, N.J.
Re “ From Substance to Shouting: The Demise of Political Debate in America ” (Opinion video, nytimes.com, Nov. 7):
Our view of politics has shifted dramatically from the days when presidential debates were respectful discussions of platforms and ideologies. I am a high school junior, and my classmates and I are worried about the future of the American presidency.
Presidential debates, once characterized by thoughtful discussions, have transformed into heated contests where candidates pick one another apart in hopes of winning a few more percentage points. Genuine discourse is rare, and recap videos showcase the biggest insults or the funniest moments.
How does it affect our country’s future when presidential candidates can’t engage in respectful discussion? What does it mean for American society when our ideology divides us completely? A president’s priority should be to represent the people and work toward the betterment of our nation. We cannot afford to lower this standard.
As the future generation of voters and leaders, it falls on us young people to advocate a return to civil and meaningful discussion in our political debates. The strength of our democracy depends on it, and young voices need to be part of the solution.
Maia Dietz San Jose, Calif.
Re “ Hamas’s Goal for Oct. 7: A Permanent State of War; Group’s Leaders Say Carnage Was Needed to Restore Focus on Palestinians ” (front page, Nov. 9):
After reading your interviews with Hamas leaders, one wonders:
1. Are the Palestinian citizens of Gaza OK with a permanent state of war?
2. Where is that permanent state of war supposed to lead?
3. What cause was “slipping away”? Certainly not peace or a two-state solution; so what is left?
4. If the cause and the policy of permanent war mean the destruction of Israel, are all those chanting “Free Palestine” or “From the river to the sea” supportive of that?
Scott Benarde West Palm Beach, Fla.
Israel’s stated war objective, repeated often by Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, is to “destroy Hamas.” Hamas is a movement, a political-military organization with the backing of Iran and other entities.
Might one ask what exactly does “destroy Hamas” look like? Is it every member of Hamas surrendering, or is it the death of the leadership, much of which does not even live in Gaza? How does one measure success when the stated aim is impossible to measure, let alone manage?
I think that if we are paying for the arming of Israel — and make no mistake, we are — we are entitled to a straight answer.
Geoffrey D. Batrouney Rye Brook, N.Y.
Re “ How to Stay Sane in Brutalizing Times ,” by David Brooks (column, Nov. 5):
What amazing advice from Mr. Brooks on how people can stay sane in these perilous times. His emphasis on humility, prudence and caution is inspiring. I would add just one thing: self-compassion. Today public leaders need to be kind to themselves for the nearly impossible jobs they are often called on to do.
Jerome T. Murphy Cambridge, Mass. The writer is a retired Harvard professor and dean who taught courses on leadership.
David Brooks reaches back thousands of years, integrating diverse cultures and quoting appropriate phrases from several authors, to emphasize the vast depth of his subject matter. Yet after all that, he does not cite the one that summarizes the entire concept: “Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another.”
Mary Ann McGinley Wilmette, Ill.
Re “ Psychiatric Drugs Add Pounds. Some See Solution in Ozempic ” (front page, Nov. 6):
Like other clinical psychiatrists, I use a simple, low-tech solution for my patients who gain weight on their antipsychotic drugs. In consultation with our patients, we find another antipsychotic, one that doesn’t cause weight gain. There are many to choose from.
Together with our patients, we look for the most effective drug with the least side effects, at the lowest possible dose. To be on the safe side, we weigh our patients at each visit to guard against weight gain.
Of course, this requires continuing follow-up visits with our patients, to form a trusting relationship and a common goal of healing. But with a new patient it’s essential to provide such close attention.
Some might object that such frequent office visits for follow-up care are too expensive. But compared with the monthly cost of Ozempic, good care is a bargain.
Alice Feller Berkeley, Calif.