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4 Examples of Academic Writing


Written by  Scribendi

The best way to understand what effective academic writing looks like is to review academic writing examples.

Let's begin with four of the most common types of academic writing: research proposals, dissertations, abstracts, and academic articles. We'll be examining each type of writing and providing academic writing samples of each. 

Whether you aim to earn funding for a passion project or are stymied by how to format an abstract, these academic writing examples will help you nail your next undertaking.

Academic Writing Example 1: Research Proposals

A research proposal is an outline of the proposed research of a PhD candidate, a private researcher, or someone hoping to obtain a research grant . 

Your proposal should put your best foot forward: It details your intended research question and how it relates to existing research, makes an argument for why your research should be chosen for advancement or funding, and explains the deliverables you hope to achieve with your research. 

A more detailed look at what proposal writing is and what goes into a research proposal may also be beneficial. Every proposal is different because every project is different. Proposal requirements also differ according to the university or funding agency that reviews the proposal. 

Research Proposal Structure

A cover letter summarizing your proposal and showcasing why you should be chosen

An introduction or abstract

An explanation of the background, purpose, and significance of your research

A research plan or methodology that includes a timeline (a Gantt chart may be beneficial)

A projected budget, if applicable

Academic Writing Sample: Research Proposal Excerpt

Building on the work of the three foundational sociological theorists—Marx, Weber, and Durkheim—and Mark Traugott's theory of the "insurgent barricade," this proposed research will analyze the appearance, use, and disappearance of barricade warfare as an effective battle strategy. 

Focusing on these three theorists, this research will determine which theory or theories best explain the life cycle of barricade warfare, focusing in particular on its disappearance. A brief but comprehensive history of barricade warfare will be provided in addition to the theoretical explanations of barricade warfare's utility.

Research Proposal Writing Tips

Before you format your proposal, contact your targeted university, private organization, or funding agency to confirm what they require for proposals. Then, try to follow this format as closely as possible.

Be detailed when outlining your goals and your funding needs. Connect the objectives of the research to the resources you're requesting.

Be realistic in what you ask for as far as resources—don't ask for more or less than you need, and show evidence to justify your choices.

Don't dedicate too much text in your proposal to describing past research. A summary of key points, arguments, theories, and how your research will build on them should suffice.

Remember that no matter how good your proposal is, it might be rejected. You're likely up against dozens or even hundreds of other candidates who have equally sound proposals. Don't be discouraged if this happens. See it as a learning opportunity for your next proposal.

Academic Writing Example 2: Dissertations

A dissertation is a body of writing that represents original research and is generally written as part of a PhD or master's program. 

Typically, it builds on previous research in the field to make a significant contribution or advancement. You may benefit from more detailed information on what a dissertation is , how to write a dissertation , and how to edit a dissertation .

Dissertation Structure

Introduction/background and the significance of the study

Literature review



Conclusion/contribution to the body of research

Academic Writing Sample: Dissertation Excerpt

There are two options for choosing a unit of analysis for this phenomenon: the social artifact (erected barricades) or the social interaction (the collaboration of insurgents engaged in barricade warfare). The best choice is social interaction. 

Most individual occurrences of barricade warfare involve the construction of more than one barricade, and the number of barricades is not necessarily a valid indicator of the sociological magnitude of an insurgence. The most relevant choice is an insurgence, the event of a conflict involving barricade warfare.

Dissertation Writing Tips

Remember to bear in mind the significance of your study. It doesn't have to be paradigm shifting, but you want to infuse the dissertation with reminders of why your research is important.

Don't get bogged down in trying to show that your research is one of a kind or uniquely contributive to the body of research. It likely isn't, and it's more effective to show how you are building on previous research .

Remember to check with your college or university to ensure that you're formatting your dissertation according to the school's expectations.

Ask your advisor questions when you need to.

Be prepared to make alterations to your dissertation according to your thesis committee's suggestions. This doesn't mean you did a bad job—it just means there's room for improvement.

Academic Writing Example 3: Abstracts

The abstract is actually a component of other forms of academic writing, such as scholarly articles and dissertations. The abstract acts as a comprehensive outline of your paper in paragraph form. 

Abstract Structure


You may want to read more about what abstracts are and why they are important in preparing yourself for writing one.

Academic Writing Sample: Abstract

Barricade warfare has occurred across several spectra, but most notably, it occurred almost exclusively in a 300-year period between the 16th and 19th centuries. Each instance had an inciting incident, but a common thread was the culture of revolution: a revolutionary tradition based on the belief that injustice was being carried out and that, in this case, barricade insurgence was the way to resolve it. 

This study uses the theories of Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim to analyze barricade warfare, its appearance, and its disappearance. Ultimately, neither theory can independently explain this phenomenon. 

Marx offers a reasonable explanation for why barricade warfare may have died, but his theory is difficult to test empirically and fails to explain the absence of recurrences. Conversely, Durkheim's theory is much easier to observe and can explain why barricade warfare has not experienced a renaissance. However, he offered no reason as to why it died in the first place. 

These two theoretical orientations complement each other nicely and, ultimately, neither can stand alone.

Notice that this abstract comes in at under 200 words (a common limit) but nevertheless covers the background of the study, how it was approached, and the results and conclusions of the research. 

If you are struggling to meet a word count, check out 10 Academic Phrases Your Writing Doesn't Need .

Abstract Writing Tips

Be conscious of your word count. Stay under the limit.

Check with your school or target journal to make sure special formatting is not required.

Don't use abbreviations or citations in the abstract.

Don't simply restate your thesis or copy your introduction. Neither of these is an abstract.

Remember that your abstract often gives readers their first impressions of your work. Despite its short length, it deserves a lot of attention. 

Academic Writing Example 4: Articles

Academic articles are pieces of writing intended for publication in academic journals or other scholarly sources. They may be original research studies, literature analyses, critiques , or other forms of scholarly writing.

Article Structure

Abstract and keywords


Materials and methods

References and appendices

Academic Writing Sample: Article Excerpt

"Those great revolutionary barricades were places where heroes came together" (Hugo, 2008). This description by Victor Hugo of the 1832 June Rebellion in Paris comes from his seminal work of fiction, Les Miserables. 

Although the account is fictionalized, it is deeply representative of what historian Mark Traugott (2010, p. 225) terms the "culture of revolution." This spirit of heroic response to social injustice swept across Europe during the second half of the millennium and was characterized in part by barricade warfare. 

The phenomenon of the insurgent barricade has essentially disappeared, however, leaving no trace of its short-lived but intense epoch, and the question of why this happened remains a mystery. The theories of Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim, when taken together, provide a compelling explanation for the disappearance of barricade warfare, and the tenets of each theory will be examined to explain this phenomenon.

Article Writing Tips

Follow these detailed steps for writing an article and publishing it in a journal .

Make sure that you follow all of your target journal's guidelines.

Have a second set of educated eyes look over your article to correct typos, confusing language, and unclear arguments.

Don't be discouraged if your article is not chosen for publication. As with proposal writing, you are up against countless others with equally compelling research.

Don't be discouraged if the journal asks you to make changes to your article. This is common. It means they see value in your article, as well as room for improvement.

Whether you're applying for funding, earning an advanced degree, aiming to publish in a journal, or just trying to cram your 4,000-word study into a 150-word abstract, hopefully these academic writing examples have helped get your creative juices flowing. 

Go out there and write! With these academic writing samples at your side, you are sure to model your academic writing appropriately.

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Academic Writing Examples of Academic Writing

Profile image of Victor Emmanuel Pulumbarit

Academic writing is conducted in several sets of forms and genres, normally in an impersonal and dispassionate tone, targeted for a critical and informed audience, based on closely investigated knowledge, and intended to reinforce or challenge concepts or arguments. It usually circulates within the academic world ('the academy'), but the academic writer may also find an audience outside via journalism, speeches, pamphlets, etc. Typically, scholarly writing has an objective stance, clearly states the significance of the topic, and is organized with adequate detail so that other scholars may try to replicate the results. Strong papers are not overly general and correctly utilize formal academic rhetoric. Academic writing is, of course, any formal written work produced in an academic setting. While academic writing comes in many forms, the following are some of the most common.

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Plagiarism and Intellectual dishonesty have become endemic among the academia with its resultant dwindling of academic integrity and hounour. Facilitating this academic 'fraud' is the advent of flexible technologies of cut, copy and paste tools which are easily accessible to students, lecturers and the research community who are tempted to turn to the worldwide web for prepared literature and scholarly solutions instead of originating independent works. The case study employed the mixed method approach to generate both quantitative and qualitative data to make empirical enquiries to explore, describe, and explain the role of universities in fighting academic plagiarism in Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana, focusing on the Students, Lecturers, the Deputy Registrar (Academics and Students' Affairs), and the University Librarian as the main participants. The study revealed that, despite the fact that KNUST has no documented Copyright Policy Document (CPD), it regards plagiarism as an act of academic dishonesty. Lecturers ensure that students cite references to all the materials they use in their works and finally the university administration has included the subject of plagiarism in the Students' Guide book which is made available to all students on admission. Even though KNUST has put in place measure to fight and prevent plagiarism among the students, the findings revealed that there is low level of awareness about plagiarism amongst KNUST students. The paper suggested possible ways to 'combat' these plagiarism menace at KNUST.

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Plagiarism awareness is increasing overall in the Indian academia, but theological institutions lag behind. In this context, exploring viable solutions should be prioritized by theological educators. The challenge is to incorporate anti-plagiarism measures as intrinsic to the overall learning experience. This is the subtle battle for the heart of the theological education. To achieve long-term success, collaboration of all the stakeholders looms to be critical.

F 0 7 6 Theory is a model or framework for observation and understanding, which shapes both what we see and how we see it. Theory allows the researcher to make links between the abstract and the concrete; the theoretical and the empirical; thought statements and observational statements etc.

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Communications is a branch of knowledge dealing with the principles and methods by which information is conveyed. It deals with the exchange and flow of information and ideas from one person to another; it involves a sender transmitting an idea, information or feeling to a receiver. Effective communication occurs only if the receiver understands the exact information or idea that the sender intended to transmit (Berlo, 1960). According to Hart (1961), Law is generally a system of rules which are enforced through social institutions to govern behaviour. It is made of system of rules which a particular country or community recognizes as regulating the actions of its members and which it may enforce by the imposition of penalties. It is possible to describe law as the body of official rules and regulations, generally found in constitutions, legislation, judicial opinions, and the like, that is used to govern a society and to control the behaviour of its members. Therefore, communication laws are rules and regulation that govern and control the exchange of information. The communication laws form a forms a formal mechanism of social control in media and other communication channels. Ethic is the is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct, often addressing disputes of moral diversity (Perle, 2004). Communication laws are used to enforce and guide the practitioners in the communication field of how to be ethical in their practice. Communication ethics govern a person's or group's behaviour in communication. Thus, communication process is guided by laws and ethics. Practices like plagiarism, unauthorized duplication, transfer, use and sharing of communication materials without the authors’ permission are considered to be unethical and unlawful in communication

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In this paper we discuss about Plagiarism. What is Plagiarism? Their types, which citation it will be avoid, this papers main features are how to detect Plagiarism and how to prevent it and also difference between Plagiarism and Copyright infringement, Plagiarism and Ghostwriting. This article saying about effective Plagiarism detecting software's and this basis identify that how much work is real and other is fraud.

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An academic paper is a type of scholarly writing produced in the context of higher education. It is generally characterized by a formal tone, precise language, comprehensive research, and adherence to a particular citation style. As a rule, an academic paper aims to disseminate new findings or offer an original interpretation of existing literature. Writing such a document involves meticulous planning, extensive research, and careful editing. For example, a research paper, one of the most common types of academic papers, requires the author to present a new argument or discovery based on careful examination and analysis of information gathered from various sources. Similarly, essays, reports, and critiques also fall under the category of academic papers, each having its unique structure and requirements.

How to Write an Academic Paper

Writing an academic paper requires careful planning and a step-by-step approach. First, you need to understand the assignment or research question. Whether you’re crafting a custom essay, a research essay, or a literature review, it’s essential to know what’s expected of you. Then, conduct a thorough investigation on your topic. Here, the focus is on finding reliable sources and taking good notes. Your research process will be much more comfortable with an effective system to track your sources and the information you glean from them. Once your research is complete, draft your paper. This process involves organizing your ideas logically and ensuring that each paragraph supports your thesis statement. Critical writing, a cornerstone of academic writing, is necessary at this stage. Finally, revise and edit your paper. This process involves checking for clarity, coherence, and grammatical correctness. Remember, academic writing is a rigorous task, so don’t be disheartened if you need to revise multiple times.

Types of Academic Papers

There are several types of academic papers, each with its unique style and purpose. Let’s examine some of these:

Essays typically present a viewpoint or argument. This form of academic writing can vary significantly in length, from a one-page personal reflection to a lengthy research essay. A sample essay can be a great starting point if you’re unfamiliar with this genre.

Research Papers involve an in-depth study of a particular topic. This type of academic paper demands an original thesis and the ability to use critical thinking to support the claims. A sample research paper can guide you through the process of writing one.

Reports are commonly assigned in science and business courses. They often involve investigating a particular topic or problem and providing a detailed analysis and recommendations. If you are tasked with writing an academic report, reviewing a sample report can be a great help.

Critique Papers or response papers require a comprehensive analysis and evaluation of a text, artwork, or concept. They usually involve summarizing the work and then offering a critical response.

Book Reviews and Movie Analysis also fall under the category of academic papers. These involve a comprehensive analysis of the work, whether a literary piece or a film, and they provide an opportunity to practice your analytical skills and offer an original interpretation.

The Role of Citation Style in Academic Writing

Citation styles, such as APA, MLA, or Harvard, play a vital role in academic writing. They establish the format for referencing sources in your academic paper, thus ensuring that the authorship of ideas is properly credited and plagiarism is avoided. The choice of citation style usually depends on the academic discipline or the requirements of a specific course or publication.

The Importance of Examples and Samples in Academic Writing

Looking at examples and samples, whether a sample essay, a sample research paper, or a review example, can be incredibly beneficial when learning the art of academic writing. They serve as practical guides, providing insights into the structure, style, language, and citation practices characteristic of high-quality academic work. Furthermore, they can stimulate ideas, help identify common errors, and demonstrate how to handle complex aspects of paper writing, such as integrating sources or crafting a strong thesis statement.

Remember, academic writing is a skill that takes time to develop. Practice, patience, and the use of quality samples will help enhance your writing abilities and produce papers that meet the high standards of academia.

Mastering the Art of Critical Writing

Critical writing is an integral aspect of academic writing. It requires you to go beyond simply describing or summarizing the information you find in your sources. Instead, you need to evaluate these sources, assess their reliability, and analyze how they support your thesis. A custom essay or a sample essay can provide examples of how to effectively incorporate critical writing into your work. Your ability to demonstrate critical thinking in your writing not only strengthens your arguments but also showcases your understanding of the topic.

Embracing Diverse Fields of Literature in Academic Writing

Literature forms the backbone of many academic papers, especially in the humanities. From American Literature to global texts, the ideas, themes, and styles presented in these works often become the focus of analysis and discussion. A literary essay, for instance, might explore the character development in a novel, critique the representation of society in a play, or analyze a poet’s use of imagery. By incorporating literature into your academic writing, you can develop nuanced arguments, enrich your analysis, and broaden your understanding of diverse cultures, eras, and perspectives.

The Significance of Movie Analysis in Academic Papers In fields such as film studies, academic papers often require movie analysis. Like a book review, a movie analysis offers a detailed examination of a film, including aspects such as plot, characters, themes, cinematography, and directorial choices. Writing a movie analysis helps you develop a deeper understanding of the film medium, improves your critical thinking skills, and enhances your ability to communicate complex ideas. By studying analysis examples, you can learn how to articulate your responses to films in a structured, thoughtful, and academic manner.

The Role of Academic Essays in Developing Research Skills

Academic essays, whether a research essay or an academic essay, play a crucial role in honing your research skills. The process of writing an essay involves identifying a question or topic, conducting comprehensive research, developing an argument, and effectively communicating your findings. Looking at essay examples can provide insight into how successful essays are structured and how they articulate and support their arguments.

Importance of Reports in Business and Science Fields

Writing reports is a common task in business and science disciplines. A report generally addresses a specific issue or problem, presents the findings of an investigation, and may provide recommendations. The skills developed in report writing — logical thinking, attention to detail, and clear, concise writing — are valuable in many professional contexts. Examining a sample report can give you a clear idea of the structure and style of effective reports.

Developing Your Own Academic Writing Style

Every academic writer develops a unique writing style over time. This style should be clear and formal, but it can also reflect your personality and way of thinking. Reading widely, writing regularly, and seeking feedback from others can help you refine your academic writing style. Always remember, the goal of academic writing is to communicate complex ideas in a clear, concise, and structured way. In this journey, every piece of academic writing you complete brings you one step closer to mastering the art of academic writing.

Final Thoughts: The Essence of Academic Writing

In essence, academic writing, with its diverse styles and genres, is a pivotal skill in higher education and various professional contexts. Mastering the art of academic writing involves understanding its structure, embracing critical thinking, and appreciating the value of literature and film studies. Utilizing samples and examples can significantly aid this learning process.

Adherence to citation styles, like APA, MLA, or Harvard, adds credibility to your work. Furthermore, creating your unique writing style helps convey complex ideas clearly and concisely, fostering a robust academic and professional standing. Whether it’s a literature analysis or a scientific report, every academic piece you craft contributes to honing your proficiency in this intricate yet rewarding domain.

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Academic Paper Examples

📜 what is an academic paper, 📝 types of academic papers, 👣 how to write an academic paper: 9 easy steps, ❓ academic paper faqs.

There are many forms of academic writing , but an academic paper should always meet three basic criteria . It should be written by scholars for other scholars, focus on issues that concern the academic community, and contain an informed argument. Other characteristics of academic writing include a formal writing style, specific vocabulary terms, and the use of the third-person perspective.

What Is an Academic Paper?

There are four general types of academic texts . A descriptive text describes a phenomenon, person, or fact. A reflective text conveys the author’s response to experiences, opinions, or new information. An analytical paper shows the relationships between different phenomena. And, finally, a critical text evaluates someone else’s work.

Examples of academic paper genres include:

  • Book reviews
  • Critique papers
  • Movie analysis
  • Research papers

📚 Book Review

To put it simply, a review is a critical evaluation of a text, object, event, etc. A review is not merely a summary, but rather a commentary with persuasive arguments . When writing a good book review , you need to clearly state your opinion of the work in question, and support your statements logically and/or empirically.

Reviews are usually short and rarely exceed 1000 words in academic journals and newspapers. The structure of a book review often resembles that of other academic papers, featuring typical elements like an introduction, a thesis statement, body paragraphs, and a conclusion.

Book Review Example

🤨 Critique Paper

A critique paper aims to critically read and analyze a text, research, or performance. It can also be called a response paper. A critique resembles a book review, but there are important differences. A review should contain the key points of the work in question, while a critique focuses on the evaluation and analysis of the text or research.

If you need more information on how to write a critique paper, take a look at our killer writing tips !

Critique Paper Example

✍️ Academic Essay

An essay is a common form of academic writing. Many different kinds of academic essays exist, but most of them share the same goal of informing readers about the author’s position with the help of arguments and evidence.

There is no ready-made formula for the perfect essay structure .

Instead, it may be useful to think of the different sections of the text as answers to different questions that your reader might have when encountering your research essay. For example, “ What ” is probably the first question a reader might have. Thus, the “what” or “demonstration” section of your paper, which aims to explain the phenomenon about which you are writing, should come early, just after the introduction.

Next, your reader might want to know if the claims you make are valid in all cases. “ How ” is the corresponding question here. How will another perspective, a new set of materials, or different sources affect the claim you make? A typical academic essay usually contains at least one “how” section.

And finally, before coming to a conclusion, your reader might want to ask “ Why ” or “ So what ”. Why does this matter to anyone besides you? Answering this question helps your readers understand the text within a broader context. By providing a clear response to the "why" question, your essay demonstrates its significance.

Academic Essay Example

🎥 Movie Analysis

Unlike literature, a movie includes audiovisual elements. However, literature and film do have many similarities. Both use characters, dialogues, plots, settings, symbolism, etc. These features can be analyzed for their intent and effect in both cinema and literature.

Coherent arguments and convincing evidence are as crucial for movie analysis as for other scholarly papers. Therefore, well-developed academic writing skills are required to write a successful film analysis paper .

📊 Academic Report

A report is a type of academic paper that is created for a very clear purpose and contains specific information and evidence. Students are usually asked to write reports for one of two reasons: 1) to demonstrate what they have learned, or 2) to develop an important skill. Moreover, a good report needs to be clear , concise , and well structured . Still confused about writing a report? Don’t hesitate to check out our report writing tips !

Academic Report Example

🔬 Research Paper

Like most other scholarly papers, an academic research paper is not just a collection of information or a review of the literature on a particular topic. A research paper needs to present your own argument on a topic, supported by others’ works.

What does a research paper look like? Usually, it is an expanded version of an essay. When working on an essay, a student often focuses on personal thoughts and experiences. However, to write on a research paper, you need to find out what the experts know. Thus, a literature review section is usually an essential part of a research paper outline. Other important parts include the abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion, and references.

How long should a research paper be? There’s no single answer to this question because the length of a research paper depends on its topic and purpose. However, an average paper usually fills between four and five pages.

If you need more advice on how to do a research paper, please read this article !

Research Paper Example

The whole writing process may seem overly complex and intimidating at first. But when you break it down into smaller tasks, it becomes more organized and manageable.

Below is a step-by-step guide on how to write an academic paper most efficiently. Before jumping into it, you can add a preparation stage. Spend a little bit of time by checking out some free essay samples to gain some inspiration and generate ideas. It will boost the whole process and help you reach your goal with ease.

How to Write an Academic Paper: 9 Easy Steps

🔥 Step 1. Choose a Hot Topic

Selecting a topic is probably the most difficult challenge for students who are starting their research papers. Sometimes you are assigned a topic, but often you need to choose one by yourself. Choosing and defining a good topic is a crucial part of a successful research project. However, don’t fret about coming up with the final version for the header of your academic paper at this stage. That decision comes much later.

❓ Step 2. Formulate Your Topic as a Research Question

A research question is the base of every scholarly paper. You can think of your research project as a house. The data collection forms the walls, and the hypothesis is the foundation. Your research question, however, is even more fundamental; it is the ground beneath the house. It needs to be solid , specific , and answerable .

At this stage, it is important to develop a preliminary research question, keeping in mind that you’ll probably refine or even change it later.

🤓 Step 3. Read & Make Notes

Most likely, you’ll have reviewed some sources by this stage of topic selection, but now is the time to dig deeper.

To get started, make a list of the sources that you plan to use. Ideally, they should be relevant to the topic and as current as possible. Make sure that you understand who the top voices in your field are and what they have to say about your topic. If you have any questions, you can always use our guide on how to find credible sources .

It is a good idea to take notes while reading. Later, you’ll be able to convert them into a full literature review section.

❗ Step 4. Formulate a Thesis Statement

Once you’ve decided on a research question, and you have a grasp on what other scholars have written on the topic, it is time to make your own ideas more concrete. At this stage, you need to formulate a thesis statement that aims to convey the central argument of your academic paper. Your task is to persuade your audience that you have something valuable to say. A good thesis statement should be specific , debatable , and concise .

🔍 Step 5. Get Your Empirical Results

This step is not always necessary. Still, if you need empirical evidence to prove your thesis, you’ll have to spend time collecting it. Scholars conduct their research in different ways, so this stage is flexible according to your specific topic. If you have any questions about gathering empirical evidence, you can always consult your professor.

📅 Step 6. Plan Your Paper

The work that you’ve already done has probably given you tons of exciting ideas. Your task at this stage is to organize these ideas logically in an outline format. Think of the key points that support your thesis and use them as subheadings for the body paragraphs of your paper.

A typical academic paper structure includes:

  • an abstract
  • an introduction
  • a literature review
  • a methods section
  • a results section
  • a discussion
  • a conclusion

Academic paper structure

🖊️ Step 7. Write Your Draft

At this stage, you already have an outline that gives you a direction. All you need to do is create the first draft of your paper by filling in the details of each section.

The header of your academic paper is very important. If you want to make a good impression on your audience, take note that the title is the first thing that they’ll see. Make a list of the keywords that pertain to the topic you chose, the methods you used, and the results you obtained. Create a sentence that includes as many of the keywords as possible. Make it logical and concise, and add a subtitle if needed.

After creating your headers, you’ll find that drafting the individual sections of your paper is much easier. If you still have doubts, you can find more information on how to write an academic paper here .

🗒️ Step 8. Revise & Edit the Draft

Now that you’ve managed to finish your first draft, take a moment to congratulate yourself! And then, get back to work because you still have a lot to do.

Remember, the first draft is never perfect. If you want to make a good impression on your audience, revise and edit the content and grammar of your paper. Use our checklists to make your academic paper as perfect as it can be.

🔤 Step 9. Format Your Paper

At this stage, you need to make sure that that the format of your academic paper meets the correct style requirements. Pay special attention to citations.

The idea behind citations is simple. If you use the ideas of other people in your work, you must give them credit .

How do you cite your sources ? There are many citation styles, but the most popular are APA and MLA .

What is APA Format?

APA (American Psychological Association) style is often used in Social Sciences (Sociology, Anthropology, Economics, etc.), but many other disciplines use it too.

Take a look at our guidelines if you need to write a paper that requires APA format. You can also find sample APA papers below.

What is MLA Format?

MLA style was developed by the Modern Language Association. MLA is the leading style of documentation in the Humanities, and enables students and researchers in the fields of Language and Literature to format their papers in a universal way.

Want to learn more? You can always read our guidebook , or find sample MLA papers below.

❓ How to write an academic paper?

To write a paper, you need to choose a hot topic and formulate a research question. Then read your sources and get some empirical evidence if necessary. Then make a plan of your paper and write the first draft of it. Take your time to revise and edit the draft. And, finally, don’t forget about the formatting!

❓ How do you start an academic paper?

Selecting a research topic is the starting point for every paper. It is also probably the most difficult challenge, especially when you need to choose one by yourself. However, don’t worry too much about coming up with the final version of the topic at this stage. Formulate a preliminary one. Once you’ve formulated a topic and a research question, the base of your scientific paper is ready.

❓ How do I write a good academic paper?

A good academic paper features several characteristics. First of all, it has a clear purpose. It contains a research question and an answer to it. Moreover, a good paper presents an original point of view. A good academic text is a well-structured one: all parts of it should support the thesis statement. The explanations should be clear, logical, and straightforward. Last but not least, a good paper bases on a number of scholarly sources.

❓ What are the parts of an academic paper?

A basic academic paper structure includes three main parts: an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. The body is usually the most voluminous part of any paper. It typically consists of a literature review, a methods section, results, and discussion. An abstract (a short and concise summation of the entire story) is not always required. Still, most academic papers aimed for publication have one.

❓ What is an example of academic writing?

Numerous forms of academic writing exist. Still, an excellent example of academic writing should be written by scholars for other scholars, explore the issues that concern the academic community, and contain an informed argument. Examples of academic writing include book reviews, critique papers, essays, movie analysis, reports, research papers, etc.

  • What is an Academic Paper? University of Washington
  • Film Analysis: UNC Writing Center
  • How to Write an Academic Report: Middlesex University
  • How to Select a Research Topic: UMFlint
  • How to Write a Research Question: GMU Writing Center
  • A guide to writing an academic paper: The Washington Post
  • Writing a Literature Review: Ashford University Writing Center
  • Literature Reviews: UNC Writing Center

What is Academic Writing? Common Types With Examples

Photo of author

| Candace Osmond

Photo of author

Candace Osmond

Candace Osmond studied Advanced Writing & Editing Essentials at MHC. She’s been an International and USA TODAY Bestselling Author for over a decade. And she’s worked as an Editor for several mid-sized publications. Candace has a keen eye for content editing and a high degree of expertise in Fiction.

Every person experiences writing an academic paper at least once in their student life. This type of writing uses accurate language, facts, logical flow, and a formal tone to showcase their knowledge.

These academic writing styles and examples will help you receive a perfect score or get that research grant. Keep reading to know the elements and types of academic writing with examples. 

How is Academic Writing Different from Other Types of Writing?

An academic paper is writing used in universities and scholarly publications with a formal tone in its content. It includes essays, research papers, research proposals, and other documents for scholarly publication. 

Any academic writing has the same process as other texts. However, the topic, idea, and tone are different. For example, a journal article brings attention to unbiased information through a clear and precise thesis statement.

A thesis statement includes the entire argument of your study or paper. It involves the central idea that shows your content reader what you will reveal or prove. Because it’s supposed to be objective, academic writing must have theories, causes, and effects.

This type of writing doesn’t always need to be based on facts. But it needs to be as objective and unbiased as possible. Here’s what differentiates academic writing from personal writing.

Academic Writing

Formal approach with an impersonal tone

Cites scholarly sources

Sentences are made of evidence, evaluations, and arguments.

Focused and well-structured

Personal Writing

Formal or informal approach may include conversational language.

Doesn’t require scholarly sources

Content is made of personal experiences


Elements of Academic Writing

The elements of academic writing vary according to the specific type of writing you’re producing. But here are some common elements of any academic writing assignment.

Academic Vocabulary

The best-known writers in any field of study know how to use jargon words in any report or essay to convey an academic tone. For the ordinary reader, everything might look like flowery language. But for readers in the same discipline, the writer makes convincing arguments.

An academic writing style always has a certain level of vocabulary. The two types include:

  • Academic vocabulary (more general).
  • Subject-vocabulary (for a particular field of study).

Some examples of general academic vocabulary include “analyze,” “concept,” and “construct.” In the field of law, some subject-vocabulary include “acquittal,” “dismissal,” “jurisdiction,” and “tribunal.”

Scholarly articles need to include proper citation styles to establish a more authoritative tone. The academic content must include research from reliable sources like studies and journal articles. 

Even if you only borrowed an idea and used it in a single sentence, you still need to follow proper referencing. Some style guides include Modern Language Association (MLA), Chicago Manual Style, and American Psychological Association (APA).

Academic content should also pay attention to the conventions of the reference list. Check the style guide to see how you should format the bibliography. Remember that other style guides also require footnotes. 


Academic essay writing needs to have a proper outline to convey the entire message. First, academic articles should contain a research question or thesis statement to develop their argument. This should be in the introduction part.

The body of writing contains all supporting details. You may use headings to divide longer texts into chapters. Your body paragraph should also start with a topic sentence all the time.

Don’t forget to use transition words when expressing connections between your ideas. Use the proper punctuations with a variety of sentence lengths.

Uses Third Person Point of View Most of the Time

Academic writing usually uses a third-person point of view like “he,” “she,” or “they.” The writer doesn’t refer to themselves as “I” or “me.” Instead, they use “researcher” to name themselves. 

Doing so provides more objectivity to the paper, separating the author from the academic topics. It also stresses the academic style where the writer supports their focused argument and not their personal experience. 

But some academic journals now accept the first-person point of view, especially APA. It doesn’t necessarily mean the writer is using informal language. Using credible sources and academic vocabulary still keeps the paper’s formality.

Common Types of Academic Writing

There are different types of academic writing, including a book report, journal article, and dissertation. Here are the most common types:

  • Research paper.
  • Research proposal.
  • Thesis and dissertation.
  • Lab report.
  • Literature review,
  • Annotated bibliography. 

We can also categorize the major types of these papers into five. 

Descriptive Writing

Descriptive papers are the simplest types of writing that academic writers produce. It has several purposes, although it primarily offers facts and information in several fields of study. This academic writing can describe a phenomenon, person, place, case, or object.

You can also use personal experience when making descriptive essays. But effective writing includes using precise language to avoid turning it into personal writing. 

Analytical Writing

Most academic papers in universities aren’t entirely descriptive. A scientific question and an analysis typically follow a factual statement. Analytical writing includes reorganizing facts, showing relationships, and comparing information.

An academic study may include comparing and contrasting complex ideas and theories. 

Or you may deconstruct a single notion and contextualize it in a different social setting. You’ll find this writing style in reviews of literature.

When writing an analytical paper, always make the structure of your writing clear. Create an outline beforehand, and don’t forget to add accurate citations.

Persuasive Writing

Persuasive writing has the same characteristics as analytical writing, plus your point of view. This type of writing requires a coherent argument backed by relevant evidence throughout the paper.

The writer also has to include a recommendation, interpretation of findings, and an analysis of others’ scholarly writing. Some academic writing examples include persuasive essays and the final part of a research article.

Any persuasive assignment requires you to “discuss,” “evaluate,” or “argue.” As always, you need to add citations to your work to make yourself more credible. 

Critical Writing

Critical writing is a form of writing in college essays and postgraduate writing. Critical writing assignments follow a formal writing style with the added feature of another point of view.

What makes it different from persuasive writing is that a critical essay needs more than one point of view. And that includes your own. This writing should also have a strong statement or messages backed by authoritative sources. 

Academic Writing Example 1: Research Proposals

Colleges usually submit research proposals before conducting their studies. This form of academic writing is a concise yet coherent summary of your proposed research. It should contain the essential issues and questions that your research should address. 

Aside from outlining the general area of your study, the proposal also proves that your research will be unique and beneficial. Although it’s not a persuasive paper, it should convince the professor that your study is worth performing.

An excellent-quality paper also matches your research interest with the professor or supervisor. Consider it like an application on which potential advisers will pick if they want to support your research or not. 

The research proposal also allows you to demonstrate your skills and aptitude for the level of research you’re conducting. This is where you can prove that you can communicate complex ideas concisely and critically. 

Research Proposal Structure

The research proposal must always contain the following:

  • A cover letter addressed to whom you’re proposing. It must show a summary of your proposal and why they should approve it.
  • An introduction or abstract in a short paragraph.
  • The rationale, significance, and limitations of your research.
  • Your methods for conducting the study, including your budget. 

Research Proposal Example

Here’s a great example of an excerpt from a research proposal in the field of criminology:

The empirical focus of the research will be strategies of restorative justice, as articulated by Thames Valley Police. Recent developments in restorative justice constitute a radical realignment in police practices, resulting in a more holistic and multi-level approach (involving all forms of police’ consumer’, including victims, offenders, families, local authorities and members of the business community). In this regard, Thames Valley offers a unique case of a self-styled ‘model’ of modern policing and is considered to be one of the most innovative forces in the country (see, for example, their Restorative Justice programme, 2001).

Academic Writing Example 2: Dissertations

Dissertations are another type of academic paper with definite writing rules. This document aims to give evidence of a candidate’s knowledge and skills in a scholarly method. But the content itself may serve educational purposes that contribute to the field of study. 

This academic paper typically has ten to twenty thousand words that answer a specific research question. The answer to the research question may be based on an experiment, empirical study, or literature review. 

To advisers and professors, the method of producing a dissertation matters more than the result. You can still create a dissertation without actual findings or if your tested hypothesis was wrong. 

You might have to conduct a study even before writing the dissertation. A needs analysis, survey, or experiment will help you determine the significant “problem” or “question” you want to address.

Let your supervisor or adviser direct how you will conduct your studies. They will instruct the scope, limitations, and method for your research. 

Dissertation Structure

Dissertations and thesis papers always pay attention to structure. Below is the academic paper format of a dissertation:

  • Introduction (including the background of the study and its significance).
  • Review of related literature.
  • Methodology.
  • Findings or data analysis.
  • Conclusion and recommendations. 

Dissertation Example

Here’s one example of an excerpt from a sample dissertation :

This chapter will discuss secondary research findings using the National Health Service as a case study. The secondary sources discussed will use all relevant material such as books, journal articles, publications from the National Health Service website and newspaper articles that have been reviewed by an individual or a group of individuals who are involved with a study or have performed extensive research within an area which is directly or indirectly related to the main question of this dissertation.

Academic Writing Example 3: Abstracts

The abstract summarizes your dissertation or research paper found at the start of the document. It’s composed of evidence-based arguments and research outcomes in concise sentences. 

This type of academic writing is the shortest and, therefore, the easiest. It usually has around 150-300 words only. The word limit depends on the style guide you’re following or the advice of your research adviser. 

There are several acceptable approaches to writing an abstract. The easiest way is to imitate the structure of your large paper. It should contain the introduction, method, findings, and conclusions. 

Although the abstract is the first part of your thesis or research paper, it’s usually the last you write. Remember that it’s not an excerpt from your report or a reflection of your work. It’s simply a summary of everything in one paragraph. 

Abstract Structure

Your abstract must contain the following in only a few sentences:

  • Conclusion.

Abstract Example

Here’s an example of an abstract whose research focuses on medicine:

The Southwest shrub Juniperus communis (Juniper Berry) has many significant medicinal value in the Native American culture that has not been proven scientifically. One of the popular uses of Juniper berries aside from its detoxifying action is its potential to repel insects. This study focuses on the development of insect repellant from its essential oil obtained through steam distillation. 50 g of fresh berries was collected and dried for 5 days and is placed in a still tank with 100 mL of water for steam distillation using the Flinn Scientific Borosilicate Lab Kit. Gather the extracted oil and dilute 70% in three separate containers to be transferred into spray bottles. Testing involved the spraying of the dilute sample into a class jar with Anopheles juidthae (common NM mosquito) and compared this to the effect of a commercial insect repellant. After testing and comparing the result, the commercial insect repellant significantly showed that it is a better insect repellant compared to the J. communis diluted essential oil. However, the essential oil has also an insect repellant potential.

Practice Your Academic Writing Skills

There are different types of academic writing styles you’ll encounter as you enter university or college. Whether it’s a dissertation, research paper, or persuasive essay, remember to use a formal and impersonal tone. Doing so will help you become more logical and objective. 

Keep practicing your academic writing skills to succeed in your field of study!

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Top 10 books and other resources on academic writing for researchers

  • Books & Tools
  • Planning to Write

Yateendra Joshi

Top 10 books and other resources on academic writing for researchers

In his book 10 Novels and Their Authors , William Somerset Maugham, the well-known 20th-century English writer, recounts that one day, he was asked by a publisher to make a list of what, in Maugham’s opinion, were the ten best novels in the world. Talking of that list, Maugham adds: 1 “Of course my list was arbitrary. I could have made one of ten other novels, just as good in their different ways as those I chose, and give just as sound reasons for selecting them.”

As I attempted to list the top ten books or other resources on academic writing, I remembered those words and took comfort in that. However, the purpose of this article is more practical, and although others would make a different list, I like to think, as Maugham did, that “in all the lists most of those I have chosen would find a place.”

The other consideration that has driven the choice of books for researchers is to focus on books that will show you how to be a competent writer over time by showing you what good writing is and what it takes to be able to write well, although I have also included three resources for researchers to help you during the task of writing, sources that are more in the nature of reference tools similar to well-known style guides—which I have excluded deliberately, simply because they are already widely known. For the same reason, I wanted to highlight some of the lesser-known books for researchers (actually, for academic writers) that deserve to be more widely known.

That said, here, in random order, is my list of the top ten resources for researchers.

1. Stylish Academic Writing

Few have subjected academic writing to such scrutiny as Helen Sword has done, and the results of her study are for everyone to use. She began by asking ‘more than seventy academics from across the disciplines to describe the characteristics of “stylish academic writing” in their respective fields’. She then analysed ‘books and articles by more than one hundred exemplary authors recommended [to her] by their discipline–based peers’ and analysed in great detail a corpus of a thousand articles from ten disciplines taken from the top journals in each discipline. Helen <> also offers a free test of how good your writing is at <> .

academic writing examples with author

2. Words of Science and the History Behind Them

Words of Science also has a companion volume, namely More Words of Science , both written by Isaac Asimov, that most prolific of science writers perhaps of all time. Although far from recent (the books were published in 1959 and 1972), any academic writer will do well to dip into these books now and then because, as Asimov puts it, ‘scientific vocabulary is the bridge by which we enter the land, not the wall that keeps us out.’ The books are arranged alphabetically and consist of short essays, each on one selected word. The essays not only explain what the word in question means but also how it was derived, how it is used, and, where required, how it is pronounced. Some may think these two books to be an odd choice for this list of books for researchers but it is not—after all, words are the building blocks of any writing.

3. How to Write a Lot

For those who find it hard to find the time to write or suffer from the writer’s block, Paul Silvia has come up with some excellent advice. At fewer than 150 small pages, How to Write a Lot (2nd edition, 2019) is packed with lots of practical advice and shows that productive writing is a skill that people can learn.

academic writing examples with author

4. On Writing Well: The Classic Guide to Writing Nonfiction

As the subtitle claims, this is indeed a classic, the 6th edition of which was published in 2001. William Zinsser wrote the first edition in 1976, when most of the writing was done either by hand or using a typewriter. As Zinsser puts it, the ‘word processor made good writers better and bad writers worse.’ However, On Writing Well is a concise and readable guide that teaches the ‘craft of writing warmly and clearly.’

5. The Sense of Style: The Thinking Person’s Guide to Writing in the 21st Century

Steven Pinker is a scientist who studies cognitive psychology. On top of that, he is a best-selling author of such books as The Language Instinct and Words and Rules . Illustrated with examples of good writing and poor writing, The Sense of Style is ‘designed for people who know how to write and want to write better’ and is one of the more recent books for researchers.

6. Academic Writing for Graduate Students: Essential Tasks and Skills

Again, as the subtitle claims, John Swales and Christine Feak draw on their considerable experience of as writing instructors at Michigan’s English Language Institute to show how writers can tackle different kinds of writing. This first-hand experience makes their book one of the top resources for researchers.

7. Simple and Direct: A Rhetoric for Writers

Jacques Barzun wrote several memorable books for researchers, academics, and scholars. The Modern Researcher is one of the more widely known of those books. Barzun cared for scholarship and was also particular that the fruits of scholarship be expressed simply and clearly. In Simple and Direct , he writes not only about choosing the right word and arranging the chosen words in clear syntax but also touches upon the right tone and the need to revise your writing.

8. The Editor’s Manual

Whereas nearly all the books for researchers mentioned so far are for background reading to master the craft of academic writing, The Editor’s Manual <>   is a website to be used more as a reference to look up bits of specific advice while engaged in actual writing or revising. The contents are divided into four main categories, namely usage, punctuation, style, and grammar, so that users can quickly find specific and relevant information in settling a particular query.

9. The Academic Phrasebank

A handy writing tool, the academic phrasebank <> is a particularly useful resource for researchers who are struggling to paraphrase – trying to express the relevant findings of your fellow researchers in your own words instead of copying them verbatim – (and, in the process, escape the ‘similarity check’ that may point to plagiarism). The phrasebank groups typical phrases used in academic writing by the typical sections of a research paper, such as introduction, method, and results, so that users can turn to the more common phrases that are often used in the respective sections.

10. Oxford Learner’s Dictionary of Academic English

Designed to cater to those who are learning English specifically for purposes of academic study, this dictionary supports meaning of each word with example sentences drawn from authentic academic texts. I had reviewed this book a few years ago, 2 and it was the first resource that came to my mind as I began compiling this list of books for researchers. The print version comes equipped with a disk, which contains a writing tutor for ready reference.

1. William Somerset Maugham. Ten Novels and Their Authors . (Heinemann, 1954).

2. Yateendra Joshi. English for academic writing: A helpful dictionary for researchers. Editage Insights (2014).

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Business, Management & Leadership Sample Essays

Multinational enterprises (MNEs) rely on various sources of competitive advantage to support their international expansion (Asmussen and Foss, 2014). Supply chain effectiveness is one of the key prerequisites for the sustainability of global operations, which makes this factor one of the primary sources of competitiveness. Modern multinational companies are becoming highly dependent on the quality of their supply chains management due to the growing globalisation of their operations and the need to succeed in a variety of developing markets with various customer needs and legislative environments (Kiessling et al., 2014). However, the role of this element in MNE operations and achieving a sustainable competitive advantage in foreign markets has not been extensively studied. The aim of this essay is to evaluate how supply chains can serve as a source of competitive advantage for MNEs.

Written by Laura N.

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The modern business environment is characterised by its ever-increasing instability and the necessity to constantly address the challenges posed by different crises (Farnese et al., 2016). Thus, organisational flexibility has to be properly governed in order to effectively and efficiently utilise all available resources and support the suggested change plan. Entrepreneurial leadership can be viewed as one of the ways to achieve positive results since leaders are proficient in recognising and taking advantage of opportunities as well as overcoming challenges and threats (Pisapia and Feit, 2015). The aim of this essay is to explore how entrepreneurial leadership can impact organisational flexibility during crisis periods.

Written by Steve S.

Modern organisations are constantly searching for new methods to improve the performance of their employees in order to achieve better financial results (Saraswat and Arora, 2016). The use of different incentives is one of the ways to increase the commitment of individuals and teams. The contemporary theories such as the Motivation-Hygiene theory by Herzberg suggest that non-monetary reward may be as effective for this purpose as monetary methods (Herzberg, 2017). This is highly relevant for start-ups that are usually limited in terms of available resources and have to reduce their internal spending during the first stages of product development (Burton, 2017). The aim of this essay is to explore how non-monetary reward can influence team performance in start-up projects.

Written by Philip S.

The oil and gas industry has been demonstrating a steady growth trend in the last several decades (OECD, 2017). However, its development is currently hindered by the depletion of existing minefields, environmental concerns and the need to develop unconventional sources of natural deposits. Technological innovation is one of the methods utilised by oil and gas industry organisations to address these problems and maintain a proper balance between profitability and sustainability (Zendehboudi and Bahadori, 2016). Nevertheless, it is not clear if this approach can help these firms achieve positive return-on-investment results. The aim of this essay is to analyse the key financial benefits of technological innovation in the oil and gas industry.

Written by Jess C.

Creativity is one of the primary drivers of innovation in the contemporary business environment that can impact the effectiveness of companies to a substantial degree. This effect is confirmed by the examples of such renowned organisations as Apple, Kodak and Xerox (Puccio et al., 2017). Unfortunately, the role of this practice in the context of smaller companies has received much less attention from the previous researchers in the field (Taylor, 2017). The aim of this essay is to analyse what creativity drivers are utilised by British small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to narrow the existing gap in this dimension between the UK and European Union countries (Goldman Sachs, 2015).

Written by Anna D.

The problem of employee training effectiveness is relevant for all organisations operating in the healthcare industry (Balbale et al., 2015). The educational process in this context is often hindered by such barriers and challenges as poor time availability (Osaro and Chima, 2014) and the limited effectiveness of educational programmes (Maisonneuve et al., 2014). In recent years, the National Health System (NHS) organisation has been frequently criticised in the UK for long wait times, low service quality and insufficient competence of its personnel members (Kaidi and Atun, 2017), which undermines the implementation of the 6Cs concept promoted by the studied organisation (NHS, 2017). The aim of this essay is to review employee training challenges in the NHS.

In the light of the non-stop globalisation process, the issue of cultural diversity has received a close academic attention (Hsiao et al., 2015, p.102). Profit-making organisations, especially those operating on an international scale, have to deal with cultural diversity issues, which can result in communication problems and conflicts in the workplace (Ashikali and Groeneveld, 2015, p.773). This issue is especially relevant to the hospitality industry, which is characterised by a high proportion of expatriate workers, both in the UK and globally (Fe Causin et al., 2011, p.885; Malik et al., 2017, p.323).

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is widely considered an important form of a firm’s self-regulation, which has a significant effect on financial performance and corporate decisions on how much to invest into socially responsible programmes and activities (Lin et al., 2015, p.8292). Nevertheless, there has been a considerable debate among academics about the effect of CSR on companies and their stakeholders (Hur et al., 2014, p.84; Prutina, 2016, p.242; Nalband and Al Kelabi, 2014, p.237). The main purpose of this essay is to identify and critically discuss the impact of CSR on organisational stakeholders in the light of various theories, including the stakeholder theory and shareholder theory. The essay consists of an introduction, a critical review of the CSR concept, the impact of CSR on organisations and their stakeholders and conclusion.

Written by Katy J.

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Among the key studies aimed at organisational culture, Johnson’s Cultural Web theory and the Types of Culture framework are considered vital for interpreting phenomena in the areas of employee behaviour and organisational decision-making (Johnson and Scholes, 1988, p.15; Deal and Kennedy, 1982, p.56). Both models allow academics and practitioners to categorise organisational culture along pre-determined dimensions, which is their main strength (Johnson and Scholes, 1988, p.15; Deal and Kennedy, 1982, p.56). This simplifies typology and subsequent analysis. At the same time, the more recently created models such as the approach outlined by Iljins et al. (2015, p.944) expanded the concept of organisational culture to include new paradigms, namely team orientation. The following essay critically evaluates whether the original ideas of Johnson and Scholes (1988, p.15) and Deal and Kennedy (1982, p.56) are still empirically valid in modern organisational contexts.

In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the relationship between leadership style and employees’ motivation and performance (Domingues et al., 2017). The aim of this essay is to identify and evaluate the links between leadership styles and employee outcomes using traditional leadership and motivation frameworks. The leadership models providing the theoretical basis of the discussion are the classical model by Kurt Lewin (Billig, 2015), the Managerial Grid Model by Blake and Mouton (1964), and the transformational leadership model. The confirming and disconfirming empirical evidence for the relationships implied by each model is critically evaluated.

Online services companies are different from other services companies in a lot of ways. Such companies differ in terms of their operations, reporting of their numbers, as well as the cash flow recording methods. Also, since these companies differ in so many ways, it is not a straightforward process for potential investors to calculate the expected returns on their investments. Therefore, it is important to understand the strengths and weaknesses of investment appraisal techniques for online services companies. Some of the techniques used for investment appraisal are: net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), accounting rate of return (ARR), and Payback Period (Hirschey et al., 2002).

Written by Rachel E.

The most popular soft drink chain in the world, Coca Cola, originated in Atlanta, Georgia, in the year 1886. Being a prominent manufacturer, dealer and supplier of non-alcoholic drink concentrates and syrups globally, Coca Cola supplies its beverage concentrates and syrups to distributors, bottling and canning operators and fountain retailers and wholesalers. Apart from bottled and canned soft drinks and concentrates, the company’s beverage products consist of various tea, coffee and sports drinks. Although the company started building its international network in the 1920s, it now operates in nearly 200 countries and produces more than 400 brands.

McDonald's is one of the world's largest chains of fast food restaurants, which is well-known for its hamburgers. It serves nearly 68 million customers each day in 120 countries all over the world. With its headquarters in the United States, McDonald’s began its operations in the year 1940 as a barbecue restaurant, which was operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald. However, in the year 1948 the restaurant reorganised its business as a hamburger stand by incorporating production line principles. Further in 1955, Ray Kroc became a franchise agent in the company. He later purchased the restaurant chain from the McDonald brothers and managed to expand it on an international level.

Contemporary organisations have to be innovative and constantly develop new products to remain competitive in the markets of their presence (Farid et al., 2017). Moreover, new products introduced by companies to their consumers should not only meet the needs and expectations of the target population, but also be affordable and cost-efficient. A number of factors such as resources available to an organisation, skills of the personnel, overall degree of rivalry in the market segment determine the success of newly launched products. In turn, theoretical and empirical literature on new product development (NPD) highlights that complex and intertwined factors predict NPD performance (Wu et al., 2016).

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Modern supply chains allow companies to source the required raw materials and components at the cheapest possible price (MacCarthy et al., 2016). Organisations such as Apple now source raw materials from one country and produce components using them in other parts of the world to make their top of the line products. One of the main reasons why Apple and other multinational corporations have thrived over the past two decades is their highly efficient supply chain that could not be imitated by competitors easily.

In June 2016, the British citizens participated in a referendum with regard to leaving the European Union (EU). The vote proved to be a close call, but eventually, the public decided to leave the EU. This decision has had major political, economic, and financial consequences for the UK. Firstly, the vote was held amidst political turbulence in the country. The results of the vote made the political scene even more complicated. Secondly, businesses in the UK had to brace themselves for economic and financial consequences. Leaving the EU would mean that companies would have to work in an environment of uncertainty and higher risks. It would also mean that businesses would have to comply with new regulations and deal with the issue of market access (Arnorsson and Zoega, 2018). This essay aims to evaluate the economic effect of Brexit on UK businesses.

In the recent decade, many globally recognised corporations including Google, Disney, Facebook, Tesla, and Hulu announced major changes to their corporate and legal structures (Hesmondhalgh, 2018). While the stated reasons for these major transformations were different, they all fall within the same managerial concept called corporate restructuring. This phenomenon has been in existence for many years as many organisations used it to optimise tax burden, reduce overhead, refinance debt obligations or start new spin-off businesses to enter new market segments. However, the growing internationalisation and digitalisation of multinational corporations have made corporate restructuring a semi-obligatory step in the eyes of many practitioners (Birkinbine et al., 2016).

Contemporary organisations have to face the necessity to undergo changes to adapt to the rapidly changing external environment and new market trends (Al-Haddad and Kotnour, 2015). These transformations can sometimes be involuntary and involve extensive internal restructuring and employee layoffs. These activities often create resistance to change from the personnel that substantially decreases the overall change effectiveness and increases associated costs. Microsoft had to start a massive transformational initiative in 2014 caused by the need to address the market demand for cloud technologies, its ‘organisational ageing’ and the loss of its original innovative culture (Bort, 2014a; 2014b). The aim of this essay is to analyse the resistance factors existing within the company and the ways it can mitigate their negative impact.

Evidence-based practice is applied in numerous sciences whereas the use of quantitative methods allows for conducting statistical analysis the result of which can be further replicated and either confirmed or refuted by the scientific community. To generate verifiable knowledge, the same methods of research should be applied.

The sphere of corporate governance lies at the intersection of management and finance since the structure of top executives and characteristics and the balance of power between particular directors affect both managerial and financial issues, and ultimately, all other aspects of the organisational performance. Results received by previous researchers can be applied in practice.  Thus, it is important that these results are objective and unbiased.

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With Apple being one of the most iconic brands in the consumer electronics market, its financial results throughout the COVID-19 period can be seen as controversial (Statista, 2021). On the one hand, its recent sales increase could be seen as a highly positive result after the major decline in global sales throughout 2020. On the other hand, it is not clear whether this single spike in revenues will be sustainable considering the slowdown of many economies including the most critical Chinese market (Canon and Jasper, 2021). The following SWOT analysis explores the current strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of Apple.

View the full sample essay: Business Analysis of Apple

Since the completion of the referendum in June 2016, many experts questioned whether the resulting implications in many spheres would outweigh the expected benefits (Bulmer and Quaglia, 2018). With multiple disruptions occurring since that moment including the global COVID-19 pandemic, these original predictions may need to be re-appraised to better understand the current status quo.

View the full sample essay: The Impact of Brexit on the UK-EU Relationships

Cost leadership is one of the four competitive strategies described by Michael Porter (Porter, 1985). It implies the use of economies of scale, advanced technologies, and extensive industry expertise to win over rivals by offering standardised products of superior quality at the lowest price possible. It has been adopted by such market leaders as Tesco in the UK and Walmart in the US for decades with highly positive results.

The emergence of Bitcoin and its underlying blockchain technology has revolutionised the way financial transactions are handled, as well as financial information is stored and distributed in the online environment (Baur and Oll, 2022). Since its inception in 2008, Bitcoin has quickly gained popularity as the most profitable digital currency, forcing many enthusiasts and entrepreneurs to invest in so-called mining farms. However, the process of generating or mining new coins is associated with high levels of energy consumption, making the statement that Bitcoin is a sustainable digital currency questionable (Yeong et al., 2022). This essay explores the extent to which the mining of Bitcoin exacerbates the growth in global energy consumption and electronic waste levels and how this problem could potentially be tackled.

Employment forms one of the main parts of human life (Inayat, 2021). In the rapidly changing modern environment, the workforce market is characterised by increasing flexibility. As the global pandemic has shown the benefits of remote employment to millions of workers, this inevitably increases the growth of the ‘gig economy’. As many competent specialists can easily move between organisations in both offline and online environments, this decreases organisational citizenship behaviours and makes it more difficult to recruit and retain highly skilled specialists. Job satisfaction is one of the elements defining the quality of life within the scope of employment.

The global COVID-19 pandemic is one of the greatest disasters of the previous decades that has disrupted the normal functioning of human societies at many levels, including higher education, business, the public sector (Bozkurt et al., 2022). Thousands of students were forced to adjust to remote learning schemes, which was a major challenge for many of them. Similarly, educational institutions had to rapidly develop these new processes and adapt their programmes to new communication channels. During this painful adjustment, many global corporations offered extensive assistance in the form of product discounts or direct provision of knowledge and support. As noted by such authors as Reiser and Dean (2023), this collaboration may be characterised as for-profit philanthropy. This essay aims to appraise the impact of such initiatives on educational development in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Dunkin Donuts is a US global chain selling doughnuts and coffee across 12,000+ locations in 42 countries (DD, 2023a). Its diversified product portfolio also includes a number of healthier options, which makes company offerings suitable for all audiences. As more and more people prefer to have their snacks on the go, the extensive menu of this company allows it to compete with established global brands in its sphere including Starbucks. Despite substantial rivalry in the sphere of fast food restaurants, Dunkin Donuts retains its significance for more than 70 years.

In recent years, human resource (HR) managers had to deal with a large number of challenges ranging from the growing gig economy to COVID-19 forcing the global adoption of remote work practices (Statista, 2023). This rapidly changing environment is also characterised by adverse contextual factors such as declining economies, international conflicts, and other elements increasing the significance of high-quality human resource management (HRM). With that being said, reaching professionalism in any sphere is not possible without clarifying the constituent elements and definitions associated with such advancement.

As noted by such authors as Kuo (2021), company business models and strategies form the core of their commercial success. As many spheres are characterised by severe levels of rivalry between firms, even strong brands need to focus on building sustainable competitive advantage. According to Kuncoro and Suriani (2018), it can be built upon unique resources, strengths, and brand characteristics as well as the targeting and positioning choices ensuring good customer-brand fit.

According to Statista (2023a), the global sportswear market size amounted to 366 billion USD in 2021 and is expected to grow by 25% or more by 2027. While this trend may seem controversial to the decline in physical gym visits, the pandemic period has led to a boost in home training popularity. Additionally, millions of people have gotten used to wearing comfortable apparel items. This raised interest towards the concept of ‘athleisure’ clothes that people can wear both during their training sessions and during their daily routines (Boone et al., 2019). The brands that could capitalise on this trend may experience a major growth in revenues over the next several years. This essay explores the future perspectives of the Gymshark brand and aims to identify the key implications that may determine its capability to use the aforementioned opportunities.

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Marketing Sample Essays

In the last several decades, globally recognised and established brands have been demonstrating growing interest in new global markets including those of developing countries (Riley et al., 2016). While these environments are associated with substantial customer resources, the entry into them is often hindered by various economic, political or cultural barriers. The need to adjust to the particularities of each country of presence often forces global brands to adhere to ‘glocalisation’ strategies that combine the core elements of their international positioning with localised positioning concepts to improve the effectiveness of marketing communication (Parsons and Maclaran, 2017). However, the substantiation of such choices may be complicated and companies’ market entry decisions often have to be studied on a case-by-case basis. The aim of this essay is to explore the key reasons why global brands adopt different positioning strategies in the countries of their presence.

Strategic management allows for identifying the position of companies in their external environment and evaluating their internal resources and capabilities in order to find the optimal methods of ensuring their growth and business success (Omolade and Tony, 2014). At the same time, the quality of strategy development and the outcomes of its implementation directly depend on the skills of the managers acting as decision-makers (Sabourin and Ayande, 2014). Spanish fast fashion companies rely on innovation and intangible resources to achieve global growth (Truett and Truett, 2014). This emphasises the need to select the most effective strategic management approaches to identify potential bottlenecks that decrease the quality of decision-making in these organisations and prevent them from responding to relevant market trends. Hence, the aim of this essay is to explore what strategic management approaches and skills would stimulate the growth of the fast fashion industry in Spain.

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As the Internet sales industry is constantly growing on a global scale, companies are looking for new ways to influence customer behaviours and motivate clients to purchase their products and services in the online environment (Dai et al., 2014). The quality of corporate information resources is one of the critical antecedents of conversion, which emphasises the role of Internet platform elements in the decision-making process. Therefore, website design is highly significant as this dimension is responsible for the convenience, effectiveness and trustworthiness of marketing interaction with prospective customers (Rozekhi et al., 2014). However, its role in the decision-making process is often vaguely defined. The aim of this essay is to explore how website design can influence customers’ intention to shop online.

Written by Josh A.

Marketing communications is an essential part of any marketing strategy with the companies’ competitiveness and financial returns frequently perceived through the content of their messages and the channels of their delivery (Falat and Holubci, 2017, p.148). However, despite the importance of this concept, there still remains substantial ambiguity surrounding its strategic functions and roles for contemporary businesses. For instance, scholars are yet to reach a specific conclusion on how electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) could be successfully integrated into the communications strategies of contemporary organisations (Park et al., 2018, p.304). This essay critically analyses the applications marketing communications with the aim of evaluating their major strengths and weaknesses.

Due to their growing popularity with consumers, social media have become an effective marketing communications channel as well as one-to-one communication means (Keegan and Rowley, 2017). Social media marketing (SMM) is commonly reported to contribute to consumer engagement and create positive perceptions and attitudes towards brands, products, and services (Chen et al., 2016). While SMM influences the way consumers evaluate and perceive goods and services in the online environment, it does not necessarily results in a purchase decision (Barger et al., 2016).

Customer communication is one of the main antecedents of customer satisfaction in the modern environment (Hanninen and Karjaluoto, 2017). Being able to contact a company on a 24/7 basis is frequently recognised as a sign of consumer recognition and support. However, not all organisations can afford recruiting large teams of English-speaking assistants with in-depth product training. Artificial intelligence (AI) solutions and AI-powered chatbots provided an answer to this dilemma and allowed many organisations to implement 24/7 functionality into their marketing communication strategies (Pavliscak, 2018). The list of successful adopters includes such companies as Whole Foods, Pizza Hut, Domino’s, and H&M (Kim, 2018). However, these brands belong to the mass market segment and their consumers may not have the same level of e-services expectations as premium brands clients. This essay closes this gap by exploring the effect of chatbots on the customer satisfaction in luxury e-services.

With Apple using face scans to unlock your iPhone X and Google incorporating FaceNet functionality to sort your Google Photos and tag people in them, it is evident that facial recognition has become a modern-day phenomenon on par with blockchain and artificial intelligence (Gemalto, 2018). While engineers and programmers are looking for new ways to improve the accuracy and effectiveness of this technology, marketers are more concerned with the ways it can be used to improve customer communication and personalisation. On the one hand, being able to identify consumers behind the device and even ‘read’ their emotions may be highly valuable for promoting goods and services that fit their mood and preferences (Yang et al., 2018). On the other hand, this raises multiple ethical challenges within the scope of the recent personal data protection regulations and the rights for privacy. Unfortunately, the field of facial recognition application in marketing is a relatively understudied area of marketing knowledge. This suggested the need to explore the emerging opportunities and challenges in this sphere that can be used by modern marketers.

The marketing of luxuries constitutes a well-developed field of academic study (Yu and Hu, 2020; Liu et al., 2019). One question that has not yet been answered by scholars, however, was whether the traditional definition of luxury could be extended to resource- and labour-intensive industries such as the construction sector (Ko et al., 2019). The majority of academic knowledge on luxury has so far focused on apparel or the provision of luxury services, signifying the existence of a vital research gap (Chandon et al., 2016). The essay addresses this lack of academic knowledge by transferring the extant conceptualisations of luxury into the construction industry. Specifically, the analysis focuses on whether marble could be presented by marketers employed by construction firms as a luxury material. Answering this question could provide both marketing theorists and practitioners with valuable knowledge on developing new marketing strategies in construction and similar industries.

The resent studies demonstrate that the internet has become the first opinion consumers tend to rely on when it comes to making a purchase decision (Apulu and Latham, 2011). Social media platforms, blogs, and websites provide users with easy access to numerous product and service reviews generated by other users. Consumers perceive such information more legit and trustworthy as compared to companies’ statements and marketing messages, which explains the popularity of online information services such as Trip Advisor and (Duggan and Lang, 2010).

The analysis focuses on applying the concept of social media authenticity to the case of Adidas. When evaluating social media communications of sportswear companies (including Adidas), authors such as Graves (2021) and Johansson and Hiltula (2021) argued that focusing on inclusion, diversity and similar topics (e.g., gender equality) benefitted the business and market performance of such organisations. Nonetheless, the studies of Graves (2021) and Johansson and Hiltula (2021) failed to analyse whether Adidas has consistently distributed authentic social media messages when discussing the above subject areas. It is unknown whether the social media marketing strategy of Adidas is sufficiently authentic to benefit the firm’s business and market performance.

Recent advances in the information technology (IT) industry have evolved into what is now known as the Internet-of-Things (IoT), an ecosystem in which information is shared and communicated through a network of computers (Rejeb et al., 2020). The distinctive features of the IoT technology have found their application in supply chain operations in many areas and industries, contributing to business entities’ ability to optimise planning, procurement, and sourcing strategies (Witkowski, 2017). This essay critically assesses the role of IoT in supply chain digitisation and performance. Potential barriers and challenges to the digital supply chain are also considered.

Finance and Economics Sample Essays

Security holdings become riskier when stock prices fluctuate. Such fluctuations are commonly regarded as volatility, whereas, minor ones tend to be considered market noise (i.e. the shifting positions of investors on inter-day trading). Thus, as investors move to enhance their positions, a number of variables are taken into account, such as macroeconomic conditions, accounting statements and industry trends. Option valuation also takes these variables into account by using the present value of the stock price as a benchmark on which hedges will be formed. The major variables used to derive an option’s price are current stock price, intrinsic value, time to expiration, and volatility (Bodie et al., 2009). Therefore, options can best be described as ways in which investors can take advantage of superior information to hedge against their current stock positions.

Written by Carl R.

The purpose of this study is to model and forecast the volatility of the FTSE 100 index returns using Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) models (Bollerslev, 1986; Bollerslev, 1990; Bollerslev and Engle, 1986; Engle, 1982; Engle, 2001).

Even though there are numerous academic studies on dividend policy, the topic has been one of the most controversial topics in the finance sector. With continuous debates and ongoing research on the effect of dividends on a firm’s characteristics, the dividend picture appears as a puzzle, where the pieces fail to fit together (Black, 1976). With contradictory theories and views emerging to explain the effect of dividend payouts on the company’s value, the academic literature has divided dividend theories into two broad categories, namely: the irrelevance theory and value-relevance theory. While the irrelevance theory suggests there is no relationship between dividends and a company’s value, the value-relevance theory claims that dividend payouts have a significant effect on firm value. The aim of this essay is to discuss both views and determine whether dividends have any influence on the company value.

The capital structure of a company is one of the key decision-making points along with investment decisions and distribution decisions. The capital structure shows how much financial leverage a company has on its books in relation to other capital such as equity. Potential investors look at the capital structure and identify the amount of debt raised by the company and this helps them to assess the risk of financial distress. A high risk of financial distress is associated with bankruptcy. Yet, having too little debt on the books can prevent the company from keeping up with the industry growth rates. Therefore, it is important to understand the key elements of the capital structure and its influence on company value (Chowdhury and Chowdhury, 2010).

Companies have been engaging in mergers and acquisitions (M&A) for many decades. In fact, this has been one of the major modes of growth for companies operating in saturated markets. It is a simple way to boost a company’s sales, enter a new market or increase efficiency through synergy. However, M&A are not successful in each and every case. There have been many instances where a merger or an acquisition proved to be a value destructor rather than a value creator. Therefore, it is important to investigate whether M&A activity actually creates value or not (Zollo and Meier, 2008).

Written by Adrian L.

Finance literature has two different views on the dividend policy. One view suggests that dividends are irrelevant for value whereas the other view states that dividends have implications for value. The original theory of irrelevance of dividends for value was empirically tested by DeAngelo and DeAngelo (2006) and the authors rejected the model that was suggested by Miller and Modigliani (1961). The research demonstrated that the payout policy was relevant and investment policy was not the only determinant of firm value. The observations were inherent even to frictionless markets. However, the study paid attention to total payouts rather than cash dividends only. Thereby, no distinction was made between distributing earnings to shareholders in the form of dividends or stock repurchases (Handley, 2008).

The Mean-Variance approach is a common portfolio optimisation method which is based on the assumption that all investors make rational investment decisions if they are given access to complete market information. On the other hand, the Black-Litterman model is a more advanced method of portfolio optimisation. The primary reason for developing this model was that it aimed to overcome fundamental issues such as errors in estimation, portfolios that are too concentrated, and technical issues such as input sensitivity. The two approaches have their own strengths and weaknesses (Idzorek, 2007). This paper aims to discuss these features and make a comparison that can be of value to investors.

Written by Adrian L.

Pakistan is a country in South Asia with a population of 208 million people, which is the fifth largest population in the world (PBS, 2017). Pakistani economy is semi-industrialised with a well-developed agricultural sector and an increasing share of the services sector (Iqbal, 2016). It is one of the fastest growing economies in the world driven by the rapidly growing middle class (Kaplan, 2012; Alam, 2015).

Productivity is one of the key economic indicators related to economic growth. The US economy is larger compared to the UK and has shown better performance over the last decade. This partially can be attributable to the difference in productivity between the countries. This essay compares industrial and commercial productivity between the UK and the US. The paper finds that the US outperforms the UK in terms of productivity. The gap between the countries is caused by the technological development.

The relationship between inflation and economic growth (GDP) remains a controversial topic in modern research. On the one hand, traditional views voiced by such authors as Bernanke et al. (2018) claim that these two factors are negatively correlated with each other. The relationship between gdp and inflation scholarly is seen as a decreasing spending and purchase capacity of customers in the case of high inflation rates. Hence, lower figures for this element allow buyers to spend more and boost economic growth in the form of consumption, net exports, investments, and government expenditures.

Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) and Dividend Discount Model (DDM) are among the most commonly used models in valuation. Their key appeal is simplicity, which is achieved by making rather strong assumptions about the market and its participants. Although DDM is rooted in theoretically sound Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) models, its application is mainly limited to firms with large, stable dividends.

Health and Social Care, Nursing and Medicine Sample Essays

There are an estimated 6.5 million adults within the UK alone who are classified as carers (Carers UK, 2015) , with rates expected to rise to 9 million individuals by 2037 (Ibid.). Carers are individuals who take on the day to day support needs of family members who are suffering from chronic physical or mental health problems (Baguley and Sprung, 2017), and are thought to save the  economy around £132 billion every year, equating to an average of £19,336 per year, per carer (Carers UK, 2015). Whereas approximately 3 million carers combine employment with providing care, Care UK (2015) estimate that 20% of carers are forced to abandon work altogether due to the high demands placed on them, both physically and emotionally. The provision of long term caregiving has been linked to increased health problems (Wolff et al., 2016), increased social isolation (Hayes et al., 2015) and decreased quality of life (Jeong et al., 2015).

Written by John C.

Contemporary nursing practice is a diverse and challenging field and nurses are increasingly involved in complex decision-making as their roles expand in the health system (Cherry and Jacob, 2016). Underlying any care decision is the need to identify the source of the problem and then to develop a suitable approach to addressing this problem. To assist in decision-making, it is recommended that nurses adopt frameworks or models of problem-solving and care planning (Johansen and O’Brien, 2016). The assessment, planning, implementing and evaluating approach, also known as APIE (Yura and Walsh, 1967), is a commonly used approach to care planning in nursing practice. This approach encourages a systematic and rigorous approach to patient care, incorporating a holistic perspective of the care process. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the individual components of the APIE and the approach in its entirety with respect to nursing practice.

Written by Raymond H.

The acronym ‘ADPIE’ - which stands for assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation - is used within the field of nursing to help guide the proper process of treatment provision for patients (Bernard, 2018). This process can be used in either physical or mental health settings, and follows the same process regardless of what branch of medicine clinicians are working in (Ibid.). This essay will introduce Jerry, a patient with possible alcohol issues, who is a 68 year old man whose drinking has become concerning to his friends and family, and whose memory has been said to be getting rapidly worse. It is of note here that in line with the Nursing and Midwifery Council’s Code (NMC, 2015), ‘Jerry’ is a pseudonym to maintain patient confidentiality, and no other personally identifiable information shall be used in this essay. In order to demonstrate the ADPIE process, each stage shall be outlined below; decisions and actions shall be supported both by clinical guidelines and by peer reviewed evidence was relevant.

The past few decades have seen an increasing public interest in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Despite a generally positive attitude with regards to its use and safety, concerns do remain about the effectiveness of these therapies (Barnes et al ., 2004). Despite the expansion of the scientific knowledge base of Western medicine, the global popularity of CAM therapies has seen a dramatic increase over recent times; a steady increase in the lifetime prevalence of these therapies have also been reported in developed countries (Kessler et al ., 2001). Research groups have suggested several determinants that may determine this increased CAM usage- these include those of geographical, cultural, socio-economic, and physical contexts (Shaikh & Hatcher, 2007). The geographical determinant has, by far, been the most accepted amongst these- several developing countries have been observed to use CAM therapy as basic treatment line (Tan et al ., 2004). However, the prevalence of this does further vary between urban and rural areas within these countries. Nevertheless, even countries with national insurance systems have seen an increase in the public’s use and acceptance of CAM- where these therapies aren’t covered by insurance; thus suggesting that these therapies may have benefits that outweigh their costs (Frass et al ., 2012). Despite these increased usage patterns, the clinical effectiveness of these therapies seem debatable- with CAM professionals themselves leaning towards the requirement of a “more scientific” testing prior to the use of these therapies (Raza et al ., 2018). This paper aims to assess the effectiveness of alternative medicine in the treatment of common illnesses.

Written by Tony F.

Evidence-based practice is a cornerstone of contemporary medical and nursing care (Aveyard & Sharp, 2013) and should be considered the gold standard approach to care. The central tenet of evidence-based practice is that an objective appraisal of published literature can be used to isolate the most effective interventions, which may then be applied in practice, while considering the preferences and considerations of the patient (Hamer & Collinson, 2014). The individual nurse is responsible for ensuring that they adopt an evidence-based approach to care, appraising research relevant to their professional duties and responsibilities (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2011). As such, critiquing is a key skill that should be developed and practised by all nurses and healthcare professionals alike.

To view the full essay click here.

The Personal, Cultural, and Structural Analysis (PCS) model explains how power relationships are expressed between individuals, groups, and in the wider society. The PCS model also highlights the layered effect of oppression on individuals (Pepper, 2012). The model was initially proposed by Neil Thompson in his book ‘Anti-Discriminatory Practice: Equality, Diversity and Social Justice’. It is said to have three interrelated level such as personal, cultural, and structural (Thompson, 2012).

According to the PCS model, the workings of oppression can be analysed through these levels, which are elucidated in detail below.

Written by Sarah L.

Dementia is a common condition in the population and is associated with a decline in memory and cognitive function, along with challenging behavioural symptoms (Brodaty et al., 2015). The underlying cause of dementia can vary with Alzheimer’s disease the most common form seen in the United Kingdom (UK) (Wu et al., 2016). Regardless of the dementia subtype, decline in function and worsening of symptoms is associated with advancing age and has a significant impact on the wellbeing of the individual and their family members (Wu et al., 2016). As many patients with dementia are elderly, there is an increasing recognition of the need to provide appropriate end-of-life (EoL) to this patient group when dying or approaching death (Halpern, 2015). This report considers the challenges facing patients with dementia with respect to EoL care and the potential strategies that may be used to meet the needs of this service user group.

View the full essay

The analysed framework consists of two axes describing various approaches to health promotion in terms of its mode and focus (Peate, 2019). Authoritative practitioners may seek to proactively pursue their vision by changing the legislative status quo at the industry or country level or by targeting individuals in their persuasive attempts. This approach can be presently seen in the ‘soda ban’ initiatives promoted by the governments of many western countries (Siegel, 2019). At the individual level, this pressure can be exerted by direct attacks on specific violators such as anti-vaccine conspiracists spreading misinformation or forgers creating fake COVID-19 vaccination certificates. These coercive measures can be highly effective for getting quick short-term results in crisis situations and removing problems ‘at their source’ via prohibiting dangerous practices and trends.

View the full sample essay: An Analysis of Beattie’s Model of Health Promotion

To curb the outburst of COVID-19 cases and prepare for action plans, various countries imposed lockdowns at partial and comprehensive levels. Although the degree of lockdown measures varied from country to country, economic activity across sectors went into an abrupt decline. Countries resorted to different approaches to minimise the impact and deal with the pandemic. However, there were two primary approaches undertaken by governments across the world. The first approach implies strengthening the healthcare sector by pumping funds and enacting policies in building capacities of hospitals and nursing homes. The second approach implies implementing policies and regimes to reduce the probability of public contracting COVID-19 across different areas. These policies include social distancing measures and lockdowns.

View the full sample essay: To what extent was the lockdown policy an effective measure against the spread of the COVID-19?

While it is recognised that innovation leads to financial benefits, technological innovation has also been a key driving force behind modern healthcare for decades providing new types of treatment, personal health monitoring, and telemedicine opportunities. However, such researchers as McKelvey and Saemundsson (2021) suggest that there exists a largely understudied ‘dark side’ of this relationship.

The concept of parenting involves a large number of constituent dimensions dictated by child temperament, the cultural background of the parents, family size and structure, and the types of bonding developing between parents and children (Kaniusonyte and Laursen, 2021). This makes this idea inherently complex, which convinces many people that their challenges in this sphere are unique and their problems cannot be resolved effectively with minimal resource costs. Modern research in this sphere offers multiple solutions and structures including the concept of parenting styles.

Law, History & International Relations Sample Essays

In 1882, Jewish immigration and targeted land purchases in the area later called the State of Palestine marked the beginning of a long-lasting conflict between the Arab countries and Israel. While the existing body of research provides deep insight into the Arab-Israel conflict, there is no agreement on whether Egypt played a key role in it (Aly et al., 2013). One the one hand, Egypt is often considered as one of the most implacable enemies of Israel in its struggle for independence and recognition (Mahler and Mahler, 2010). On the other hand, Egypt has proven itself to be the main advocate of continued peace between Israel and the Arab states (Tessler, 2009). The main purpose of this essay is to critically appraise the role Egypt played in the conflict between the Arabs and Jews by over-viewing its main phases and outcomes for both parties.

Written by Helena K.

The Yugoslav wars of the 1990s attracted much attention and interest of historians not only because of their cruelty and savagery (more than 200,000 people were killed and around 3 million were expelled from their homes) (Dolečki et al., 2018). In addition to the fact that these wars took place in the heart of Europe, they also occurred at the exact moment when the confrontation between the USSR and the US was drawing to its culmination (Klemenčić and Schofield, 2001). In 1991, Croatia, one of the countries that made up the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, declared its independence and sovereignty, which marked the beginning of the Croatian War of Independence (Matkovich, 2017). Only in 1995, after Croatian armed forced assisted the united Bosnian and Croatian side in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the war came to its end (Gagnon, 2013). This essay aims to critically overview the role of Croatia in the fall of Yugoslavia.

Written by Emily S.

Employment law is built around regulating the respective rights of employers and employees within and outside of the workplace environment.[1]  Having an effective system of employment law allows society to ensure that employers retain the flexibility necessary to effectively compete in an ever more globalised world market, whilst balancing this with the need to ensure that workers and employees themselves are valued, protected from exploitation and arbitrary or unfair dismissal, and are properly and lawfully remunerated.[2]

Media and Film Sample Essays

Modern cinematography has heavily relied on the world-building approach since the late 1950s (Taylor, 2017). Early pioneers of the science fiction genre including the 1956 Forbidden Planet and the 1951 The Day the Earth Stood Still depicted alien environments and unbelievable technologies to really cut adrift from the Golden Age of Hollywood movies. At the same time, a change of the background has not changed the narrative and the dramatic structure of the scripts. The protagonist still faced different conflicts with nature, other men or creatures, the society in general, or their own limitations. Most globally recognised films including the original Star Wars trilogy were pursuing the Hero’s journey formula to a certain degree (Sunstein, 2016).

Written by Rowan T.

Language and Linguistics Sample Essays

Investigations into language processesing have previously identified that different aspects of language may be localised to very specific cerebral areas of the brain (Friederici and Singer, 2015).  Specifically, speech production is located in what is known as Broca’s area, which is located in the frontal lobe and has been predominatley associated with speech production for many decades (Tate  et al,  2014).  Comprehension of language however has been directly linked to an area in the superior temporal guyrus (STG) encircling the auditory cortex defined as Wernicke’s area, although as Binder (2017) notes, these distinctions may need revision as there is improvements in understanding of the way language is processed.

Philosophy Sample Essays

Could Disney could be considered a stereotypical capitalist as was originally defined by Karl Marx (Evans, 1975)? The goal of this essay is to review the structure and business operations of Disney from the Marxist point of view.

The concepts of fear and angst are central to the philosophical school of existentialism (Sartre, 2007). According to philosophers such as Sartre (2007) and Kierkegaard (1996), existential angst was a result of a person experiencing their own freedom in comparison to their own expectations. Despite the fact that both fear and angst were vital to existentialism, there existed at least 3 separate definitions of these experiences divided between Sartre (2007), Kierkegaard (1996) and Heidegger (1968).

Perception forms one of the main concepts in modern psychology due to a number of factors (Ionescu et al., 2022). On the one hand, it defines the recognition of any incoming sensory information. Since the earliest times, this process was crucial for our survival. The dominant channels such as audial, visual or kinaesthetic ones largely determine the capability to recognise certain cues in the external environment. On the other hand, our perception also defines the way people respond to these external challenges (Dosher and Lu, 2020).

Biology and Physics Sample Essays

Realistic quantum systems are not isolated from the environment but rather continuously interact with it (Schlosshauer, 2005). Treating this interaction within the traditional framework of quantum mechanics results in the concept of decoherence (Zurek, 2003). Decoherence results in the suppression of interference between the alternative states which has been experimentally observed. Furthermore, it provides insight on why the superposition resulting from measurement appears as a classical mixture (Bassi et al., 2013). Meanwhile, the quantum measurement problem remains a major conceptual question in quantum mechanics as the precise mechanics of the non-deterministic evolution following a measurement is unclear (Schlosshauer, 2005). However, some misconceptions may exist regarding decoherence and whether it fully resolves the measurement problem (Joos and Zeh, 1985; Dieks, 1989; Adler, 2003). The aim of the present paper is to review the concept of quantum decoherence and how it relates to the quantum measurement problem within the context of different interpretations of quantum mechanics.

Written by Richard H.

Light trapping has been used in many applications including photo-electrochemistry, photovoltaics, sensing, and production of solar fuel (Fonash, 2015). The present paper aims to provide an overview of the light-trapping properties of solar cells. Firstly, relevant optical phenomena are considered that may influence the design of solar cells. This includes interference, scattering, reflection, and diffraction. Secondly, major solar cell structure designs are described such as antireflection coating, randomly textured surfaces, and periodic arrays.

Allium Cepa, which is commonly known as onion, is a culinary ingredient that is used in almost all cuisines around the world. It is an essential ingredient in sauces, curries, and other dishes. Allium Cepa is a source of various compounds, many of which are biologically active. These include thiosulfinates, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Allium Cepa can also be used for medical purposes due to its characteristics. These characteristics include being antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anticancer, and containing antioxidant effects (Kuete et al., 2017).

Technology and Computer Science Sample Essays

The global COVID-19 pandemic has stimulated the transformation of many industries (Gifford, 2022). As thousands of workers were unable to reach their offices due to strict lockdowns, their employers had to fully embrace the concept of remote work. It is expected to change the future of employment through further development of the gig economy and various forms of flexible arrangements. Similarly, the inability of patients to reach hospitals has led to the advancement of telemedicine (Kichloo et al., 2020).

While computer science only emerged as a distinct academic discipline in 1950s, the key ideas behind it date back to centuries before the first computer science degree was awarded. What were the key developments in computer science until today, and what trends are shaping up to be the most prominent in the future? This article provides a brief overview of the history of computer science and computer science domains that researchers are likely to focus in the next decade.

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Academic Writing: Tips, Characteristics and Examples


What is academic writing?

Examples of academic writing, characteristics of academic writing, use clear and concise language, choose the correct tone and voice, the four major types of academic writing, two academic writing structures.

If you look for an academic writing definition in the Oxford or Cambridge dictionary, you will come away disappointed. These revered lexicons do not define academic writing at all. There are, however, plenty of resources on the internet which do a decent job of explaining the concepts and rules of academic writing.

So, what is academic writing? The MacMillan Dictionary carries the following definition – “a formal and factual style of writing that is used for essays, research papers, and other academic texts”.

There are specific rules and characteristics related to academic writing. This article serves as a guideline on how to develop your academic writing skills.

An interesting fact about academic writing

Research has shown that enhanced writing skills boost motivation, attitude, and self-confidence

A recent paper  has described how a group of doctoral students, participating in a Thesis Writing Group found that the benefits of working in the group extended beyond the practical purpose for which it was formed. It also had psychological advantages for members, who found that the group interactions endowed them with a more positive outlook, and enhanced their motivation and confidence.

Examples of Academic Writing


The main purpose of academic writing is to offer the reader a clear and well thought-out picture of the topic under discussion. Students and academics use academic writing to describe, explain, analyse and argue points about the subject under discussion.

We use examples of academic writing from Google Scholar to explain some of the characteristics of this type of writing. These examples should help you to gain some true insights into the essential elements of academic writing.

Academic writing must be accurate and focused. Statements of fact must be backed by evidence. In the academic journal below, you will notice that there is a number after each of the cited facts. This indicates the source of the data.

When writing an academic paper, you may not make vague statements like “people say” or “it’s a known fact”. Your English must be clear and concise. Even though this abstract is about a scientific matter, about which many people know very little, it is easy to read and each fact is backed by a source.

The facts in the abstract are succinct and formal.  An example, “ It is estimated that viral infections contribute to approximately 6.6% of global mortality. ”

The writer would have lost credibility If he had made a statement as follows “ Statisticians believe that many people from various countries around the world may die from viral infections. ”

In the second sentence the reader is left with the following questions;

  • How many or what percentage of people will die?
  • What countries will be affected?


A detached view

Academic writing requires that you take into account the topic goal. The goal of the article is not to express your own opinions or to pander to the opinions of the reader. The data must be clear of any subjective sentences or phrases. Academic writing must be structured and focused.

“ Army-ants (particularly swarm-raiding species Eciton burchellii and Labidus praedator) are keystone predators in Neotropical forests. ”

This is acceptable but

“ Army-ants (particularly swarm-raiding species Eciton burchellii and Labidus praedator) are keystone predators in Neotropical forests and in our opinion the problem is they’re taking over. ”

Presents two problems;

  • It is not detached as it expresses an opinion
  • It contains a contraction “they’re”.

Academic work must be structured. It must follow a logical order that coherently brings together your argument. The best academic writing Is formal and unbiased. The objective is to base conclusions on facts and not on the views of the author.


Complex language

The abstract below demonstrates how academic writing often requires the use of more complex language. It is often more difficult to understand the words and language in academic writing. Academic work must accurately and unambiguously convey distinct ideas. The grammar, clauses, and adjectives must all work to this end.

You will also note that there is no informal language, contractions such as don’t or can’t, and no dialects. The writing is formal and to the point. It contains words and phrases that you would not typically use in everyday conversation. Words like “context-dependent”, “unidimensional construct”, and “syntactic” to name but a few.

Although this piece includes a reference to the first person, it is acceptable because it is for good reason and is unbiased, offering no opinion.


Why BBC and Guardian English are not academic writing

Many people are under the impression that the writing style used by the BBC and Guardian is the same as academic writing. While journalists are expected to back up their facts with sound sources and offer accurate work, the writing is less formal and takes a different structure.

Newspaper stories start with a lead and follow with more background information. There is no conclusion as there must be in any academic work.

Characteristics of Academic Writing

“Good writers are those who keep the language efficient. That is to say, keep it accurate, keep it clear”

– Ezra Pound

“A good style must first be clear”

Many students are tempted to use flowery or wordy language, particularly if they are daunted by the required word count. Avoid this temptation. Imagine that each word will cost you $10 so you should use as few words as possible.

English academic prose is not like Chinese or Russian, both of which require the use of wordy descriptive sentences. In most cases, in English, less is more. Get to the point in as few words as possible. Avoid words such as “perhaps” which suggests that you are unsure of your conclusions.

Examples of redundancy appear all around us. The following sentence was taken from a formal letter I recently received. “Please send the results  as asap as possible. ”

Below are some examples of redundant, unclear, and flowery sentences with some advice on what they should look like.

  • This sentence contains redundant words in the phrases “Each and  everyone” and “plan ahead”.
  • Here is a corrected version of the sentence; “Every student felt that they should plan for the holidays.”
  • This sentence is unnecessarily complicated
  • Here is an improved version – Activity at the work site continued in 2020.
  • This sentence contains grandiose and emotive language
  • This is what the sentence should look like – “The mortality rates in this accident were the highest in aviation history.

“One day I will find the right words, and they will be simple.” -Jack Kerouac

Writing Voice

Everyone has a writing voice. When you write freely it is as distinctive as your auditory voice. In freewriting, you have little control over your voice until you think about the reader. When the reader comes to mind, you will adjust your voice so that you speak to them naturally and comfortably.  So, if you want to write an academic paper that your tutor will appreciate, you should imagine her in the lecture room reading your work.

Author and writing instructor, Jerry Jenkins, suggests that your voice is the  “ unique lens through which you see the world. ”

The way that the writing makes the readers feel is described as the tone. The contents of the writing determine the tone. The tone is the way that you deliver facts to the reader. How difficult is it to read? Is it interesting or boring? Is the language formal or informal?

As we have already stated, in academic writing the language should be formal, but this does not mean that it should be boring or lack interest. You should put in every effort to make it interesting and easy to read. Mix long and short sentences. Make sure that your writing is succinct and to the point. Use an example to demonstrate your points if you can.

Writing style

The style of writing describes what you do to establish the tone. The style includes all the tools that you use from word choice to grammar and the rules that you choose to use or break.

There are four major types of academic writing:



This is the simplest form of academic writing. The objective of such writing is to present the facts.

Analytical writing will include descriptive writing, but it requires careful sorting and reorganization of facts into categories based on relationships. Analytic writing will include such verbs as “compare”, “contrast”, and, of course, “analyse”.

Persuasive articles are those where the writer sets out to persuade the reader of their point of view through academic argument and based on solid research. Such an article does not just present the information, the writer must argue his position using supporting evidence and logical conclusions.

Critical writing also seeks to persuade the reader but in this type of writing, the writer examines other opinions and conclusions. This is typically used in a literature review.

Two Academic Writing Structures


This diagram conveys the structure of a general essay which you may have to write in answer to an exam question. These forms of academic writing often start quite broadly with a general statement and then drill down to offer increasingly more detail. Essay and paragraph questions often broaden out again with a summary that refers to the initial statement.


This diagram graphically describes the shape and form of a typical research paper. As one would expect, the paper starts with an introduction which should offer the rationale and a general discussion about the topic. The discussion is aimed at drawing the reader in and piquing his interest.

The method section describes in detail the methods used to conduct the research and the reasons why those methods were used.

The results of the research follow.

In the last section, the writer discusses the research outcomes referring some of these back to items discussed in the introduction.

“Writing is an exploration. You start from nothing and learn as you go.”

-E. L. Doctorow

There is a technique to academic writing, and getting it right requires some practice. A good academic article should be clear and concise. The writing is formal and should contain no colloquialisms, informalities, or contractions. Keep the writing free from bias and do not offer any of your own opinions.

Flowery language and redundancy are not only unnecessary, but they also detract from the quality of the paper. It is important to bear the reader in mind when writing your paper as this will help you to use your writing style to set the tone and voice of your article.

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12+ Academic Essay Examples in PDF

Academic essay template.

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Academic Writing Essay Template

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Academic Text Example Essay Template

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Sample Academic Essay Format  Example

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Academic Paper Essay Example

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Are You Ready and Prepared to Create an Academic Essay?

  • Human behavior, characteristics, and emotions
  • Community relations
  • Natural occurrences
  • Language and its effective usages
  • Culture and the arts
  • Academic researchers
  • Relevant cultural phenomenon
  • Photography and other artistic undertakings
  • Human interactions
  • Other subjects that are related to education and academics
  • You need to have an order of writing that can easily showcase the flow of your thoughts. You must ensure that you can easily connect with your readers or audience so they can respond to the content of your article. Your academic essay should evoke an emotion that is necessary to spark other ideas, opinions and other kinds of responses.
  • You need to be aware that academic essays differ depending on the educational or academic discipline where they will be used.   There are certain ways that are necessary to be followed in various fields for an academic essay to be deemed effective. With this, always be mindful of the directions or instructions were given to you by the entity who requires you to write an academic essay .
  • You do not need to pattern your writing to the works of others. You can be ready even by just knowing your subject and researching about it. The style of writing that you have can give the most difference to how you write and how you present your work. Always keep in mind that your academic essay should be playful – it must not bore your audience.
  • You must think of your academic essay as an enterprise by using scholastic writing approaches. The conversation that you can create with your readers must be relevant to what is happening nowadays or for the study that specific student groups need. Being able to give focus on the relativity of your written work can make it easier for readers to understand why your academic essay is important within the academic field.
  • You should ensure that your thesis statement is precise, concise, and strong. When you are in the process of developing your academic essay’s thesis, you need to make sure that you are not just basing your write-up on unreliable information. Always refer to evidence, facts, and real data as it can help you strengthen your claims. More so, do not forget to  reference your essays  when necessary.

Simple Academic Essay Example

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Academic Essay Sample Structure  Example

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Importance of a Well-Defined Thesis Statement in an Academic Essay

  • Your thesis statement is a reflection of your actual idea. This helps you present the point that you would like to make and the message that you actually want to disseminate to your readers. Through a thesis statement , you can organize the evidence that are relevant to your claims based on their relevance to the topic and how you view it as a writer.
  • Your thesis statement can guide you within the entirety of your writing processes. Just because you have already done an initial thesis statement does not mean that you are going to fully stick with it until the end of your writing. There are instances where thesis statements are developed or even changes during the creation of an academic essay depending on how the research about the topic has evolved.
  • Your thesis statement can allow you to establish originality. Since your academic essay can be based on your research findings and observations, your thesis statement can be your platform to specify what you have come up with. Through a well-defined thesis statement, you can set your output apart from other  essay examples that have been written by professionals and other entities in the field of academics.
  • Your thesis statement is one of the items that the audience will look at when referencing for credibility and validity. Academic essays need to have a strong initial impact on readers. This statement can help them be focused on a particular standpoint which can enlighten them about your views and opinions, and how these are essential to be considered.
  • Your thesis statement can help your readers immerse in your academic essay. The material that you will be coming up with can be reviewed by different people. Depending on the field of education where you are currently in, you need to make sure that your readers can see patterns of evidence presented so they can clearly see how you were able to generate and come up with insights. You have to ensure that the thesis statement that you have created contains the most promising thought so you can get the trust or even the acceptance of your readers about your academic essay’s subject.

Academic Essay Example in PDF

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Free Printable Academic Essay Sample

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Things to Remember When Identifying the Purpose of Your Academic Essay

  • Do not create an academic essay just for the sake of passing it. Your academic essay is more than an assignment or a project. There are some  last minute essay writing  activities that are done in various fields especially if students think that an academic essay is just a part of their requirements. However, what these students do not know is that an academic essay is a representation of themselves. It showcases the thoughts of the students, what they have learned may it be in class or through self-discovery, and how they are impacted by certain issues and subjects of discussion.
  • Be precise with the purpose of your writing. An academic letter is not just a document that can showcase your mastery when it comes to a particular academic subject. It can talk about a specific subject or it can also be a general paper that can provide a lot of information about your experiences and/or insights. if you will have a precise purpose when writing an academic essay, there is no doubt that your essay will not be pointless.
  • Always think of the best case that can help you represent your thoughts. Your style of writing, as well as the entire document’s format and content, can help you realize your ideas. With this, your point of writing can easily be identified by readers. Being able to present your purpose the best way possible can add up to the success of your academic paper.

Sample Academic Essay  Example

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Academic Essay Writing Sample  Example

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Developing an Academic Essay

  • Start by creating a strong thesis statement. Identify your stand and make sure to strictly present evidence that can help you claim its authenticity and validity. Reveal evidence after your thesis statement presentation. Your thesis statement serves as your introduction speech . It lets your readers know the topic of your academic essay and what they can expect from the entire article.
  • Establish the context of your essay after your thesis statement. The way that you approach your topic can let readers know whether it is the specific approach that they also need for their undertakings. There are difference contexts that can be used within the same subject so you have to make sure that you will be clear when it comes to identifying the part of the topic that you are going to talk about. Limiting your topic discussion can help you give more focus to what is important for your discussion.
  • Create the next paragraphs based on the data that can support your thesis statement. The body of your academic essay can be based on your observations, reviews, statements and research outputs. You can present these items separately through the usage of various paragraphs. However, there are instances where it will be better if you can combine or compare to evidence to make your statements more effective.
  • Conclude. Your conclusion is as important as your introduction. If you believe that you have created a strong introduction, you have to maintain that until the end of your academic essay. Sum up all the information that you have presented so that people can identify whether your conclusion has lived up to the content of what you have written. Your conclusion can also be used to assess whether your thesis statement has been carried within the entirety of your discussion.

Free Academic Essay Sample Guide

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Sample Academic Essay Outline

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Guidelines in Writing an Academic Essay

  • Always analyze your essay prompt or the question that you need to answer or explain. You have to know whether you are tasked to argue, analyze, or discuss the topic. There will be times where you also need to compare the items present in your subject or explain the underlying factors that can affect your topic.
  • Make sure that you will research about what you will write about . Your academic essay can only be fully-maximized if you can present facts. Primary research may be a helpful bit a more precise review of your research topic can help you gather more information that can be helpful in the development of your content. Always assess your sources of information so you can ensure that they are credible.
  • Create a draft so that you will have a guide when writing your academic essay. If you will be organized when writing your academic essay, you can create an output that is well-curated and comprehensive. With this, your academic essay can provide more impact to your readers. This can also help you gather your thoughts first and identify how you can put them all together in the most cohesive and efficient way possible.

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