Tourism Management, Marketing, and Development pp 277–280 Cite as
- Marcello M. Mariani ,
- Wojciech Czakon ,
- Dimitrios Buhalis &
- Ourania Vitouladiti
Tourism drives economic prosperity and sustained development in many regions around the world. By recognizing the relevance of tourism as a socioeconomic phenomenon, this book contributes to the advancement of knowledge in the fields of tourism management, marketing, and development, with a specific emphasis on performance, strategies, and sustainability and their multiple relationships at both the company and destination levels. Regardless of the variety of cases, situations, and contexts under examination in the volume, a number of common themes have emerged and are illustrated in what follows.
- Corporate Social Responsibility
- Tourism Destination
- Sustained Competitive Advantage
- Destination Level
- Tourism Management
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Mariani, M.M., Czakon, W., Buhalis, D., Vitouladiti, O. (2016). Conclusion. In: Mariani, M.M., Czakon, W., Buhalis, D., Vitouladiti, O. (eds) Tourism Management, Marketing, and Development. Palgrave Macmillan, New York. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137401854_14
DOI : https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137401854_14
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Chapter 7. Travel Services
Travellers continue to seek authentic experiences. The tools they use to research and book these experiences are constantly changing due to innovations in technology. Destinations are also challenged by limited financial resources and strong competition for tourist dollars from other iconic and even lesser known locations. The personalisation of travel suggests that independent travel will have a stronger presence than group travel, however, we must always consider the type of traveller. The travel services sector is being forced to innovate at a startling rate.
In the past, face to face consultations with a travel agent was paramount for booking both leisure and business travel. Technology and global circumstances, such as pandemics, financial collapses, and terrorism, have put pressure on tourism and travel services. With the development of OTAs and emerging and disruptive technologies, the travel services landscape is constantly changing.
So far we have discussed the elements of the five sectors of tourism: transportation, accommodation, food and beverage, recreation and entertainment, and travel services. With this foundation in place, let’s delve deeper into the industry by learning more about how these sectors are promoted to customers in Chapter 8 on services marketing.
- Association of Canadian Travel Agencies (ACTA): a trade organization established in 1977 to ensure high standards of customer service, engage in advocacy for the trade, conduct research, and facilitate travel agent training
- Canada’s West Marketplace: a partnership between Destination BC and Travel Alberta, showcasing BC travel products in a business-to-business sales environment
- Canadian Association of Tour Operators (CATO): a membership-based organization that serves as the voice of the tour operator segment and engages in professional development and networking in the sector
- Community destination marketing organization (CDMO): a DMO that represents a city or town
- Destination management company (DMC): a company that creates and executes corporate travel and event packages designed for employee rewards or special retreats
- Destination marketing organizations (DMOs): also known as destination management organizations; includes national tourism boards, state/provincial tourism offices, and community convention and visitor bureaus
- Familiarization tours (FAMs): tours provided to overseas travel agents, travel agencies, RTOs, and others to provide information about a certain product at no or minimal cost to participants — the short form is pronounced like the start of the word family (not as each individual letter)
- Fully independent traveller (FIT): a traveller who makes his or her own arrangements for accommodations, transportation, and tour components; is independent of a group
- HelloBC: online travel services platform of Destination BC providing information to the visitor and potential visitor for trip planning purposes
- Inbound tour operator: an operator who packages products together to bring visitors from external markets to a destination
- Online travel agent (OTA): a service that allows the traveller to research, plan, and purchase travel without the assistance of a person, using the internet on sites such as Expedia.ca or Hotels.com
- Outbound tour operator: an operator who packages and sells travel products to people within a destination who want to travel abroad
- Receptive tour operator (RTO): someone who represents the products of tourism suppliers to tour operators in other markets in a business-to-business (B2B) relationship
- Regional destination marketing organization (RDMO): in BC, one of the five DMOs that represent a specific tourism region
- Tour operator: an operator who packages suppliers together (hotel + activity) or specializes in one type of activity or product
- Tourism services: other services that work to support the development of tourism and the delivery of guest experiences
- Travel agency: a business that provides a physical location for travel planning requirements
- Travel agent: an individual who helps the potential traveller with trip planning and booking services, often specializing in specific types of travel
- Travel services: under NAICS, businesses and functions that assist with the planning and reserving components of the visitor experience
- Visitor centre: a building within a community usually placed at the gateway to an area, providing information regarding the region, travel planning tools, and other services including washrooms and Wi-Fi
- Explain, either in words or with a diagram, the relationship between an RTO, tour operator, and travel agent.
- What type of services does HelloBC provide to the traveller? List regional services from your area that are currently offered.
- Who operates the provincial network of Visitor Centres? Where are these centres located?
- List the RDMOs operating within BC. How do each of these work to provide information to the traveller?
- List two positives and two negatives of OTAs within the travel services industry.
- With an increase growth in mobile technology, how are travel services adapting to suit the needs and/or demands of the traveller?
- Choose an association that is representative of the sector you might like to work in (e.g., accommodations, food and beverage, travel services). Explore the association’s website and note three key issues it has identified and how it is responding to them.
- Choose a local tourism or hospitality business and find out which associations it belongs to. List the associations and their membership benefits to answer the question, Why belong to this group?
Case Study One: BC Government Response to COVID-19 for Community Destination Marketing Organizations that participate in the Resort Municipality Initiative (RMI)
Read the news release B.C. government announces over $10 million for resort municipalities .
- Will or was this response be enough for the DMO’s to sustain themselves?
- Will or was tourists return to these iconic BC tourism sites?
- What was the impact to the local economies at these RMI destinations?
Case Study Two: Travel Agencies Operating in British Columbia
- Consumer Protection BC – Travel
- BC Travel Industry Act
Consumer protection is a key part of provincial and federal government departments. The travel industry in BC is licensed through the provincial governments Consumer Protection BC.
Research the website listed above to prepare a report on how this department protects travellers based on the BC Travel Industry Act.
Case Study Three: Online Travel Agents Sue Skiplagger.com
In late 2014, an online travel agent and airline combined forces to sue a 22-year-old and his company Skiplagged.com. Skiplagged helped users find less expensive flights by uncovering “hidden city” tickets. These are flights with stopovers in multiple locations, whereby the passenger gets off at one of the stopover cities rather than the final destination (Harris and Sasso, 2014). Hidden city tickets work when the cost to travel from point A to point B to point C is less expensive than a trip from point A to point B. Passengers book the entire flight but get off at the stopover. This practice is generally forbidden by airlines because of safety concerns and challenges to logistics as it renders passenger counts inaccurate, causing potential delays and fuel miscalculations. If discovered, it can result in a passenger having his or her ticket voided.
The lawsuit against Skiplagged founder Aktarer Zaman stated that the site “intentionally and maliciously … [promoted] prohibited forms of travel” (Harris and Sasso, 2014). Orbitz (an OTA) and United Airlines claimed that Zaman’s website unfairly competed with their business, while making it appear these companies were partners and endorsing the activity by linking to their websites.
Based on this case summary, answer the following questions:
- What are the dangers and inconveniences of having passengers deplane partway through a voyage? In addition to those listed here, come up with two more.
- Could this lawsuit and the ensuing publicity result in unintended negative consequences for United and Orbitz? What might these be?
- On the other hand, could the suit have unintended positive results for Skiplagged.com? Try to name at least three.
- Should Zaman be held responsible for facilitating this type of travel already in practice? Or should passengers bear the responsibility? Why or why not?
- Imagine your flight is delayed because a passenger count is inaccurate and fuel must be recalculated. What action would you take, if any?
- Look up the case to see what updates are available ( United Airlines Inc. v. Zaman , 14-cv-9214, U.S. District Court, Northern District of Illinois (Chicago). Was the outcome what you predicted? Why or why not?
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Introduction to Tourism and Hospitality in BC - 2nd Edition by Morgan Westcott and Wendy Anderson, Eds is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.
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- Essay on Tourism
Tourism is the largest and fastest-growing industry across the world. It is a source of revenue and employment. It also gives the opportunity for people to understand the culture, civilization, and religious aspects of a country. There are many countries whose main source of revenue is Tourism. It is an export that is not visible which earns valuable foreign exchange without any substantial or actual loss of internal resources. Tourism is a unique type of highly labor-intensive industry. It provides different services that are needed as well as expected by the incoming tourists. Tourism is one of the largest industries in terms of money spent by tourists in the countries they visit. The amount received from the Tourism industries sometimes exceeds the Gross National Product of many countries.
India is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Asia and has been successful in attracting domestic and international tourists. India has fascinated many tourists across the globe with her secularism and her culture. The scenic landscape, hill stations, historical sites, architecture and monuments, beaches, and enchanting backwater, places of religious interest make India a preferred destination for tourists from all over the world. Tourism in India has immense potential of developing into a high revenue-generating industry. Better connectivity of transport and communication, improved hospitality services and standard of living and value of money to the tourists from foreign countries have led to an increase in domestic as well as international Tourism.
Tourism is one of the most important and fastest-growing industries in today’s world that creates a lot of job opportunities. It generates a lot of revenue and adds to the economy of the country. Apart from generating jobs and revenue, it gives an opportunity for people of different countries and cultures to move and mingle with other cultures and social environments for the purpose of entertainment as well as professional purposes. It is only through Tourism that the world can get closer and know each other both socially, culturally and religiously. It creates good bonding among people of different languages and cultures. It also paves the way to understand and explore the rich heritage and ancient history of an unknown place.
It is an export that is not visible which earns valuable foreign exchange without any substantial or actual loss of internal resources. Tourism is a unique type of highly labor-intensive industry. It provides different services that are needed as well as expected by the incoming tourists. Tourism is one of the largest industries in terms of money spent by tourists in the countries they visit. The amount received from the Tourism industries sometimes exceeds the Gross National Product of many countries.
India is one of the most preferred tourist destinations in Asia because of its beautiful landscape, rich cultural heritage, myriad attractions and valuable ancient history. India serves as the hub of different cultures and languages within it and has always attracted domestic and international tourists. In 2019 it has attracted 10.93 million international tourists and this contributed to almost 4.7% to India’s GDP. India has also attracted international tourists because of the liberty it gives to different religions. The peaceful existence of people of 22 languages and 9 religions is a source of attraction for all international tourists. India has a mosaic of enchanting hill stations, magnificent architecture and monuments, picturesque beaches, and enchanting backwater. India has always been famous for its hospitality services. Our guests are considered as God and the tourists feel quite safe in India. A lot of solo travellers prefer certain parts of India over any other place in the world. Indian Tourism gives proper value to tourists from foreign countries.
Benefits of Tourism in India
The Tourism industry gives a wide scope of employment to people. It has not only provided employment opportunities to people but also alleviated poverty and sustained human development. Tourism has promoted and benefitted small and local handicrafts and cultural activities. It has played a significant role in promoting national integrity and international understanding. The most important benefit of Tourism is to give a sense of relief and relaxation to people when they get tired and exhausted from their hectic schedules and hustle-bustle of city life. It is a pleasant gateway for people. The Tourism industry has also benefited other sectors like aviation, transport, horticulture, and handicraft. The hotel industry has immensely benefited from Tourism and provides ample employment and help in earning foreign exchange. This industry has become one of the major contributors to the GDP of the country. It has significantly contributed to the economic development of India by improving transportation and infrastructure facilities across the country.
Tourism has played a very vital role in reviving India’s art and culture. Tourists from foreign countries show a keen interest in the rich culture and heritage of India and this boosts the morale of the small artisans and adds to their novelty.
Promotion and Development of Tourism
For better growth, the Indian Government is taking a keen interest in promoting the different sections of Tourism such as rural Tourism, eco-Tourism, and spiritual Tourism, spa Tourism, and adventure Tourism. Nowadays, medical Tourism has also become an important source of revenue for the healthcare sector. Many people from our neighboring countries and from our western countries are turning towards India for affordable and world-class health care services and treatment.
Indian Tourism has grown significantly over the years. The services rendered to the tourists visiting India from foreign countries are the indiscernible products of the Tourism industry. These products like hospitality services of all kinds for tourists turn into invisible exports because these services generate a lot of earnings without leaving Indian soil. The Tourism Ministry of India has played a major role in the development of the industry. The India Tourism Development Corporation (ITDC) formed by the Tourism department has carried out many vital developments to encourage Tourism in India. The ITDC hotels are situated at the prime locations of important tourist destinations in India and provide comfortable and affordable boarding and lodging.
The launching of the ‘Incredible India’ campaign by the Government of India is instrumental in promoting India as a holistic tourist destination in the domestic and international markets. Other specialized international media campaigns under ‘Incredible India’ have been launched and even the celebrities of our country have been roped into making this campaign of ‘Incredible India’ a big success in foreign lands also.
The ‘Clean India’ campaign launched by the Indian Government ensures full cleanliness, which has become an indispensable norm at all the tourist destinations. The Government has also conducted regular studies to analyze the market in order to identify the key factors, income figures, holiday habits, and psychology of people. This helps them to identify the key drivers in the Tourism industry and tackle the issues that deter the scope of Tourism.
According to research reports, the medical Tourism market in the Indian healthcare sector is valued to be worth over three hundred million dollars with more than one lakh foreign patients coming every year. The Government has also gone a step further to permit foreigners to visit India on an e-Tourist Visa for attending short-term yoga programs.
The Tourism industry is the largest service industry in India and has the potential to stimulate the economic growth of the country. It becomes important for all citizens to develop the Tourism infrastructure and maintain tourist destinations, railway stations, airports, rest houses, and hotels.
FAQs on Essay on Tourism
1. Which Countries in the World Depend on Tourism for Their National Revenue?
Countries like Maldives, Bahamas, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and many such countries depend on tourism for national revenue.
2. How does Tourism Benefit India?
Tourism in India generates mass employment and raises the income levels thereby contributing significantly to the economic development of the country. It has led to significant improvement in the transportation and infrastructure facilities across the country. The hotel industry benefits from tourism and provides ample employment and help in earning foreign exchange. This industry has become one of the major contributors to the GDP of the country. Tourism has also played a very vital role in reviving India’s art and culture.
3. What Measures did the Indian Government Take to Promote Tourism?
The Indian government has taken many measures for promoting the different sections of tourism such as rural tourism, eco-tourism, and spiritual tourism, spa tourism, and adventure tourism. Nowadays, medical tourism has also become an important source of revenue for the healthcare sector. The government has also taken a step to permit foreigners to visit India on an e-Tourist Visa for attending short-term yoga programs. The Government of India has launched the campaign of “Incredible India” which is instrumental in promoting India as a holistic tourist destination in the domestic and international markets. Other specialized international media campaigns under ‘Incredible India’ have been launched and even the celebrities of our country have been roped into making this campaign of ‘Incredible India’ a big success in foreign lands also. The Tourism Ministry provides financial assistance to the states, union territories, and other central agencies to develop tourism in their area and promote the culture and natural beauty of different regions and pilgrimage sites.
4. What is the ‘Clean India’ Campaign Started by the Ministry of India?
The ‘Clean India’ campaign started by the Ministry of India ensures full cleanliness, which has become an indispensable norm at all the tourist destinations.
5. What are the benefits of Indian Tourism?
Indian Tourism is one of the most important ways to add to its GDP. Tourism industry has released the excess dependency on the agricultural and manufacturing industry for employment to such a huge Indian population. It has given opportunities to the Indian craftsmen to get recognition of their work and income from their work. The Indian small scale industry has flourished mainly because of Tourism. The best part of Indian Tourism is that it has improved both national and international integration among the people. Indian Tourism has the capability to recharge, refresh and revive a tired mind with its beauty and different attractions.
6. Which is the most attractive type of Tourism in India?
India is famous for its rich cultural heritage. Variety of fairs and festivals throughout the year in different parts of the country makes it so colorful that international tourists cannot resist the attraction. Cultural heritage has been the best type of Tourism in the country. Good communication inside and outside the country makes it easily accessible also. Tourists can travel from the picturesque beaches of Goa to the great monuments of Agra and other parts of north India to great relaxing hill stations. It is definitely difficult to cover the whole of India in a month even but only a few famous parts can create such lingering memories in the mind of the tourists which they can cherish life long.
7. Why and what important measures have been taken to promote Indian Tourism?
The Tourism industry needs to be developed further to promote and strengthen national integration. It is the only way by which each and every Indian citizen is aware of their rich cultural heritage, a plethora of languages and religions. To improve the economy of the country this is one of the easiest ways to promote. Hence the Government has taken lots of measures to promote Indian Tourism. The Government has added spa Tourism and medical Tourism further to promote the Tourism industry. The India Tourism Development Corporation has taken lots of measures to encourage Tourism like the following campaigns:
Comfortable, safe and affordable hotels for tourists are not only prime locations but other areas also have been set up for the benefit of tourists.
The banner of the ‘Incredible India’ campaign by the Government of India has successfully promoted Indian Tourism among foreigners. The Indian celebrity has also taken part in this campaign to promote Indian Tourism.
The launching of the ‘Clean India’ by the Government provides a clean environment for the national and international tourists which is one of the most essential parts of Tourism.
8. How has the Tourism industry updated itself?
Tourism originated in the seventeenth century with the purpose of learning and understanding the history, civilization and rich art and cultural heritage of India. Indian international trade was also famous at that time for its huge resources. India has remained an attraction among international tourists since then. In the modern world, however, tourists are more business-oriented and commercially organized. This urges the need to promote business Tourism, sports Tourism, spa Tourism and also medical Tourism. Modern Tourism has taken a keen interest in the rich heritage of Ayurved both for medical and relaxing purposes. People who need medical help prefer India because of some good opportunities that they get in the Indian health system, comparable health infrastructure and affordable medical costs in India.
9. What are the roles of a citizen to promote the Tourism of the country?
The Indian Government has taken enough measures to promote Indian Tourism but that needs to be complemented by the people of India also. This is the responsibility of every citizen of the country to provide good hospitality and security to foreign travellers. The people of the country should always try their best to suggest the best tourist spots of the country and can give a brief outline of the country’s rich heritage. It is the responsibility of the citizens to maintain a clean environment for the travellers. The tourists should like India because of its hygiene and cleanliness also.