APA Basics: APA 7 STUDENT PAPER TEMPLATE & Formatting Guidelines

  • APA 7 STUDENT PAPER TEMPLATE & Formatting Guidelines
  • Database Search Strategies
  • Finding Journal Articles
  • Official APA Tutorial and APA FAQs
  • In-Text Citations
  • Cite a YouTube Video or Website
  • How to Do an Annotated Bibliography
  • 4 Steps to Creating Your Annotated Bibliography
  • APA Format Checklist
  • Downloadable APA Resources

Monroe College & APA Style

Monroe college uses  apa 7 style guidelines for all student papers. , you can download our detailed apa 7 formatting tutorial here ., if your instructor's directions conflict with any apa rules, follow the  instructor's directions., download the apa 7 student paper template.

  • APA 7 Student Paper Template (.docx) Download this 7th-edition template, and use it to format your APA-style Research Paper. Simply download and save a new copy of the document and paste the contents of your paper into the appropriate fields within the template.
  • APA 7 Paper Template WITH ABSTRACT This version of the template includes the ABSTRACT page. Ask your instructor whether the Abstract is required for your paper.
  • APA 7 Student Paper Template PDF

APA Title Page

Please note: In 7th edition format, student papers do not include a running head unless requested by the instructor or institution.  

About the Font 

As noted in the  apa style blog : in the 7th edition, a variety of fonts are permitted. , monroe college uses times new roman size 12 font by default..

Sample APA 7th Edition Title Page

APA Style Student Title Page including Paper Title, Author Name, School Name, Course Number and Title, Professor Name and Date of Submission

Adapted from the  APA Style Blog

APA Abstract

See sample abstract below .

  • Sample APA 7 Abstract - (Click to view in a new tab) This is the abstract used on the official APA 7 website. Note the format details highlighted above.

7th Edition APA Section Headings

Apa 7 section headings.

  •  Running heads are no longer required for student papers.
  • written in title case
  • Level 1 and 2 Section Headings APA 7

This is an excerpt. The full Annotated Sample Student Paper can be downloaded from the official APA Style Website here .

References Page

***note: in apa 7th edition, the running head is no longer required for student papers..

Y our references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay.

Title this page References centered and bolded at the top of the page.

All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay.

Citations are listed in alphabetical order.

Whichever font you choose, the selected font should be used consistently throughout the entire paper. View sample citations for online media in various formats on the APA website.

  • Sample APA 7 References Page Click the links in the green boxes for more info on each type of citation.

Section-by-Section Instructions

You can view basic 7th-edition guidelines and samples for each section of an APA Student Paper by clicking the links below:

Quick Sheet: APA 7 Citations

Quick help with apa 7 citations.

  • Quick Sheet - Citing Journal Articles, Websites & Videos, and Creating In-Text Citations A quick guide to the most frequently-used types of APA 7 citations.

In-text Citations

Click on the slides below, or, for full details, visit the in-text citations libguide ..

research paper sample docx

Click the PDF Icon Below to View/Download Presentation in a New Tab.

  • Formatting In-text Citations, Full Citations, and Block Quotes In APA 7 Style

Purdue OWL 7th Edition Changes Guide

research paper sample docx

Great News! The Purdue OWL (Online Writing Lab) has created a handy guide to Changes in the 7th edition of the APA Style Manual

We've done our best to lay out the basic standards for the two different editions here, but you can go to the OWL for a more comprehensive breakdown of the new APA standards.

VIDEO: Citation Styles

Excelsior OWL APA Formatting Quiz

Test your apa 7th ed. formatting knowledge, take this quiz from the excelsior college online writing lab  , official apa sample paper, view an example of a student paper from the official apa style website., a sample student paper in apa 7 format, with hints and tips for good formatting and style can be seen below. for more info, go to the apa website ..

  • Sample Student Paper in APA Format

Downloadable Presentation: How to Format Your APA Paper

  • APA Formatting Basics Presentation - (Click to open presentation in a new tab)
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  • Last Updated: Jun 21, 2023 3:15 PM
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APA Formatting and Style (7th ed.) for Student Papers

  • What's New in the 7th ed.?
  • Principles of Plagiarism: An Overview
  • Basic Paper Formatting
  • Basic Paper Elements
  • Punctuation, Capitalization, Abbreviations, Apostrophes, Numbers, Plurals
  • Tables and Figures
  • Reference Page Format
  • Periodicals (Journals, Magazines, Newspapers)
  • Books and Reference Works
  • Webpage on a Website
  • Discussion Post
  • Company Information & SWOT Analyses
  • Dissertations or Theses
  • Online Images
  • Online Video
  • Computer Software and Mobile Apps
  • Missing Information
  • Two Authors
  • Three or More Authors
  • Group Authors
  • Missing Author
  • Secondary Sources
  • Block Quotations
  • Fillable Template and Sample Paper
  • Government Documents and Legal Materials
  • APA Style 7th ed. Tutorials
  • Additional APA 7th Resources
  • Writing Center - Writing Skills This link opens in a new window

APA 7th ed. Fillable Word Template and Sample Paper

  • APA 7th ed. Template Download this Word document, fill out the title page and get writing!
  • Sample Paper APA 7th ed. Our APA sample paper shows you how to format the main parts of a basic research paper.
  • APA 7th Sample Papers from Purdue Owl
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Paper and report design and layout templates

Pen perfect looking papers and reports every time when you start your assignment with a customizable design and layout template. whether you want your paper to pop off the page or you need your report to represent your data in the best light, you'll find the right template for your next paper..

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Perfect your papers and reports with customizable templates

Your papers and reports will look as professional and well put together as they sound when you compose them using customizable Word templates . Whether you're writing a research paper for your university course or putting together a high priority presentation , designer-created templates are here to help you get started. First impressions are important, even for papers, and layout can make or break someone's interest in your content. Don't risk it by freestyling, start with a tried-and-true template. Remember, though: Papers and reports don't have to be boring. Professional can still pop. Tweak your favorite layout template to match your unique aesthetic for a grade A package.

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How to format and use a journal template for your research paper

When writing your research paper it is crucial to understand what format your target journal requires, and what journal template you should use (if one at all). Although many of our journals have the basic elements of style in common, each journal can have its own guidelines for formatting. This defines how an article will look when it is published online or in print.

Read on to find out how to format your research paper for submission to your target journal.

research paper sample docx

Quick links

How to format your research paper.

Go to Taylor & Francis Online and search for the title of your chosen journal using the search bar.

Select the relevant journal and click on the instructions for authors tab.

Read your target journal’s instructions for authors, and find out about its formatting guidelines.

Below are a list of Word templates which can be used for many of our journals. Please download the relevant template and apply it to your research paper format.

Each version of the template has its own instructions file. Read the instructions to learn how to save and use the template.

Get familiar with the journal’s instructions for authors

Be prepared, speed up your submission, and make sure nothing is forgotten by understanding the journal’s individual requirements.

Using Taylor & Francis word templates for journal articles

Check to see which version of Word is installed on your computer

Read the instructions for the relevant version of the template in the list below

Download and save the template file to your computer

Apply these styles to your paper as appropriate

Taylor & Francis templates

Format-free submission.

research paper sample docx

Many Taylor & Francis journals allow format-free submission .

If you use a consistent citation format and include all the necessary information, you may be able to submit your work without worrying about formatting your manuscript.

To find out if your journal allows format-free submission, go to your journal’s homepage on Taylor & Francis Online .

Read the instructions for authors’ for your chosen journal to find out if it operates format-free submission.

Submitting your article format-free?

Read our guide for more information on how to submit your article format-free.

Other journal format options

Latex templates.

Some of our journals accept manuscripts that use a LaTeX template.

Please check the instructions for authors on your chosen journal’s homepage on Taylor & Francis Online to know if LaTeX is an accepted format.

Your journal may provide a link to its specific template in the instructions for authors’ section of the journal’s homepage on Taylor & Francis Online.

If no template is provided, please  contact us  for advice.

What is LaTex?

LaTeX Templates defines it as a system producing high-quality professional documents, by using plain text markup language similar to HTML and CSS collated into a PDF document.


F1000Research publishes different article types offering flexibility in format and structure, although specific requirements may apply to some article types.

You can find out more about article type-specific instructions for submission with F1000Research in the F1000Research Article Guidelines .

To submit to F1000Research, your manuscript can be submitted as:

Word (DOC or DOCX)

Rich text format (RTF) files

ZIP files – if authored in LaTeX (the project ZIP file must include the PDF)

What is F1000Research?

This is an Open Research publishing platform offering rapid article publication and other research outputs without editorial bias.

Save time – let us help format your manuscript

Consider using expert editors to help you meet deadlines and make sure your manuscript complies to your target journal’s requirements.

Related resources

Journal manuscript layout guide

Journal submission support

Your submission checklist

Guide to improve your submission experience

research paper sample docx

IJSRP Research Paper Format

Research papers must be drafted in double column standard paper format (.doc/.docx) . In case paper have technical equations and not possible to format in double column format, you can format in Single Column format. Download the IJSRP paper format (MS-Word) template and submit your research paper for review/final publishing.

In case it is not possible to send paper in word format, you can send research paper in PDF or LATEX format. Kindly mention in paper submission email that paper is in Latex format.

Download Research Paper Format Template:

To download the research paper format, right-click the above link and choose "Save Link As..." to save the sample document to your computer. Paper must be send in .doc/.docx or PDF/LATEX format only.

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Word templates for journal articles

Though it is not necessary to use this file, using these Word templates for journal articles may help to speed the publication of accepted articles.

Check the peer review model for the journal you are submitting to when preparing the Word version of your manuscript. You can find out the peer review model for our journals on the “About the Journal” section of our journal homepages.

View Journals


Use our double-anonymous template

We also have a double-anonymous checklist , so you can be sure you’ve fully anonymised your paper before submission.


Use our single-anonymous template

Related information:

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  • Knowledge Base
  • IEEE Paper Format | Template & Guidelines

IEEE Paper Format | Template & Guidelines

Published on August 24, 2022 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on April 6, 2023.

IEEE provides guidelines for formatting your paper. These guidelines must be followed when you’re submitting a manuscript for publication in an IEEE journal. Some of the key guidelines are:

  • Formatting the text as two columns, in Times New Roman, 10 pt.
  • Including a byline, an abstract , and a set of keywords at the start of the research paper
  • Placing any figures, tables, and equations at the top or bottom of a column, not in the middle
  • Following the appropriate heading styles for any headings you use
  • Including a full list of IEEE references at the end
  • Not including page numbers

IEEE example paper

To learn more about the specifics of IEEE paper format, check out the free template below. Note that you may not need to follow these rules if you’ve only been told to use IEEE citation format for a student paper. But you do need to follow them to submit to IEEE publications.

Table of contents

Ieee format template, ieee heading styles, frequently asked questions about ieee.

The template below can be used to make sure that your paper follows IEEE format. It’s set up with custom Word styles for all the different parts of the text, with the right fonts and formatting and with further explanation of key points.

Make sure to remove all the explanatory text in the template when you insert your own.

Download IEEE paper format template

Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.

IEEE recommends specific heading styles to distinguish the title and different levels of heading in your paper from each other. Styles for each of these are built into the template.

The paper title is written in 24 pt. Times New Roman, centered at the top of the first page. Other headings are all written in 10 pt. Times New Roman:

  • Level 1 text headings begin with a roman numeral followed by a period. They are written in small caps, in title case, and centered.
  • Level 2 text headings begin with a capital letter followed by a period. They are italicized, left-aligned, and written in title case.
  • Level 3 text headings begin with a number followed by a closing parenthesis . They are italicized, written in sentence case, and indented like a regular paragraph. The text of the section follows the heading immediately, after a colon .
  • Level 4 text headings begin with a lowercase letter followed by a closing parenthesis. They are italicized, written in sentence case, and indented slightly further than a normal paragraph. The text of the section follows the heading immediately, after a colon.
  • Component headings are used for the different components of your paper outside of the main text, such as the acknowledgments and references. They are written in small caps, in title case, centered, and without any numbering.

IEEE heading styles

You should use 10 pt. Times New Roman font in your IEEE format paper .

For the paper title, 26 pt. Times New Roman is used. For some other paper elements like table footnotes, the font can be slightly smaller. All the correct stylings are available in our free IEEE format template .

No, page numbers are not included in an IEEE format paper . If you’re submitting to an IEEE publication, page numbers will be added in the final publication but aren’t needed in the manuscript.

IEEE paper format requires you to include an abstract summarizing the content of your paper. It appears at the start of the paper, right after you list your name and affiliation.

The abstract begins with the word “Abstract,” italicized and followed by an em dash. The abstract itself follows immediately on the same line. The entire section is written in bold font. For example: “ Abstract —This paper discusses … ”

You can find the correct format for your IEEE abstract and other parts of the paper in our free IEEE paper format template .

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2023, April 06). IEEE Paper Format | Template & Guidelines. Scribbr. Retrieved September 4, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/ieee/ieee-paper-format/

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Research Paper Guide

Research Paper Example

Nova A.

Research Paper Example - APA and MLA Format

12 min read

Published on: Nov 27, 2017

Last updated on: May 26, 2023

Research Paper Example

On This Page On This Page

Do you spend time staring at the screen and thinking about how to approach a monstrous  research paper ?

If yes, you are not alone.

Research papers are no less than a curse for high school and college students.

It takes time, effort, and expertise to craft a striking research paper.

Every other person craves to master the magic of producing impressive research papers.

Continue with the guide to investigate the mysterious nature of different types of research through examples.

Research Paper Example for Different Formats

An academic paper doesn't have to be boring. You can use an anecdote, a provocative question, or a quote to begin the introduction.

Learning from introductions written in professional college papers is the best strategy.

Have a look at the expertise of the writer in the following example.

Social Media and Social Media Marketing: A Literature Review

APA Research Paper Example

While writing research papers, you must pay attention to the required format.

Follow the example when the instructor mentions the  APA format .

Effects of Food Deprivation of Concentration and Preserverance

Research Paper Example APA 7th Edition

Research Paper Example MLA

Once you are done with APA format, let’s practice the art of writing quality MLA papers.

Found Voices: Carl Sagan

We have provided you with a top-notch research paper example in  MLA format  here.

Research Paper Example Chicago

Chicago style  is not very common, but it is important to learn. Few institutions require this style for research papers, but it is essential to learn. The content and citations in the research paper are formatted like this example.

Chicago Research Paper Sample

Research Paper Example Harvard

To learn how a research paper is written using the  Harvard citation style , carefully examine this example. Note the structure of the cover page and other pages.

Harvard Research Paper Sample

Examples for Different Research Paper Parts

A research paper has different parts. Each part is important for the overall success of the paper. Chapters in a research paper must be written correctly, using a certain format and structure.

The following are examples of how different sections of the research paper can be written.

Example of Research Proposal

What is the first step to starting a research paper?

Submitting the research proposal!

It involves several sections that take a toll on beginners.

Here is a detailed guide to help you  write a research proposal .

Are you a beginner or do you lack experience? Don’t worry.

The following example of a research paper is the perfect place to get started.

View Research Proposal Example Here

Research Paper Example Abstract

After submitting the research proposal, prepare to write a seasoned  abstract  section.

The abstract delivers the bigger picture by revealing the purpose of the research.

A common mistake students make is writing it the same way a summary is written.

It is not merely a summary but an analysis of the whole research project. Still confused?

Read the abstract mentioned in the following research to get a better idea.

Affirmative Action: What Do We Know? - Abstract Example

Literature Review Research Paper Example

What if a novice person reads your research paper?

He will never understand the critical elements involved in the research paper.

To enlighten him, focus on the  literature review  section. This section offers an extensive analysis of the past research conducted on the paper topics.

It is relatively easier than other sections of the paper.

Take a closer look at the paper below to find out.

Methods Section of Research Paper Example

While writing research papers, excellent papers focus a great deal on the methodology.

Yes, the research sample and methodology define the fate of the papers.

Are you facing trouble going through the methodology section?

Relax and let comprehensive sample research papers clear your doubts.

View Methods Section of Research Paper Here

Research Paper Conclusion Example

The conclusion leaves the last impression on the reader.

“Who cares for the last impression? It’s always the first.”

Don’t be fooled!

The conclusion sets the tone of the whole research paper properly.

A key list of elements must be present in conclusion to make it crisp and remarkable.

The Conclusion: Your Paper's Final Impression

View the sample paper and identify the points you thought were never a part of the conclusion.


Get Quick AI Research Help!

Research Paper Examples for Different Fields

Research papers can be about any subject that needs a detailed study. The following examples show how research papers are written for different subjects.

History Research Paper Sample

Many Faces of Generalisimo Fransisco Franco

Sociology Research Paper Sample

A Descriptive Statistical Analysis within the State of Virginia

Science Fair Research Paper Sample

What Do I Need To Do For The Science Fair?

Psychology Research Paper Sample

The Effects of Food Deprivation on Concentration and Preserverance

Art History Research Paper Sample

European Art History: A Primer

Scientific Research Paper Example

We have discussed several elements of research papers through examples.

Research Proposal!

Introduction in Research Paper!

Read on to move towards advanced versions of information.

Scientific research paper

Let's have a look at the template and an example to elaborate on concepts.

It includes:

  • Introduction
  • Related Work
  • Research Methodology
  • Experiments
  • Results and Discussion
  • Conclusion & Future Work
  • Acknowledgment

The name itself sounds terrifying to many students. Make no mistake; it sure is dangerous when touched without practice.

Students become afraid and hence aspire to locate an outstanding essay paper writer to get their papers done.

Detailed, high-quality, and credible sources and samples are a must to be shared here.

Science Fair Paper Format

Example of Methodology in Research Paper

The words methodology, procedure, and approach are the same. They indicate the approach pursued by the researcher while conducting research to accomplish the goal through research.

The methodology is the bloodline of the research paper.

A practical or assumed procedure is used to conduct the methodology.

The Effects of Immediate Feedback Devices in High School Chemistry Classes

See the way the researcher has shared participants and limits in the methodology section of the example.

Research Paper Example for Different Levels

The process of writing a research paper is based on a set of steps. The process will seem daunting if you are unaware of the basic steps. Start writing your research paper by taking the following steps:

  • Choose a Topic
  • Create a thesis statement
  • Do in-depth research for the research study
  • Create an outline

You will find writing a research paper much easier once you have a plan.

No matter which level you are writing at, your research paper needs to be well structured.

Research Paper Example Outline

Before you plan on writing a well-researched paper, make a rough draft.

Brainstorm again and again!

Pour all of your ideas into the basket of the outline.

What will it include?

A standard is not set but follow the  research paper outline  example below:

View Research Paper Outline Example Here

This example outlines the following elements:

  • Thesis Statement
  • Methodology

Utilize this standard of outline in your research papers to polish your paper. Here is a step-by-step guide that will help you write a research paper according to this format.

Good Research Paper Examples for Students

Theoretically, good research paper examples will meet the objectives of the research.

Always remember! The first goal of the research paper is to explain ideas, goals, and theory as clearly as water.

Yes, leave no room for confusion of any sort.

Fiscal Research Center - Action Plan

Qualitative Research Paper Example

Research Paper Example Introduction

How to Write a Research Paper Example?

Research Paper Example for High School

When the professor reads such a professional research paper, he will be delighted.

High scores!

Grant of funds for the project!

Appreciation in Class!

You'll surely be highly rewarded.

Research Paper Conclusion

“Who cares for the last impression? It's always the first.”

Don't be fooled!

A key list of elements must be present in the conclusion to make it crisp and remarkable.

Critical Research Paper

To write a research paper remarkably, include the following ingredients in it:

  • Justification of the Experimental Design
  • Analysis of Results
  • Validation of the Study

How to Write the Methods Section of a Research Paper

Theoretical Framework Examples

The theoretical framework is the key to establish credibility in research papers.

Read the purpose of the theoretical framework before following it in the research paper.

The researcher offers a guide through a theoretical framework.

  • Philosophical view
  • Conceptual Analysis
  • Benefits of the Research

An in-depth analysis of theoretical framework examples research paper is underlined in the sample below.

View Theoretical Framework Example Here

Now that you have explored the research paper examples, you can start working on your research project.

Hopefully, these examples will help you understand the writing process for a research paper. You can hire an essay writer online. If you still require help writing your paper, you can buy well-written yet cheap research papers by contacting our expert and professional writers.

So, contact our essay writing service now.

Nova A. (Literature, Marketing)

Nova Allison is a Digital Content Strategist with over eight years of experience. Nova has also worked as a technical and scientific writer. She is majorly involved in developing and reviewing online content plans that engage and resonate with audiences. Nova has a passion for writing that engages and informs her readers.

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Research Paper Example

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Research Proposal Template

Used 7,990 times

Reviewed by Olga Asheychik

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Prepared by: ​ [Researcher.FirstName] [Researcher.LastName] ​

Image 1

Prepared for: ​ [Supervisor.FirstName]

​ [Supervisor.LastName]

This should be clear and concise, leaving the reader with no doubt regarding your field of study. A good title structure can often be “Short Title: Longer Explanation of Your Field.” Your academic institution may have a preferred format for the title, or even a title page. Find out before you submit your proposal. If there is no preferred format, keep it simple and clear, and use a “serif” font that is easily legible.

(Main title: What I am trying to find out by taking on this project)

(Academic Institution)

(Subject Area)

​ [Supervisor.FirstName]

​ [Supervisor.LastName] (if you already have one)

​ [Researcher.FirstName]

​ [Researcher.LastName]

(Student ID/Number)

2. Abstract

100-200 words. This summarizes the central theme of your research. Use concise, clipped language that is academic without being over-wordy and verbose. The abstract needs to be entirely your own words, as every abstract should be completely different, unique in its approach to your topic. Like the rest of the document, apart from block quotations, it should be double-spaced and laid out clearly.

3. Contents

Depending on the length of your research proposal, you may wish to include a contents page for the proposal itself (not for your main research project: suggested contents for this are included in your Proposed Chapter Outline, section 9) , as follows (add page numbers/subsections when you know them, depending on your research) . As you introduce sub-sections into your different sections, number them accordingly e.g. subsections of the literature review could be numbered 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, etc.




Problem Statement……………………pn


Literature Review……………………….pn

Notion of Original Research……..pn

Key Assertions / Objectives……..pn

Research Methods…………………….pn

Sample Audience……………………….pn

Research Questions…………………..pn

Research Design………………………..pn


Proposed Chapter Outline…………pn

Research Limitations…………………pn

Proposed Timescale………………….pn

Funding (Optional)……………………..pn

References/ Bibliography………….pn

4. Introduction

200-400 words. Unlike the abstract, this is not a summary of everything you are about to say — you can afford to grab your readers’ attention right out of the gate. Deliver a surprise beginning, perhaps a quote from someone who inspires you on this topic, and show your knowledge of the research area (include, if you like, your previous research experience in this field; in fact, it may serve you well to be personal in this section) and why it is relevant to today’s world.

Try to provide facts and references here in order to give relevance to your study and why it is being conducted. This will help to explain the motivation behind your research and how important it is for academia, the industry or public sector it is being conducted in.

5. Problem Statement

Keep this short and informative. This section is meant to provide the reader with a summarized description of the problems you seek to address through your research proposal. Showcase the questions you seek to answer through your research and how it will help benefit those who read it. A problem statement should include the context of the problem, a particular audience you are targeting, and a timeline for the study. This will ensure that your research is well-focused and relevant to the current time and people.

The application of (topic, aka the main title of the subject you are researching) for (a particular group of people) in (timeline, this should either be current year or upcoming years but research can be done on past years as well) .

6. Objectives

This follows up on the problem statement section. It elaborates further on the problem statement by dividing it into a set of 3 to 5 descriptive assertions or intentions that relate to the problem. Objectives establish the scope and depth of your project and also help set up the idea for the research design (as seen later in the research proposal template) . The objectives can also indicate a section that shows how your research will contribute to already existing research and knowledge.

To study the applications of blockchain in the gaming industry and how it can help be a new source of revenue.

To study how blockchain gaming can influence people who don’t gamble to actively invest time in gaming.

To determine whether blockchain gaming can be a viable job opportunity in the future.

7. Literature review

Length can vary immensely, but probably 300-1500 words or more, depending on the nature of your research. This is one of the most important sections of your research proposal. It demonstrates that you know your field, who the key research players are in it, what has been said in the past and what is being said at the moment. You will want to mention — and where appropriate, quote from — key works in your area.

This is the section that requires the most preliminary research, so be sure you spend ample time in an academic library and use search engines for relevant academic papers before presenting. You do not need to discuss every work in your area, but you need to present a competent outline, and (especially if this is a proposal for doctoral research) you need to be sure that no one else has already done the same project. A good way of presenting a literature review coherently is in the form of a narrative, which can either be chronological or thematic.

There has been a (small/considerable/state value here) amount of previous academic research in this field.

(For a chronological narrative) I will outline how the understanding of (subject) has developed over (the last number of) years.

(Insert chronological narrative, remembering to introduce key players, dates, and academic works, and end with the state of the field as it is today.)

(For a thematic narrative) I will outline the major themes that are of relevance in this field, and go through them each in turn:

• (use a bulleted list to outline what themes/topics you are planning on covering)

After your bulleted list, you can use the themes from your list as subtitles to split up your literature review. Put them in bold. You could also add them as subsections in your contents page.

Under each subtitle, describe the state of the field of research in this area, including the most important researchers and works in this area.

8. Notion of original research

Length varies here as well, but similar in length to the literature review is likely a good place to start. This is where you sell your research proposal to the reader. You need to explain, clearly and simply, how your research will complement the field you have just described in your literature review — what you will add, how it fills an existing gap, why the academic world would benefit from your research, etc.

9. Key Assertions/Objectives

One sentence for each question/assertion. This is really part of the “notion of original research” section. A good way of making your research aim clear is to state a clear research question, and back it up with 2-4 specific assertions or objectives.

My central research question is as follows:

(insert research question here, in bold)

In the light of this, I will make the following observations/assertions: (insert observations/assertions here, in bulleted list.)

10. Research methods

Approx. 50-1000 words, depending on the nature of your research. This is where you explain how and where you plan to carry out your research. This will vary hugely depending on your subject. Will you be researching in libraries and archives? Which ones hold the books and documents you will need? Will you need to travel? If so, where? Will your research involve extensive field work? How and where? State whether you will plan to use different methods of data collection, and if so what they will be.

Do you need to be in a laboratory? Will you be emphasizing qualitative or quantitative collection of data, or both equally? Do you have the necessary skills and qualifications to undertake your research (for instance, foreign languages, statistical analysis, laboratory training, etc) ? If not, what are your plans to acquire these skills? (Note: many postgraduate institutions offer considerable support in the acquisition of new skills necessary to perform research, but this will require discussion at the proposal stage.)

11. Sample Audience

This section aims to provide the reader of the proposal with a description of who the sample audience is. You can add a brief description of your ideal sample audience and why such a person is relevant or necessary to the research. You can also mention what measures can be taken to gain their consent for the research in order to get a more enthusiastic and unbiased response. Lastly, you should mention where you propose to find this sample audience and any barriers that may occur in finding or engaging them.

12. Research Questions

13. research design.

This section will give the reader a description of what the research stimuli will look like. It gives a background of the different variations you may employ to better help test your hypothesis. It should also showcase the different factors that may vary a person's response to the research problem while you are researching the topic. This is important in a research proposal, because as with method, different factors help show what could affect you by confirming or denying your hypothesis. Keep your design descriptive and show how you will rule out or control factors that may come up.

14. Analysis

Approx. 50-300 words. Once you have collected your data, include details about what you plan to do with it. Again, depending on the nature of your research, this section could be anywhere from one or two sentences to several paragraphs.

If your research is in a survey format, then include the questions to the survey along with the method of collecting the survey. You can also include a few examples of how you plan to present the data, such as in a pie chart format or as a bar graph.

15. Proposed chapter outline

Probably less than 200 words, unless you have a very detailed plan already in mind. Note: this is like the preliminary contents page, but it does not need to be very specific, and can suggest sections rather than chapters at this stage. The academics reading your proposal will be impressed to know that you have some idea how you may wish to present your work, and that you have some way in mind of translating your research to paper.

(title of your first chapter) (explanation of your first chapter contents: one sentence)

(first subsection of your first chapter)

(second subsection of your first chapter)

(title of your second chapter) (explanation of your second chapter contents: one sentence)

(first subsection of your second chapter)

(second subsection of your second chapter)

(smaller section)

(another small section)

(title of your third chapter) (explanation of your third chapter contents: one sentence)

16. Research limitations

Approx 50-300 words. This section states everything you won’t be able to do in your research. It is surprisingly important, as it shows that you can recognise the limited scale of your work. Every project needs distinct limiting factors and clear boundaries in order to be manageable.

Naturally, the scope of this project is limited. This section describes specific limitations. (add limitations here) .

17. Proposed Timetable

Approx 50-300 words. This section is optional, but may be helpful to show your potential supervisors that you are being realistic and recognize that your project has set parameters within which to conduct the study. It also will help you to know the scale of your work in the preliminary stages of planning, and help you to maintain realistic expectations of yourself.

I predict that this research project will take (number) months/years. I propose a rough timeline, as follows:

(Here, include a list of tasks that will need completing as part of your research project, and how long you predict each will take in terms of weeks or months. End with a final count of months. If you have a predicted start date, you can begin with this and work towards a proposed end date.)

You can also use a project schedule table in order to plan out the project for yourself as well as give a better understanding as to the breakup of the project timeline. An example of this is:

18. Funding

For example, your money allocation table can look like this:

19. References/Bibliography

The reference list should always begin on a new page. Depending on your subject, there will probably be a specific format and referencing pattern for written work (Chicago, Harvard, MLA, Social Sciences) . Before you start writing, make sure you know what the convention for your subject area is, learn it and stick to it. There are a wide variety of different referencing conventions so it is important to make sure you find the correct one and stay consistent.

This will make doing your research proposal (and future research) a lot easier. Depending on your subject, your referencing may involve in-text citations or footnotes. Either way, your proposal will need a full reference list or bibliography at the end, including all of the secondary works you have mentioned in your literature review and primary sources (if applicable) .

You do not, however, need to include work that you have read in preparation but not used or mentioned in your work. Make sure this is correctly formatted — plenty of style guides for each referencing style are available online. Also, remember to lay out your reference list in alphabetical order by the authors’ surnames.

​ [Researcher.FirstName] [Researcher.LastName] ​

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Your rating will help others.

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How to write a research proposal?

To make a comprehensive research proposal, make sure you answer all the questions your review committee might have, such as who is your sample audience, what kind of questions you plan to ask them, why you are conducting this research, what you think will come out of it, etc. Leave no room for assumptions. Alternatively, you can also use this template to best understand which nitty-gritty details to cover.

43+ Research Paper Examples

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Literature review chapter template.

If you’re preparing to write your literature review, our free literature review chapter template is the perfect starting point. In it, we cover each section of the literature review chapter step by step, along with plain-language explanations and examples .

Download: Literature Review Template

What’s Included: Literature Review Template

This template is structure is based on the tried and trusted best-practice format for formal academic research projects such as dissertations and theses. The template includes the following sections:

  • Before you start – essential groundwork to ensure you’re ready
  • The introduction section
  • The core/body section
  • The conclusion /summary
  • Extra free resources

Each section is explained in plain, straightforward language , followed by an overview of the key elements that you need to cover. We’ve also included practical examples to help you understand exactly what’s required in each section.

The cleanly-formatted Word document is fully editable , so you can use it as-is for your dissertation or thesis, copy over the contents to a fresh document, or convert it to LaTeX.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What format is the literature review template (DOC, PDF, PPT, etc.)?

The template is provided in a fully editable MS Word document (.DOCX). You’re welcome to convert it to whatever format works best for you, such as LaTeX or PDF.

What types of literature reviews can this template be used for?

The template follows the standard format for academic literature reviews, which means it will be suitable for the vast majority of academic research projects (especially those within the sciences), whether they are qualitative or quantitative in terms of design.

Keep in mind that the exact requirements for the literature review chapter will vary between universities and degree programs. These are typically minor, but it’s always a good idea to double-check your university’s requirements before you finalize your structure.

Is this template for an undergrad, Master or PhD-level thesis?

This template can be used for a literature review at any level of study. Doctoral-level projects typically require the literature review to be more extensive/comprehensive, but the structure will typically remain the same.

What structural style does this literature review template use?

The template assumes a thematic structure (as opposed to a chronological or methodological structure), as this is the most common approach. However, this is only one dimension of the template, so it will still be useful if you are adopting a different structure.

Do you have an example of a populated template?

We provide a walkthrough of the template and review an example of a high-quality literature research chapter here .

Does this template include the Excel literature catalog?

No, that is a separate template, which you can download for free here . This template is for the write-up of the actual literature review chapter, whereas the catalog is for use during the literature sourcing and sorting phase.

How long should the literature review chapter be?

This depends on your university’s specific requirements, so it’s best to check with them. As a general ballpark, literature reviews for Masters-level projects are usually 2,000 – 3,000 words in length, while Doctoral-level projects can reach multiples of this.

Can I share this literature review template with my friends/colleagues? 

Yes, you’re welcome to share this template in its original format (no editing allowed). If you want to post about it on your blog or social media, all we ask is that you reference this page as your source.

Can Grad Coach help me with my literature review?

Yes, you’re welcome to get in touch with us to discuss our private coaching services , where we can help you work through the literature review chapter (and any other chapters).

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Hello, I have filled in my contact info to receive the literature review template. For some reason, I have not received it, nor has it gone to the junk mail…Could you help me to get it?

Paul Mangao

Good morning my friend. Am Paul Mangao from Papua New Guinea has just enrolled in Research Methodology at a Local University and is struggling to commence my literature review in my selected topic.

I now seeking your interevention in assistances with Literature Review templates to guide me through to get started in my Literature Review.

Looking forward to your assistances soon.


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Hi I must defend my Phd Proposal, any help with Methodology and Gestalt Configuration theoram?

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Qualitative Research Sample

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The family is a profoundly important to child’s development. A child will

learn about manners, self-esteem, relationships, worth and loyalty all by watching

and participating in a family. Parents teach about values first by living those

values. Children learn much more from what you do than what you say. Families

play an enormously important role in kids' social and emotional development.

Nurturing family relationships lay the foundation for all other relationships.

Through these experiences, children learn to trust others and seek out friendship

and comfort. Having healthy and happy family is what everyone’s dream. In the

most basic sense, the family is essential because it sustains society while

fulfilling God’s purposes (Thompson, 2017).

Children’s wellbeing as the result of changes in family structure or family, transitions. child wellbeing can be defined in many different ways. there is, consensus that childhood wellbeing is multidimensional and should include, dimensions of physical, educational, emotional and social wellbeing. wellbeing is, considered to be influenced by family income and access to education because, these particular factors minimized the likelihood of disparities between individuals, and enhance quality of life (conti & heckman, 2012)..

Children with broken family in United States, each year, over 1 million

American children suffer the divorce of their parents. Children from non-intact

1 families have significantly higher rates of difficulty with all levels of education,

from pre-kindergarten through to primary, secondary, and college-age levels.

Teenagers, students from broken homes were 30 percent more likely to miss

school, be late, or cut class than students from intact homes, in part because

single parents had more difficulty monitoring their children. These children were

also at higher risk for smoking, using drugs and consuming alcohol (Schultz

Children with broken families in the Philippines, most of the student come

from a broken family with a single parent. Slowed academic development is

another common way that separation of the parents affects children. After a

divorce, children from pre-school through late adolescence can experience

Deficits in emotional development. children of all ages may seem tearful or.

depressed. Children may experience anxiety, which can make it difficult for them

to seek positive social interactions and engage in developmentally beneficial

activities such as teen sports. This analysis becomes necessary because life in a

single parent family can be stressful for both the child and the parent. Such

families are faced with the challenges of diminished financial resources

(children’s defense fund, 1994)., thus, as the researchers we indulged ourselves into a research study to.

investigate the life stories of the school-age children with broken family. The

result of this study will also be a great help for the institution and others to make

a beneficial action for the respondents.

2 Purpose of the Study

The main thrust of the study is to know the cause and effect of broken

family to the school-age children. This will also seek the struggles and coping

mechanisms of the children’s attitudes at school.

Research Questions

The main thrust of the study was to investigate the school-age children

with broken family as perceived by the respondents.

Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:.

1. What are the struggles of the school-age children with broken family?

2. How does the situation of the school-age children with broken family

affects their educational engagement?

3. What are the coping mechanism of the school-age children with broken

Theoretical Lens

This study was anchored with the psychosocial theory of Erik Erikson

which discussed theories about the effects of broken family to the school-age

children. According to Erik Erickson (1959) children aged between 6-18 years

have tasks of facing and meeting the family, peer and school expectations.

Problems at this stage include feelings of inadequacy, poor self-image, fear of

School, lack of concentration, poor memory, excessive competition, expressing.

anger and sexual disadvantages. In this study, pupils in home where there is

3 conflict were lack of trust towards their parents because those parents are not

providing basic needs of the problems in those families.

Parental separation has been reported in the literature as being, associated with a wide range of adverse effects on children’s wellbeing, both as, a short-term consequence of the transition and in the form of more enduring, effects that persist into adulthood (mackay,2005)., if adolescence from unstable homes are to be compared with those from.

stable homes, it would be seen that the former have more social, academic and

emotional problems (Schults, 2006). Academic performance is of two types

Positive and negative (poor) performance. habits, family background,, perseverance, attitudes, interest all these affect academic achievement in school.

(Akinboye, 2004).

Significance of the Study

This study was conducted to find out the effects of broken family to the

school-age children as perceived by the students of St. Mary’s College of

Bansalan, incorporated. this will be beneficial to the following:.

School administration: The school administration will benefit from our study

because this study can give them an idea that having a broken family is not that

easy. This research might be somehow become a guide to the school so that

they may learn to understand the children who are being affected of broken

4 Teachers: In the teachers it can benefit to them when they encounter a student

who are having a case family break down. In that case the teacher may now

confront and talk to the child so that the pain who’s hidden inside is being relief.

The teachers may learn to understand the child’s feeling if his/her family is being

broken. In addition, the teacher may keep his/her eyes on that child because the

teacher knew that the child is facing on a family break down.

Parent: In this study, the most important persons that our research is addressed

to, is the parents. Because as a family the parents are the one that leads their

family. The parent’s guidance is the most important to their child’s development.

We noticed that the main reason of family break-down starts with the parents

break up, parents is separated to each other, divorce and etc. We make the

parents realize that the family structure would affect the child’s development,

behavior and attitudes. It includes the academic performance and child’s social

Students: The students will benefit from our study because it is by them who can

be affected and help them to be aware if they encounter this kind of situation.

Our study also can help those students who never know the situations of having

a broken family so that when they has a classmate who have this kind of

situation, they will be aware of their actions and words that they are going to

Future Researchers: The future researchers will benefit from our study because

as the time pass by, there might have researchers to pick this kind of topic. This

5 study may help them in conducting in their own study. In their data gathering, our

research can be used as a guide to them in their recent research.

Scope and delimitations.

This study was focused only on the broken family as perceived by the

students of St. Mary’s College of Bansalan S.Y. 2017-2018. It involves the impact

of broken family to the school-age children and what are their struggles. It also

includes on how they cope up on that kind of situation.

There were 4 respondents and they are now in the high school level.

Moreover, the data gathered tool that used for this research is Key Informant

Interviews (KII). In addition, the respondents were informed that their answers

will remain confidential to protect their privacy as a citizen in the community.

Hence, this study is qualitative and will be anchored on phenomenological, method. the respondents were selected through a snowball technique..

Definition of terms

The following terms are operationally defined for clarity purposes. The

following terms are:

School-age children. the age at which a child is considered old enough to.

attend school. The child on this stage are the most affected in a broken family

situation because it is the stage that needs guidance of their parents.

Broken family. A broken family is a family that has split or separated due to a

variety of reasons. This leads to children being raised by single

6 parents, stepparents or others not related to the biological parents.

Broken families can result from separation due illness, divorce or other

issues. The break-up of a family has many negative impacts on the

children. The children are more likely to act out against siblings,

biological parents or stepparents.

Case study. case study is an intensive analysis of an individual unit (such as a, person or community) stressing developmental factors in relation to.


Review of Related Literature

In this section, presents the review of related literature which guided the

researchers in conducting this study. This section includes the causes and

effects of having a broken family to the children based on the studies of the other


Family is a small part of the community, a small foundation of society.

Family is the home of happiness and love. Family is one of the most important

things that we must have. It is an inspiration in life to fulfill our goals in order to be

successful in life. Family is said to be the first institution where one starts to equip

oneself to grow. But differences have been found to each family. Not everyone

out there can imagine life without a family. Barring a few unfortunate individuals,

for most of us our family is an integral part of our lives. No law in this world can

defy this fact. The moment you enter this merciless world, where each man is for

7 himself, there are some near and dear ones out there who leave no stone

unturned to ensure your happiness (Parry, 2003).

Broken Family

A broken family is a family in which the parents are separated or divorced

and it is disruptive to your child’s life no matter how carefully you protect him.

Over time, your little one will come to accept his new “normal”, but recognize that

it will take time for this acceptance to happen and that behavioral bumps will

occur along the way. A broken family can negatively affect all domains of your

child’s development. The effects of a broken family on a child’s development

depend on numerous factors, including the age of the child at the time of parents’

separation, and on the personality and family relationships. A broken family in

this context is one that is not structurally intact for various reasons; death of a

parent, divorce, separation, dissertation and illegitimacy in which case, the family

was never completed (Conkline, 1996).

Children living in a family where the parents have divorced or separated.

need to know that they still have a family. It may mean that their family lives in

two homes, that new people are added such as step parents or that they will now

live with their grandparents. Assumptions of new roles and responsibilities,

Establishment of new patterns in intra-familial interaction and reorganization of, routines and schedules (agulanna, 1999)..

8 Causes of Broken Family

A family is cannot be broken without a certain reason such as death,

parental separation, divorce or any problems that can lead into this kind of

situation. Hence the parents are the most important person that can lead and

guide their children.

Divorce is claimed to be the main reason behind broken family. the.

common disputes between a husband and a wife are the financial issue, sexual

misunderstanding, early marriage, teen pregnancy, education, health problem,

and etc. When the parents get divorced, usually either of them or sometime both

of them leave home. Then the absence of either or both the parents will affect the

family administration, then family become broken. In addition, divorce is the

hardest challenge that can happen to a couple especially if they have kids. The

impact of this turn events in a family’s life is more devastating on the children

(Saika, 2017).

Another factor that can lead in family breakdown is death. Death can

reduce the family strength and unity. Like other reason all death in the family do

not necessarily bring any broken, but by the death of mother or father children

become mother/father less. When children realize that the parent will never

return, they get emotionally disturbed (Saika, 2017).

Effects of broken family, child development/behavior can be affected by a number of things but a.

big factor may be the parents. Depending on the severity of a broken home, the

9 parent's relationship with each other, as well as their children can affect how their

children behave and may even develop. If the parents are not emotionally

connected to their children, the child will struggle to learn how regulate his

emotions and interact with others appropriately (Moges and Weber 2014).

Depending on a child's age the separation of their parents may cause

extreme stress and the worst case, even depression. Parents have an impact on

their children, married or not. However, on average, broken homes have a

significant impact on children and may even continue throughout their life. To

understand how a broken home affects child development/ behavior it is

Important to understand how child should normally develop/behave. developing.

motor skills will make a children become more independent, seeing how they will

be moving and grasping things in their own. Not only are lack of motor skills an

issue at a young age but are social skills (Solomon, 2004).

There are 3 types of behavior that parents should understand when it, comes to their children. first is a behavior that is approved. this includes.

behavior such as being kind to other people, being understandable and listening

to others. Second is one that is not necessarily wanted at all times but it is

tolerated. It caused by the child being stressed or sick and is understood in

context and depending in the family, different types of behavior are tolerated. The

third is one that should be tolerated. It can be troublesome for a child's

intellectual development and may even cause harm to the physical, emotional, or

social well-being of the child (Normal Child behavior, 2015).

10 Chapter II


This chapter discussed the research design, the respondents of the study,

research locale, research instrument, data collection, data analysis,

trustworthiness and authenticity, role of the researchers and ethical issues and


Research design

This study focuses on the impact of broken family to their children. In

Determining the answers of our respondents we conducted an interview and, distributed a questionnaire. we employed the qualitative research design, anchored on the phenomenological tradition. the phenomenology is an approach, to qualitative research that focuses on the commonality of a lived experience, within a particular group. the fundamental goal of the approach is to arrive at a, description of the nature of the particular phenomenon (creswell, 2013)..

Research Participants The respondents of the study were 4 who were having a situation of

broken family. They were interviewed for this research to gather data that is

needed in this study. Individual interviews were conducted with 4 respondents, 1

male and 3 females. The respondents said that they’ve experience broken family

since birth and other respondent said that they’ve been experiencing broken

family in the past 3-10 years. The participants we’ve selected are from the same

11 school. All respondents’ data is collected between January and February 2018. A

total of 7 respondents we approached but 4 agreed to take part. The age of our

respondents ranged from sixteen to 18 years and all were in good health.

Research Instruments

The instruments we used was a researcher-made questionnaire check list

to gather the needed of items that determined the causes and effect of broken

family to the school-age. In the designing of good data collection instrument were

considered. For instance, statement describing the situations or issues pertaining

Was toned down to accommodate the knowledge preparedness of the, respondents. open-ended options were provided to accommodate to free.

formatted views relate to the topic or issues. In this way, the instrument is

authorized to obtain valid responses of the students.

Data Collection

We gathered the primary information through structured conversation

during the interviews with the selected senior high school students as our

outmost informants. The selected respondents, with their particular knowledge

and understanding, can provide insight on the nature of problems and give

recommendations for solution (Brook, 1995). Through the Key Informant

Interviews, we were able to have a deep connection and gathered deeper.

insights about their problems, needs and aspiration as a receipt of the case

12 Data analysis

Analyzing data from Key Informant Interviews can be challenging. It is

sometimes difficult to judge the validity of the information received from one

person (Miles and Hukerman, 1984). Thus, the information gathered from this

study was subjected to a phenomenological qualitative method which focuses to

Reveal meaning of the lived experience from the perspective of participants, (young and young, 1991). phenomenological study is a research methodology.

which has its roots in philosophy and which focuses on the lived experiences of

individuals. This approach is must effective for this study because it is based on

philosophy and it studies conscious awareness of the world experienced from the

subjective or first person point of view (Smith, Flowers and Larkin, 2013)

Trust Worthiness and Authenticity

In qualitative research trustworthiness is very important because we.

13 and make sure that we have the skills of empathic listening, understanding, patience, and traits of acceptance. The definition of research trustworthiness is the demonstration that the evidence for the results reported is sound and when the argument made based on the results is strong (LaBanca, 2010).

Credibility. One of the key criteria addressed by positivist researchers is that of

Dependability is important to trustworthiness because it establishes the, research study’s findings as consistent and repeatable. in order to have.

reliable information in our study, participants must tell a truth and not a

lie. In order to commit their honesty, we will give our full trust and

certainty to the earnestness of our participants in recounting their stories

that leads them to a heavy drinker of alcohol, in that way they will get

comfortable with us.

14 Confirmability. The last criterion of Trustworthiness that a qualitative researcher

must establish to guarantee the objectivity in the translation and

Examination of the data that is shared by the participants, we would keep.

a record of our interview transcripts that can enable the reader to allude

to the exact narration of our participants when they wish to do as such.

Confirmability refers to the objectivity of the researcher to acquire, information for the participants (shenton, 2004)., role of the researchers.

The role of the researcher is to ask questions to the person who would be

interview. This research aims to examine the causes and effects of having a

broken family to the school-age children. We investigate on the children of what

Are their coping mechanism in the situation they are facing., ethical issue and considerations, the respondent has confidential information that needs to have.

permission so that the data we gathered is more reliable and more convincing to

the audience. This research study was mainly concerned with children’s views,

and therefore there were ethical issues specific to children’s needs that had to be

given special consideration. While many of the ethical issues affecting children

are similar to those of adults, children’s vulnerability, because of their age and

their relative powerlessness, as well as the more limited understanding of

Younger children, requires special acknowledgment (hill, 1998)..

15 Informed Consent. First, we made a letter for our respondents and respondent’s

parent/guardian for them to sign as permission in conducting a research

about their situations. We insure that they’ve signed our letters so that

we can distribute questionnaires and conduct an interview without any

Violent reactions from them., privacy and confidentiality. privacy and confidentiality is important in, phenomenological research because it involves the personal data where, in only the person allowed can conduct an interview to the chosen, respondent. as a researcher we have to hide the information that the, respondents don’t want to be revealed. the data that we gathered and to, be added in our study is according to the approval of our respondents..



This chapter presents all the data gathered. These are interpreted and

analysed to get a clear view of the information that we gathered using the Key

Informant Interviews. Results and discussion are presented according to the

emerging themes that were extracted from the results of the research questions

on this study. A seek for father’s love, mother’s affair and abandoned ship are the

themes that emerged from the in-depth interview.

Respondent’s experiences and feelings.

As we walk into the world wherein our respondent is living with her single

mother; we meet and we listened into their experiences in life of having a broken

family. Using the Key Informant Interview that we had with them there is this

theme that emerged from their answers and is that the cause of her to have a

struggles is the seeks for a father’s love.

A Seek for a Father’s Love. As we gathered the data from our interviews

we had with our respondents. She had shared that she struggling on their

situation because living without the presence of a father is not easy for us if we

are a child. In her situation, she experiences depression because she is seeking

for a father’s presence and love. She can even commit suicide because of the

situation she faces (KI1 and KI3).

17 “Yung mga struggles na na experience ko ay yung lumalaki ka nang walang amang gumagabay sayo, yung feeling na hindi kayo kumpleto. Sadness and umabot rin sa time na na depress ako ,and I even plan to end my life. but thank God, ‘di natuloy”

(My struggle that I experience is that I grew up without a father that guides me, the feeling that you are not complete. Sadness and it comes to the point that it leads to a depression and I even plan to end my life, but thanks to God, it doesn’t happen)

(KI1 02/22/18)

She also added that when she was in the elementary level, having a

broken family really affects her studies. But when she reached high school level,

she realized that it’s ok to live life even though the family is incomplete. One that

is not structurally intact for various reasons; death of a parent, divorce,

separation, dissertation and illegitimacy in which case, the family was never

completed (Conkline, 1996).

Mother’s affair. moreover, the cause of the brokenness of her family is.

because of her mother. Her mother has an affair to the other man and she feels

that having a broken family is painful.

“ang hinungdan kong nganung na broken family mi.

(The reason why our family was broken it’s because of my mother was having an affair to other man and it feels so painful when my family is broken)

18 (KI2 02/02/18)

Abandoned ship. We come up to the theme abandoned ship because in

the case of our respondent they were abandoned by his mother. It all started

when his mother decided to go abroad and promised that she will come back

after the work. But they didn’t expect that his mother will not come back and his

parents quarrelled to each other so it becomes the reason that their family was

“Basin,kaning di ko sure pero para sa akoa murag katong pag abroad ni mama

tapos ana si mama na 2 or 4 years lang siya didto pero hantud karun dili na siya

nagauli, panagsa nalang.”

(Maybe, ahm I’m not so sure but for me, maybe when Mama decided to go abroad and Mama said that her term in there is only 2 or 4 years but now she come back home very seldom) (KI4 02/02/18)

In addition, having broken family for him is that he feels uncomfortable

because his parents are always quarrel to each other. The struggles he

experience was depression, he was depressed because his mother is not around

and also his father. His father only at home during weekends (K14).


In conclusion, the cause of broken family to our respondents are the

Parent’s brake up and parental separation. also includes having an affair to.

19 another man or a woman. This various reasons affects the family structure,

wherein the children are the most affected. The children may encounter stress

that can lead to depression whenever they know that their family is not complete.

Also they may learn to exclude the member of the family if it is not around in their

homes it is because every child in the family knows only those people that

surrounds them. There is a lot of changes in their lives because as they grow

older they may learn to live life without the member of the family.



This study provides for the essential and relevant data needed for any

academic institution both private and public. For the parents who’s having a

complete family, they must keep the good relationship to their family. Because

family is the most important thing in our lives that completes on who we are and

they are near and dearest one out there that leave no stone unturned to ensure

your happiness (Parry, 2003).

For the guardians of the broken homed children, may the guidance for the

children be guided accordingly. May they won’t surrender in the sacrifices they

made. Because every child in this world grows into a good person if the

teachings and actions are good. May their love will never perish to the children

for it is the only way to help them feel complete.

Furthermore, to the children who’s experiencing having a broken family.

wherein they have lost their way to the right path because of the situation. They

must learn to realized things and be more matured enough so that they can

handle the problem easily. They must feel comfortable to their surroundings

because everybody that surrounds them are also the person that can help them

21 Moreover, for the future researchers it is important to conduct a study with

organized process of data gathering using Key Informant Interview. This study

may also help them to have an effective and organized research.

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