George Orwells 1984 - Free Essay Examples And Topic Ideas

1984 is a dystopian novel by George Orwell that explores the dangers of totalitarianism and surveillance. Essays on this topic could delve into the themes of surveillance, truth, and totalitarianism in the novel, discuss its relevance to contemporary societal issues, or compare Orwell’s dystopian vision to other dystopian or utopian literary works. A substantial compilation of free essay instances related to George Orwell’s 1984 you can find at PapersOwl Website. You can use our samples for inspiration to write your own essay, research paper, or just to explore a new topic for yourself.

1984 Compared to Today

In the world today, the internet is at the center of our actions. The internet and technology enable the recording of everything we do, which can be accessed by millions of people within a short time. This leads to the question of privacy in this age. In the novel "1984" by George Orwell, the main character, Winston Smith, and the rest of the population in Oceania are being surveyed. All their moves are followed with the help of telescreens purposed […]

1984 the Soviet Union the Parallels

George Orwell is an author who wrote the book 1984 and Animal Farm, two famous Dystopian novels. But what is a dystopian novel? A dystopian novel is where the author writes about a society being oppressed or terrorized from a group of people or person(Jennifer Kendall). Typically in dystopian novels, we are shown a character who don’t agree with the government structure and tend to rebel against them. Although dystopian novels are fictional, it doesn’t mean that it can’t happen […]

Winston against the Party in the Novel 1984

In 1984, the main character, Winston Smith goes through moments where he is in need; His needs consist of physiological needs, safety, and security needs, love and belonging needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs. Winston is the main character in his novel it follows his around during this time. In 1984 Winston has his physiological met. These physiological needs include; water, pleasure, and food. Winston had taken up his spoon and was dabbling in pale-colored gravy that dribbled across the […]

Main Themes in 1984

There are many Themes in 1984 however there are two that show themselves as the most important throughout the story: The disastrous effects of both the control of information and complete and total domination of the people, or Authoritarianism. These two themes show themselves many times throughout the entire story. The main Villain of the novel, Big Brother, exists to show the reader what will happen when one single organization or entity controls all information, and every other facet of […]

1984 and Brave New World Comparison

As years pass by, human society has advanced in very unpredictable ways due to the evolution of ideas and technologies. It is somewhat cloudy to forseek what new advancements that may arrive in the future. In the 20th century, two dystopian writers had predicted the fate of the world that we live in today. The novels Nineteen Eighty-Four written by George Orwell and Brave New World written by Aldous Huxley both envisioned how society would end up as a dystopia. […]

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Nature and Animals 1984 Essay

In George Orwell's 1984, the reader follows a middle-aged man named Winston Smith. In Winston's society, people can be under surveillance at any time, in any place. The reader follows Winston through his affair with a woman named Julia, and the consequences that they face after. Throughout 1984, many motifs are represented, one of them being nature and animals. The motif of nature/animals demonstrates how Orwell connects characters in his book to animals. In 1984, the first time the reader […]

Parallels between a Novel 1984 and Soviet Union

George Orwell is a politically charged author who writes novels as warning issued against the dangers of totalitarian societies. The novel is dystopian literature. A dystopian society is the not so good version of an utopian society which is pretty much a perfect world. While an utopian society IS a perfect world, a dystopian society is the exact opposite as it is dehumanizing and unpleasant in regards to trying to make everything ideal. The novel 1984 by George Orwell is […]

1984 Literary Essay

In the novel 1984 war ment peace, freedom ment slavery, and ignorance ment strength. This novel very intriguing yet dark and twisted, the novel all began with an average man with an average job and an average life named Winston Smith, but what you don't know is how unruly the government is. The government believes everyone they have in their grasp they completely and utterly control, they have dehumanized humans to the point where they can't hardly think for themselves […]

1984 Surveillance Essay

George Orwell's 1984 writes of a dystopian society that has become severally oppressed by the methods ‘The Party' uses to control its society. The people do not think for themselves, and there is no independence from the government’s rules. One form that the party has control over everyone is with mind manipulation and constant surveillance, watching people actions and reactions to their messages that ‘The Party’ shares via the ‘telescreen’. A ‘telescreen’ is a two-way connection screen that people watch […]

Lack of Privacy in 1984 Essay

Privacy is a loose term in our world today because no one abides by it and the privacy of many people is invaded every day. People don’t even think about being watched when they’re posting personal experiences in their life on social media. Invasion of privacy is a serious issue concerning the Internet, as e-mails can be read and/or encrypted, and cookies can track a user and store personal information. Lack of privacy policies and employee monitoring threatens security also. […]

My 1984 Story

INTRODUCTION The Party did the people wrong and treated them poorly because the Party wanted them to do what they asked for and manipulating their minds. Orwell wanted to tell people how the Party treated other people and what they had to sacrifice in order to do what was told. For it to be one of the most powerful warnings that ever happened in the totalitarian society. George Orwell’s 1984 is a interesting and constructive book that is filled with […]

Current Events Shaped Themes in 1984

Throughout history there have been dozens of examples of how the book 1984 relates to current events. A Prime example of this is Fidel Castro and 1960's Cuba, Throughout his rule he was responsible for housing many soviet missiles, and limiting the freedoms of his people. The only news allowed in cuba was the news that was verified by either castro himself or his higher up officers. This is an example of censoring/controlling the media. Throughout the book there are […]

George Orwell’s Fiction Novel 1984

With new technology and advanced programs, the government is gaining more power than one may realize. George Orwell’s fiction novel 1984, depicts Oceania’s control upon it’s party members thoughts and freedom showcasing the harsh effects that it had on its population. Too much control can often lead to social repression, Winston being a product of this repressed society. The cruelty Winston is faced with serves as both a motivation for him throughout the novel and reveals many hidden traits about […]

A Political Novel 1984

1984 is a political novel composed for the humans below a totalitarian authorities and to give consciousness for the feasible dangers of it. George Orwell, the author, purposefully created the e book give emphasis to the rising of communism in Western countries who are nonetheless uncertain about how to approach it. He additionally wrote it due to having an insight of the horrendous lengths to which authoritarian governments that ought to possibly go beyond their power such as Spain and […]

The Party and Power 1984

William Gaddis once said, “power doesn’t corrupt people, people corrupt power”; a truth that perfectly articulates the relationship between man and power. George Orwell’s prose novel, 1984, and James McTeigue’s theatrical film, V for Vendetta, are such quintessences of power abused by those in pursuit of reaching authoritative domination. They differ in textual form and perspectives however at their core, both texts are works of dystopian fiction and juvenalian satire against authoritarian style leaderships, depicting their respective protagonists as victims […]

The Power of Words and Rhetoric in 1984

In a lucid moment Winston found that he was shouting with the others and kicking his heel violently against the ring of his chair (Orwell 14). Winston Smith is an average man in the world of 1984, at least that is what readers believe at first glance. However, there is a hidden life under the surface of his skin, this being the brewing hatred he feels for the, otherwise, worshiped Big Brother. Smith meets an unlikely companion in a young […]

About the Hazard of Controlling Governments in 1984

Dystopian literature has been around for quite some time, shaping the minds of young readers. However, in the course of recent decades, it has turned out to be increasingly popular, especially after the turn of the century. In a time of fear and anxiety, the dystopian genre has become more popular in pop culture, in that they provide audiences with a different aspect of entertainment, while offering a sense of comfort and control. The world that young adults of today […]

The Party Control in 1984

1984 is a story of tragedy and warns of a dystopian future, which day by day looks like it is becoming closer to a reality. The story starts out with Winston Smith, a member of the Party, living inside the conglomerate super-nation Oceania. Everywhere Winston goes, he is being watched by the Party's leader, Big Brother, who is constantly monitoring to stop any and all rebellion. The Party controls everything and are trying to indoctrinate people, inventing a brand new […]

The Parallels of 1984 and the Soviet Union

George Orwell, a pen name for the author’s real name Eric Arthur Blair, is a man that had multiple professions, such as an essayist, imperial police officer, and a critic. However, he is best known as a novelist, writing such stories like Animal Farm, Burmese Days, and the main focus novel that will be talked about today, 1984. 1984 is the story about a man named Winston Smith, a man that lives in a totalitarian society where no one is […]

What did 1984 Steal from 1922

There have been many dictators in the history of the world. They have been mostly bad for the people of the society, reducing their ability to stand up for them self. Most dictators used fear and intimidation to scare their opponents into complying with them, but in 1984 they limited their vocabulary (newspeak) and twisted what they were saying to make it sound nicer (doublespeak) to get the people to comply with the rules. The Party in 1984 is influenced […]

Wake up its 1984 again

War is peace; freedom is slavery; ignorance is strength In the book 1984 by George Orwell, Big brother is an omnipotent, omniscient, and omnipresent dictator of Oceania. Big Brother symbolizes the face of the Party and its public manifestation, which controlled people's thoughts, actions, knowledge and way of living. By using secret police, surveillance, torture, propaganda, misinformation, and corrupted languages to control all aspects of one's life. Even though the book was meant to be fictional, there is some elements […]

1984 and Brave New Word: Literary Criticisms

Although they seem to portray two completely opposite dystopias, Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World and George Orwell’s 1984 are two sides of the same coin, as they both warn of the dangers of an all-powerful government. Both their personal lives and the social climate in which they lived in contributed in the shaping of their novels into the disturbingly brilliant pieces of literature that are praised today. Huxley’s childhood provides great insight into some of the many influences of his […]

The Shadow of 1984

When people read dystopian text they often include topics with darker views of our political structures. George Orwell's novel 1984 is about a place named Oceania in which the main character Winston, a member of the outer party,journeys into his end. He finds himself with these viewpoints no one else seems to have of how Oceania is runned and only continues to question and dig further until he is put to stop by the party. Although Orwell’s work is fiction […]

The Tools and Actions of Totalitarianism in Cuba and “1984” by George Orwell

George Orwell’s book 1984 displayed an example of a real-life dystopia. Totalitarianism is shown in this communist-based society so ghastly that it coined its own term “Orwellian” in the dictionary. However, a country living in full surveillance with extremely nationalistic views in cookie-cutter world is not entirely fictional. Historical dictatorships are similar to Orwell’s telling of Big Brother, the man in control of Oceania’s economy and strictly enforced values. An example of such was the Cuban regime under control of […]

Dystopian Literature – 1984

The destruction of history causes people to obey the party more and become mindless objects to the party. The party imposed if all records told the same tale then the lie passed into history and became truth. Who controls the past ran the party slogan controls the future who controls the present controls the past And the through of its nature alterable never has been altered{ Orwell p.31}. It represent imagery and talks about how the party controls them and […]

George Orwell’s 1984 Oppression

After reading and discussing the outcomes of high tech policing, I strongly take a stand with the critics of it. This is not only opinion, the data received by high tech policing technologies distort the true meaning of privacy and is a form of biased policing against poor and minority communities. Police are using high tech policing to target poor and minority communities. The main facts that support my claim are how high tech policing results in biases against minorities […]

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Essays About Nineteen Eighty-Four by George Orwell Few argumentative essay examples leave an outstanding remark in the footprints of history like 1984 by George Orwell. Although the author wrote the novel in 1949, most scholars still see it as an important piece in our day. This is probably due to the manner it predicted the totalitarian government whom he said would leverage on the media and manipulate technology to exploit and control people. In this book, George Orwell provided an analysis of London, but not as a part of England. Instead, ‘ London ’ in the 1984 novel was a part of Oceania. Oceania was regarded as one of the vast governments in the book’s world. The author described the region as being under the critical influence of a dictatorship and powerful government forces. In this exciting piece, the government was described as ‘ big brother .’ and that it uses cameras and other gadgets to observe the behavior of its citizens. Why should this novel be of much significance to you? In college, it forms the basis of research and essay writing for many students. Therefore, reading and understanding the book will help you to write effective essays on it as part of your exam or a test. Those searching for research paper topics to write can draw inspiration from the essay on 1984. Whether you’re writing your paper yourself or outsourcing it online, we have a lot of essay examples on George Orwell’s 1984 novel to help you.

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Essays on 1984

Hook examples for "1984" essays, the dystopian warning hook.

Open your essay by discussing George Orwell's "1984" as a prophetic warning against totalitarianism and government surveillance. Explore how the novel's themes are eerily relevant in today's world.

The Orwellian Language Hook

Delve into the concept of Newspeak in "1984" and its parallels to modern language manipulation. Discuss how the novel's portrayal of controlled language reflects real-world instances of propaganda and censorship.

Big Brother is Watching Hook

Begin with a focus on surveillance and privacy concerns. Analyze the omnipresent surveillance in the novel and draw connections to contemporary debates over surveillance technologies, data privacy, and civil liberties.

The Power of Doublethink Hook

Explore the psychological manipulation in "1984" through the concept of doublethink. Discuss how individuals in the novel are coerced into accepting contradictory beliefs, and examine instances of cognitive dissonance in society today.

The Character of Winston Smith Hook

Introduce your readers to the protagonist, Winston Smith, and his journey of rebellion against the Party. Analyze his character development and the universal theme of resistance against oppressive regimes.

Technology and Control Hook

Discuss the role of technology in "1984" and its implications for control. Explore how advancements in surveillance technology, social media, and artificial intelligence resonate with the novel's themes of control and manipulation.

The Ministry of Truth Hook

Examine the Ministry of Truth in the novel, responsible for rewriting history. Compare this to the manipulation of information and historical revisionism in contemporary politics and media.

Media Manipulation and Fake News Hook

Draw parallels between the Party's manipulation of information in "1984" and the spread of misinformation and fake news in today's media landscape. Discuss the consequences of a distorted reality.

Relevance of Thoughtcrime Hook

Explore the concept of thoughtcrime and its impact on individual freedom in the novel. Discuss how society today grapples with issues related to freedom of thought, expression, and censorship.

Literature as The Question Minus The Answer

George orwell’s representation of authority as illustrated in his book, 1984.

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Orwell's Use of Literary Devices to Portray The Theme of Totalitarianism in 1984

The culture of fear in 1984, a novel by george orwell, 1984 by george orwell: literary devices to portray government controlling its citizens, the use of language to control people in 1984, let us write you an essay from scratch.

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Dictatorship of The People: Orwell's 1984 as an Allegory for The Early Soviet Union

Searching for truth in 1984, a world without love: the ramifications of an affectionless society in 1984, on double-think and newspeak: orwell's language, get a personalized essay in under 3 hours.

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The Theme of Survival and Selfishness in The Handmaid's Tale in 1984

Government surveillance in 1984 by george orwell: bogus security, george orwell's 1984 as a historical allegory, exploitation of language in george orwell's 1984, how orwell's 1984 is relevant to today's audience, the relation of orwel’s 1984 to the uighur conflict in china, symbolism in 1984: the soviet union as representation of the fears people, parallels to today in 1984 by george orwell, the relationship between power and emotions in 1984, proletariat vs protagonist: winston smith's class conflict in 1984, a review of george orwell’s book, 1984, o'brien as a dehumanizing villain in 1984, family in 1984 and persepolis, the philosophy of determinism in 1984, orwell's use of rhetorical strategies in 1984, control the citizens in the orwell's novel 1984, dangers of totalitarianism as depicted in 1984, dystopian life in '1984' was a real-life in china, dystopian world in the novel '1984' awaits us in the future, the internal conflict of the protagonist of the dystopia '1984'.

8 June 1949, George Orwell

Novel; Dystopia, Political Fiction, Social Science Fiction Novel

Winston Smith, Julia, O'Brien, Aaronson, Jones, and Rutherford, Ampleforth, Charrington, Tom Parsons, Syme, Mrs. Parsons, Katharine Smith

Since Orwell has been a democratic socialist, he has modelled his book and motives after the Stalinist Russia

Power, Repressive Behaviors, Totalitarianism, Mass Surveillance, Human Behaviors

The novel has brought up the "Orwellian" term, which stands for "Big Brother" "Thoughtcrime" and many other terms that we know well. It has been the reflection of totalitarianism

1984 represents a dystopian writing that has followed the life of Winston Smith who belongs to the "Party",which stands for the total control, which is also known as the Big Brother. It controls every aspect of people's lives. Is it ever possible to go against the system or will it take even more control. It constantly follows the fear and oppression with the surveillance being the main part of 1984. There is Party’s official O’Brien who is following the resistance movement, which represents an alternative, which is the symbol of hope.

Before George Orwell wrote his famous book, he worked for the BBC as the propagandist during World War II. The novel has been named 1980, then 1982 before finally settling on its name. Orwell fought tuberculosis while writing the novel. He died seven months after 1984 was published. Orwell almost died during the boating trip while he was writing the novel. Orwell himself has been under government surveillance. It was because of his socialist opinions. The slogan that the book uses "2 + 2 = 5" originally came from Communist Russia and stood for the five-year plan that had to be achieved during only four years. Orwell also used various Japanese propaganda when writing his novel, precisely his "Thought Police" idea.

“Who controls the past controls the future. Who controls the present controls the past.” “But if thought corrupts language, language can also corrupt thought.” “Being in a minority, even in a minority of one, did not make you mad. There was truth and there was untruth, and if you clung to the truth even against the whole world, you were not mad.” “Confession is not betrayal. What you say or do doesn't matter; only feelings matter. If they could make me stop loving you-that would be the real betrayal.” “Power is in tearing human minds to pieces and putting them together again in new shapes of your own choosing.” "But you could not have pure love or pure lust nowadays. No emotion was pure, because everything was mixed up with fear and hatred."

The most important aspect of 1984 is Thought Police, which controls every thought. It has been featured in numerous books, plays, music pieces, poetry, and anything that has been created when one had to deal with Social Science and Politics. Another factor that represents culmination is thinking about overthrowing the system or trying to organize a resistance movement. It has numerous reflections of the post WW2 world. Although the novella is graphic and quite intense, it portrays dictatorship and is driven by fear through the lens of its characters.

This essay topic is often used when writing about “The Big Brother” or totalitarian regimes, which makes 1984 a flexible topic that can be taken as the foundation. Even if you have to write about the use of fear by the political regimes, knowing the facts about this novel will help you to provide an example.

1. Enteen, G. M. (1984). George Orwell And the Theory of Totalitarianism: A 1984 Retrospective. The Journal of General Education, 36(3), 206-215. ( 2. Hughes, I. (2021). 1984. Literary Cultures, 4(2). ( 3. Patai, D. (1982). Gamesmanship and Androcentrism in Orwell's 1984. PMLA, 97(5), 856-870. ( 4. Paden, R. (1984). Surveillance and Torture: Foucault and Orwell on the Methods of Discipline. Social Theory and Practice, 10(3), 261-271. ( 5. Tyner, J. A. (2004). Self and space, resistance and discipline: a Foucauldian reading of George Orwell's 1984. Social & Cultural Geography, 5(1), 129-149. ( 6. Kellner, D. (1990). From 1984 to one-dimensional man: Critical reflections on Orwell and Marcuse. Current Perspectives in Social Theory, 10, 223-52. ( 7. Samuelson, P. (1984). Good legal writing: of Orwell and window panes. U. Pitt. L. Rev., 46, 149. ( 8. Fadaee, E. (2011). Translation techniques of figures of speech: A case study of George Orwell's" 1984 and Animal Farm. Journal of English and Literature, 2(8), 174-181. ( 9. Patai, D. (1984, January). Orwell's despair, Burdekin's hope: Gender and power in dystopia. In Women's Studies International Forum (Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 85-95). Pergamon. ( 10. Cole, M. B. (2022). The Desperate Radicalism of Orwell’s 1984: Power, Socialism, and Utopia in Dystopian Times. Political Research Quarterly, 10659129221083286. (

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1984 model essays

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1984 model essays

Common Module State-Rank Essay Showcase: Nineteen Eighty-Four

The following essay was written by Project Academy English Tutor, Marko Beocanin

1984 model essays

The following essay was written by Project Academy English Teacher, Marko Beocanin.

Marko’s Achievements:

  • 8th in NSW for English Advanced (98/100)
  • Rank 1 in English Advanced, Extension 1 and Extension 2
  • School Captain of Normanhurst Boys High School

Marko kindly agreed to share his essay and thorough annotations to help demystify for HSC students what comprises an upper Band 6 response!

Common Module: Nineteen Eighty-Four Essay Question

Marko’s following essay was written in response to the question:

“The representation of human experiences makes us more aware of the intricate nature of humanity.” In your response, discuss this statement with detailed reference to George Orwell’s ‘Nineteen Eighty-Four’.

State-Ranking Common Module Essay Response

George Orwell’s 1949 Swiftian satire Nineteen Eighty-Four invites us to appreciate the intricate nature of humanity by representing how the abuse of power by totalitarian governments degrades our individual and collective experiences. (Link to rubric through individual/collective experiences, and a clear cause and effect argument: totalitarian governance -> degraded human experience. Also, comments on the genre of Swiftian satire. Value!) Orwell explores how oppressive authorities suppress the intricate societal pillars of culture, expression and freedom to maintain power. He then reveals how this suppression brutalises individual human behaviour and motivations because it undermines emotion and intricate thought. (Link to rubric through ‘human behaviour and motivations’, and extended cause and effect in which the first paragraph explores the collective ‘cause’ and the second paragraph explores the individual ‘effect’. This is an easy way to structure your arguments whilst continuously engaging with the rubric!) Ultimately, he argues that we must resist the political apathy that enables oppressive governments to maintain power and crush human intricacy. Therefore, his representation of human experiences not only challenges us to consider the intricate nature of humanity, but exhorts us to greater political vigilance so we can preserve it. (Concluding sentence that broadens the scope of the question and reaffirms the purpose of the text).

Orwell makes us aware of the intricate nature of humanity by representing how totalitarian authorities suppress intricate collective experiences of culture, expression and freedom in order to assert control. (This is the ‘collective’ paragraph – a cause and effect argument that relates the question to the loss of human intricacy in the collective as a result of totalitarian rule). His bleak vision was informed by Stalin’s USSR: a regime built upon the fabrication of history in Stalin’s ‘cult of personality’, and ruthlessly enforced by the NKVD. (Specific context – an actual specific regime is named and some details about its enforcement are given). The symbolic colourlessness and propaganda-poster motif he uses to describe London reflects the loss of human intricacy and culture under such leadership: “there seemed to be no colour in anything, except the posters that were plastered everywhere.” (First example sets up the world of the text, and the degraded collective experience). Orwell uses the telescreens, dramatically capitalised “BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU” posters and allusions to Stalin in Big Brother’s “black-moustachio’d face” as metonyms for how governmental surveillance dominates both physical and cultural collective experiences. Winston’s metatextual construction of the fictitious “Comrade Ogilvy” serves as a symbol for the vast, worthless masses of information produced by totalitarian governments to undermine the intricacy of real human history: “Comrade Ogilvy, who had never existed…would exist just as authentically, and upon the same evidence, as Charlemagne or Julius Caesar.” Similarly, Orwell’s satirical representation of Newspeak ignites the idea that political slovenliness causes self-expression to degrade, which in turn destroys our capacity for intricate thought and resistance: “we shall make thoughtcrime literally impossible, because there will be no words in which to express it.” (The examples above prove that the government’s leadership style truly is totalitarian, and that it results in a loss of intricacy and ‘humanity’ in the collective. It’s good to cover a variety of examples that explore different facets of the collective – for example, the first example establishes the extreme surveillance, the second example establishes the loss of ‘truth’/history, and the third example establishes the loss of language). The political bitterness that marks Nineteen Eighty-Four as a Swiftian satire (This is a link to the ‘Swiftian’ term used in the thesis statement. It’s important to refer back to any descriptive terms you use in your thesis) ultimately culminates in O’Brien’s monologue, where Orwell juxtaposes the politicised verb “abolish” to symbols of human intricacy, “we shall abolish the orgasm…there will be no art, no literature, no science…when we are omnipotent”, to express how totalitarian rulers suppress collective experiences to gain metaphoric omnipotence. Thus, Orwell makes us aware of the intricate nature of humanity by representing a future in which totalitarian governments suppress it. (A linking sentence that ties it all back to the question and rephrases the point)

Orwell then argues that the effect of this suppression is a loss of human intricacy that brutalises society and devalues individual experiences. (Cause and effect argument that links collective suppression to a loss of human intricacy on an individual scale – continuous engagement with the question and the rubric!) Orwell’s exposure to the widespread hysteria of Hitler’s Nazi regime, caused by the Nuremberg Rallies and Joseph Goebbels’ virulent anti-semitic propaganda, informs his representation of Oceania’s dehumanised masses. (More specific context around the Nazis, and a specific link to how it informed his work) The burlesque Two Minute Hate reveals human inconsistency by representing how even introspective, intelligent characters can be stripped of their intricacy and compassion by the experience of collective hysteria: even Winston wishes to “flog [Julia] to death with a rubber truncheon…ravish her and cut her throat at the moment of climax”, and is only restored by compliance to the Christ-like totalitarian authority, “My-Saviour!”, Big Brother. (A link to the rubric with the ‘human inconsistency’ point) Orwell frequently juxtaposes dehumanising representations of the proles, “the proles are not human beings”, to political sloganism: “As the Party slogan put it: ‘Proles and animals are free’”, to argue that in such a collectively suppressed society, the upper class grow insensitive towards the intricate nature of those less privileged. (It’s important to link the proles into your argument – they’re often forgotten, but they’re a big part of the text!) He asserts that this loss of empathy degrades the authenticity and intricacy of human relationships, characterised by Winson’s paradoxically hyperbolic repulsion towards his wife: “[Katharine] had without exception the most stupid, vulgar, empty mind that he had every encountered”. (Continuous engagement with the question and rubric: make sure to recycle rubric terms – here, done with ‘paradoxically’ – and question terms – here, with ‘intricacy’)  Winston’s “betrayal” of Julia symbolises how totalitarianism ultimately brutalises individuals by replacing their compassion for intricate ideals such as love with selfish pragmatism: “Do it to Julia…Tear her face off, strip her to the bones. Not me!” Therefore, Orwell makes us more aware of the intricate nature of humanity by demonstrating how it can be robbed by suppressive governments and collective hysteria. (A linking sentence that sums up the paragraph).

By making us aware of how totalitarian governments suppress meaningful human experiences both individually and collectively, Orwell challenges us to resist so we can preserve our intricate nature. (This third paragraph discusses Orwell’s purpose as a composer. This can in general be a helpful way to structure paragraphs: Collective, Individual, Purpose) Orwell’s service in the 1930s Spanish Civil War as part of the Republican militia fighting against fascist-supported rebels positions him to satirise the political apathy of his audience. (Integration of personal context is useful here to justify Orwell’s motivations. It’s also a lot fresher than just including another totalitarian regime Orwell was exposed to) Orwell alludes to this through the metaphor of Winston’s diarising as an anomalous individual experience of resistance, ““[Winston] was a lonely ghost uttering a truth that nobody would ever hear,” which highlights how his intricate nature persists even in a suppressive society. Often, Orwell meta-fictively addresses his own context, as “a time when thought is free…when truth exists”, to establish an imperative to preserve our intricate human nature while we still can. The Julia romance trope (It’s good to include terms such as ‘trope’ which reflect your understanding of narrative structure and the overall form of the work.) represents how Winston’s gradual rejection of his political apathy empowered him to experience an authentic, intricately human relationship that subverts his totalitarian society: “the gesture with which [Julia] had thrown her clothes aside…[belonged] to an ancient time. Winston woke up with the word ‘Shakespeare’ on his lips.” Orwell juxtaposes Julia’s sexuality to Shakespeare, an immediately-recognisable metonym for culture and history, to argue that human intricacy can only be restored by actively resisting the dehumanising influence of the government. Orwell also represents Winston’s desensitised and immediate devotion to the Brotherhood to reflect how the preservation of human intricacy is a cause worth rebelling for, even by paradoxically unjust means: “[Winston was] prepared to commit murder…acts of sabotage which may cause the deaths of hundreds of innocent people…throw sulphuric acid in a child’s face.” (More chronological examples that show Winston’s transformation throughout the text. It’s useful to explore and contrast those who resist with those who don’t resist, and how just the act of resistance in some way restores our humanity! That’s why this paragraph comes after the ‘brutalised individual experience’ paragraph) However, Orwell ultimately asserts that it is too late for Winston to meaningfully restore humanity’s intricate nature, and concludes the text with his symbolic death and acceptance of the regime, “[Winston] had won the victory over himself. He loved Big Brother.” (It’s important to remember that Orwell ends the text so miserably so that he can motivate his audiences not to do the same thing). The futility of this ending ignites the idea that we must not only be aware of our intricate nature, but must actively resist oppressive governments while we still can in order to preserve it. (A linking sentence that ties the paragraph together and justifies the futility of the ending)

Therefore, Orwell’s representation of human experiences in Nineteen Eighty-Four encourages us to reflect personally on our own intricate human nature, and challenges us to fight to preserve it. (Engages with the question (through the reflection point), and includes Orwell’s purpose as a composer). His depiction of a totalitarian government’s unchecked assertion of power on human culture and freedom, and the brutalising impact this has on individual and collective experiences, ultimately galvanises us to reject political apathy. (Your argument summaries can often be combined into a sentence or two in the conclusion now that the marker knows what you’re talking about. This reinforces the cause and effect structure as well.) Thus, the role of storytelling for Orwell is not only to make us more aware of our intricate nature, but to prove that we must actively resist oppressive governments while we still can in order to preserve it. (The clincher! It’s often useful to add “not only” in your final sentence to reinforce the massive scope of the text)

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A+ Student Essay: Is Technology or Psychology More Effective in 1984?

Of the many iconic phrases and ideas to emerge from Orwell’s 1984 , perhaps the most famous is the frightening political slogan “Big Brother is watching.” Many readers think of 1984 as a dystopia about a populace constantly monitored by technologically advanced rulers. Yet in truth, the technological tools pale in comparison to the psychological methods the Party wields, which not only control the citizens but also teach them to control themselves.

To be sure, the Party uses technology in disturbing and effective ways. Its most notable technological weapon is the telescreen, a kind of two-way television that watches you as you watch it. Telescreens literalize the idea that Big Brother, the mysterious figure who represents the Party’s power and authority, is always watching the people of Airstrip One. Even the citizens’ most mundane actions are monitored by the telescreens, which must remain turned on at all times. When Winston performs his Physical Jerks exercises, for example, a voice from the telescreen criticizes his poor effort. When he is arrested, a voice from the telescreen tells him what’s coming. Another terrifying technology used by the Party is vaporizing, the means by which the government executes those who displease it.

Yet despite the power of the omnipresent telescreens and the terror of vaporizing, they are just two among countless methods of control. And the most powerful methods turn out to be non-technological in nature. Posters announce the watchfulness of Big Brother; mandatory daily meetings called Two Minutes of Hate rile up the citizenry, allow them to vent their emotions and solidify their xenophobia; public hangings make examples out of traitors; physical torture awaits those who commit thoughtcrimes; and Junior Spies turn in any adults they feel are not sufficiently loyal to the party, even if those adults are their own parents. None of these methods involve technology. Instead, they rely on psychological manipulation. Together, these methods produce a complex mixture of terror, paranoia, groupthink, and suspicion that keeps the citizens cowed and obedient.

In addition to, and as a result of, these government tactics, the citizens of Oceania are constantly policing themselves. In order to avoid being jailed or vaporized they closely monitor their own actions, second by second. Most citizens would find it unthinkable, for example, to demonstrate such blatant misbehavior as enjoying a torrid love affair, as Winston does. But the citizens go even further than simply regulating their outward behavior: they also monitor their private thoughts. They have been manipulated into believing that any independent cognition is grounds for arrest by the Thought Police, so they try to keep their inward selves as loyal and unthinking as their outward actions. Because they have been conditioned since birth to accept whatever the Party identifies as truth, they are also able to use doublethink, a method of believing absurd contradictions such as “war is peace.” Again, self-policing and doublethink involve no technology beyond the human brain, but they are perhaps the most effective means of control available to the Party.

The Party maintains power primarily through the use of psychology, not technology. We get the sense that if no technology existed, the Party would find equally effective ways of controlling the populace. Orwell wants to warn us against more than the power of technology; he wants to suggest that the human mind is the most dangerous and advanced weapon of all, and that we should never underestimate the ability of people to control each other—and themselves.

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Some sample 1984 essays based on notes

To what extent is Winston a man from the past – a loser and a loner.? • Winston smith is a loner and a loser. • Julia is a rebel. Discuss

Winston is a loner because he lives in his own world and does not fit into the party’s world. He is described as the “the last man standing”. He refuses to conform to the Party’s rules and regulations because he wants to think for himself; he wants to record his personal history and also events of the past – standards etc. Winston wants to “squeeze out some childhood memory that would tell him whether London had always been quite like this” (5). Even though the proles can think for themselves he does not company with them. They do not share his rebellion. This is because they are not aware of their oppression.

Winston is also a loner because he wants to choose his relationships and he searches for personal happiness. In contrast, the party chooses partnerships and requires that party members have children for the sake of the party. He develops a relationship with Julia which is against the rules. The party seeks to “remove all pleasure from the sexual act” because it is outside their control. They find very lonely spots where they can communicate and have sex such as the bush and Charrington’s room. However, even with Julia there are times when he is still lonely because she is only interested in fighting the party as a game. She is not interested in holding onto the past. She just wants to “break the rules”.

Winston is not a loser because he fights for an important cause. He fights to protect people’s freedom. It is a heroic battle. He fights extremely hard. He knows the stakes are high. He knows that writing in his diary is likely to lead to death or at least 25 years imprisonment. He knows that to mark the paper is a “decisive act”. He knows the party will destroy him; it is just a matter of time. He knows that he will share the same fate as the three traitors who were betrayed by the party.

From the party’s perspective, Winston is a loser because they defeat him in the end. …. Leading to Room 101. The party uses power for their own ends and will always get to you. They are not interested in the individual. Winston betrays Julia and himself. He “wins .. the victory”. He gives up his individuality. He accepts that 2+2 = 5. He believes that the photo of the traitors never existed.

THE THEME IN POWER: Those in power will always use power for their own ends.

Orwell is cynical about power because Big Brother is only interested in maintaining power and not improving the life of its citizens. The purpose of the party is to enjoy power. “The party seeks power entirely for its own sake”. Power is an “end in itself”. The party is not interested in improving the life of its citizens in anyway. Orwell paints a frightening picture of power because the party is determined to be as ruthless as possible. O’Brien Cynically states, “if you want a picture of the future, imagine a boot stamping on a human face – forever” according to O’Brien the individual must submit to power of the party. The party wants power “over the body but above all, over the mind”.

“We are the priests of power”. The party wants to ensure that the only power is that of the collective. The individual has no power. He must give up his identity and merge himself with the party, so that he “is the party”. Accordingly, the party makes everyone dependent upon the state. It rules through fear. It ensures that there are no “erroneous” or individual thoughts.

The party uses every means it can to ruthlessly and cleverly control people’s hearts and minds. The reason is because it wants people to be completely dependent upon big brother.. The party wants to ensure “utter submission”. The individual must escape from his own identity and “merge himself” with the party. This will ensure that the party has completely control “over the body” and also “over the mind”. The party uses a variety of tactics to control its citizens.

Room 101 symbolises the brutality of the party and the very worst use of power as an end in itself. The party uses a person’s very worst fear to make them accept party rules. The fact that Winston is destroyed means that as readers, we lose hope in an individual’s chances of fighting against Big Brother. In Room 101, Winston scores a victory over himself in the name of Big Brother. He is defeated by his own worst fears, which proves that the party can use people’s fear to destroy them. Winston fears the rats. He betrays Julia thus betraying his own humanity. “He had won the victory over himself. He loved big brother.” During the process he comes to “accept”. Again, this is very depressing because he refused O’Brien’s attempts to tell him what to think. Winston comes to believe that the photos of the traitors at the New York function never existed. He eventually believes that 2+2=5. This means that the party can tell you anything and you will believe it. This is a dangerous situation, but after so much fear Winston now gives in.

Winston’s goal is to “stay human”. Does he succeed?

In George Orwell’s 1984, Big Brother is determined to suppress an individual’s happiness and freedom. This is critical to the party’s desire to wield absolute power. Winston refuses to submit. He values his individual freedom and clings to what he believes is important to his humanity. He wants to think for himself and chose who he loves. He becomes a target of Big Brother who uses a variety of tactics to complete stamp out any sign of individuality. Whilst Winston puts up a good fight his spirit is destroyed.

Winston’s object is not to stay alive but to stay human. To what extent does he succeed?

Being “human” for Winston is to think independently without the Party’s control. It is to cling to his thoughts and memories and to know that the party cannot control external reality. It is to know what is truth and lies without having to resort to double think. Winston resists the party’s control because he knows that the party wants to completely destroy his capacity to think for himself. He knows that this very threatening to his own rights. Big Brother knows that “who controls the past controls the future”. This is because if people do not have any standards of comparison then they do not know just how much they are being oppressed. They do not know if their life is getting better or worse. Such a situation encourages blind obedience and acceptance. To Winston, such obedience is about just staying alive. This is not good enough; he wants to think. This is why the fate of the three traitors is important to him. Chestnut tree… right up until the end he still subconsciously puts up a good fight and attempts, with all his strength, to cling to his independence.

Winston’s relationship with Julia is also part of being “human” because he wants to fall in love and have sex with a person of his choice. The party despises personal feelings or instincts that are outside its control. Instead, it uses Hate Week to channel people’s feelings. As Winston says, this is a form of “sex gone sour”. His relationship with Julia is a threat to the party. The sex instinct creates a world “of its own”. Choosing each other, and staying human, also goes against the party’s rules about procreation, relationships and trust.

In the end, Winston does not succeed despite a tremendous struggle. He is defeated in the infamous Room 101. There he scores a victory over himself in the name of Big Brother. He is confronted with his very own worst fears. These are the rats. He betrays Julia thus betraying his own humanity. “He had won the victory over himself. He loved Big Brother.” During the process he comes to “accept”. This is to believe that the photos of the traitors at the New York function never existed. It is to believe that 2+2=5. This means that the party can tell you anything and you will believe it. This is a dangerous situation, but after so much fear Winston now gives in.

‘Nineteen Eighty – Four is a disturbingly cynical novel: Orwell has lost all faith in humankind.’ Do you agree?

1st Par). Orwell is cynical about power because Big Brother is only interested in maintaining power and not improving the life of its citizens. The purpose of the party is to enjoy power. “The party seeks power entirely for its own sake”. It is not interested in improving the life of its citizens in anyway. Orwell paints a frightening picture of power because the party is determined to be as ruthless as possible. O’Brien Cynically states, “if you want a picture of the future, imagine a boot stamping on a human face – forever” according to O’Brien the individual must submit to power of the party. The party wants power “over the body but above all, over the mind”

2nd Par). 1984 is disturbing because the party ruthlessly and cleverly uses a variety of tactics to control people’s hearts and minds. Big Brother’s world is based on fear and it is impossible for people to escape the telescreens. Winston knows that he can only hope to dim – never shut off the telescreens. The set maybe turned down, but is never shut off completely. There was ‘no way of knowing whether you were being watched at any given moment.’ This creates a sense of fear in people. People know that the Thought Police are constantly watching your every movement and even families are spying on each other.

Again, the world of Big Brother is disturbing because, as Orwell shows, the Party can control people’s thoughts through language and control of the past and it becomes impossible for people to maintain their individual thoughts. It is impossible to have “erroneous thoughts” or be unorthodox.

4rd Par). Winston’s defeat in the infamous Room 101 is depressing because he put up such a heroic fight and was so determined that he would not give into the party. The fact that he is destroyed means that as readers, we lose hope in an individual’s chances of fighting against Big Brother. In Room 101, Winston scores a victory over himself in the name of Big Brother. He is defeated by his own worst fears, which proves that the party can use people’s fear to destroy them. Winston fears the rats. He betrays Julia thus betraying his own humanity. “He had won the victory over himself. He loved big brother.” During the process he comes to “accept”. Again, this is very depressing because he refused O’Brien’s attempts to tell him what to think. Winston comes to believe that the photos of the traitors at the New York function never existed. He eventually believes that 2+2=5. This means that the party can tell you anything and you will believe it. This is a dangerous situation, but

Big Brother is a constant threat to everyone.

Big Brother is a threat because it seeks to control the way people think. The party discourages independent thought, which, as Orwell shows is a very dangerous situation. Newspeak is the official language of Oceania. It deletes a lot of words from the dictionary. The remaining words are rigidly defined. By reducing language, Orwell shows that this then narrows people’s range of thought. This means that they will not be able to think certain concepts like freedom and independence. It is called “cutting language down to the bone” eg. Syme p 54 As Syme states sarcastically, “it’s a beautiful thing, the destruction of words.” It eliminates “thoughtcrime” which is the ability to “know the truth” but believe in lies. AS Orwell states, the party knows that it is better that people do not have the ability to think two opposing thoughts.

Furthermore, Big Brother is also a constant threat to the citizens of Oceania because it seeks to control the past. One of the party’s famous slogans is “who controls the past controls the future”. As Orwell demonstrates, the party realises that people will not challenge them if they know that the party is always right. For this reason, the party constantly changes historical records to prove that “whatever was true now was true for everlasting”. Winston is also part of this process because he works in the Ministry of Truth which is responsible for changing all the documents. Winston is so horrified that he is determined to keep a diary. He wants to record his thoughts about the present. He knows that it is important for people to be able to make comparisons in the future. For this reason, the telescreen constantly watches him. He knows that he is committing a dangerous act by writing in his diary. It is a direct threat to the party.

Big Brother is a constant threat to people because it controls people’s emotions, loyalties, trust and relationships.

The Party despises any individual or personal feelings or instincts that are outside its control. The Party wants to control people’s feelings. People’s anger and rage towards Goldstein transforms into love and adulation for Big Brother. Peoples’ emotions are controlled through the hate sessions. The Two Minutes Hate is a form of brainwashing. People gather in front of a telescreen for two minutes. People are encouraged to show their love towards the Party by demonstrating disgust for Goldstein, the Enemy of the People. People are taught to hate the enemy, like Goldstein or Asia. This gives an emotional outlet, which often reaches the frenzied heights of hatred. 16 – 18 Hate Week is also “sex gone sour”. Love, feelings, sexual instincts are channelled into war fevour and leader worship. p 139 Often the hate sessions make people very excitable. They reach a “hideous ecstasy of fear” . People end up loving Big Brother totally. BB is transformed into an “invincible, fearless protector”.

People are reduced to robots like Katharine. She shows horror of personal attachment that is not geared towards child-rearing. She appears frigid (138) The Party believes that love should only be shown towards Big Brother and therefore does not support love or sexual relationships. It does not support people development relationships with each other, such as Julia and Winston. They want to control relationships and they want to control family ties. (Chapter VI) However, she and Winston cannot have children and they separate. Separation is allowed by not divorce. He has not seen her for about 9 years. As a “human sound track”, she despises sex and is completely brainwashed by the party. She has a “stupid, vulgar, empty mind” and swallows all the party’s slogans. The Parsons’ children are typical of those who are completely brainwashed. As Hitler’s Youth army, they become spies for the party.

Party is a definite threat because it seeks to “cure” people of any thoughts or emotions that exist outside its control. O’Brien explains to Winston that it does not want to shoot traitors as the Russians did during the purges. It must ensure that heretics genuinely love the party, “heart and soul” (267). The Party wants to ensure that the heretic is “one of ourselves”. It wants to reshape and remodel the individual in the party’s image. This ensures that the dead victim does not become a martyr to an opponent’s cause. Big Brother ensures that all confessions are “true”. To this end, the Party courageously realises that it is using power for power’s sake. The object of power is “power”.

To this end, the party uses several fear tactics. It humiliates and degrades the victim. In addition, it uses the person’s worst nightmare. He is completely converted in Room 101 through his fear of the rats. Significantly, he betrays Julia, which shows his acceptance of his defeat. He is now free to love Big Brother.

Learning, understanding and accepting • In Room 101, O’Brien tortures Winston. He uses methods of fear etc. to suffocate his free thoughts and free emotions. p 296. “The thing that is in Room 101 is the worst thing in the world.” • Winston hates rats more than anything. In Room 101, Winston goes insane. He becomes a “screaming animal”. There is only one thing that will save him. He must put a person between himself and the rats. That person has to be Julia. This form of torture works and Winston betrays Julia. • He screams frantically, “Do it to Julia. I can’t care what you dot to her. Tear her face off, strip her to the bones. Not me! Julia. Not me!” 300 • Winston’s rebellion is over. He becomes emotionally and physically dead. • He is now free to love Big Brother. When he sees Julia after his release he does not feel any emotion. Both tell each other that he betrayed each other.

Orwell’s comment on power for power’s sake

“If you want a picture of the future, imagine a boot stamping on a human face – for ever.” (280) The case of Jones, Aaronson and Rutherford foreshadows Winston’s downfall. Eleven years ago they were party members and a photograph shows them attending a party function. However, Winston must now admit that the photograph does not exist and that they were traitors. O’Brien states that they were humiliated during their “conversion” process; before they were shot, they confessed their love of big brother. They were “shells”; there was nothing left by sorrow and love of Big Brother. (268). The same happens to Winston.

Nineteen Eighty – Four is the gripping and tragic story of a man caught between two worlds

Winston is a man from “the past”, living in the world of Big Brother, which is a dictatorship. Its attitude towards power is that “it is an end”. It is not interested in improving the lives of its citizens; rather it simply wants to use power for its own sake. Accordingly, the party rules by absolute fear and uses a range of tactics to ensure complete control of an individual’s thoughts and feelings. There are posters everywhere that state: “Big Brother is watching you”. Winston knows from the beginning that “you might dodge successfully for a while even for years but sooner or later they were bound to get you.” All the attacks happen swiftly at night. The party also uses telescreens to watch people. The telescreens are monitored by the thought police, who are searching for a sign of unorthodoxy or independent thought. There was ‘no way of knowing whether you were being watched at any given moment.’ This creates a sense of fear in people. Also Winston knows that the thought police can plug into people’s every movement. “It was even conceivable that they watched everybody all the time”

In Big Brother’s world, the party seeks to control people’s thought processes so that they cannot think freely. The party seeks to control both language and the past. In the Ministry of truth Winston rewrites historical records and documents to make sure that the party is always right. The process of “continuous alteration” of the past is applied to any document that has political or ideological significance. The party is also cutting “language to the bone” to control people’s thoughts. People express their thoughts in language. If they do not have the concept then it is difficult to have “erroneous” thoughts.

In such a world, Big Brother also controls people’s emotions and relationships. People’s emotions are controlled through the hate sessions. As Orwell states, hate week is also “sex gone sour.” This means that feelings of love and sexual instincts are channelled into leader worship. People’s anger and rage towards Goldstein transforms into love and adulation for big brother. Often the hate sessions make people very excitable. They reach a “hideous ecstasy of fear”. During the hate sessions, the figure of big brother merges with an enemy soldier, who is larger and threatening. It makes people thankful for big brother who looks after them they have confidence in big brother who protects them from these terrible enemies.

Winston refuses to let go of the past and constantly clings to a world before the Party controlled the individual’s thoughts. He writes in his diary because he wants to remember past events. He uses a pen which is an old instrument. He likes the paperweights in Charrington’s room because they remind him of books. He knows that the past is important because it gives him a standard of comparison. He can reflect upon what was better or worse in his lifetime. He also becomes obsessed with the Proles because they, too, live in the past and in a world where the party does not search for total control.

Winston’s world is a world of personal happiness and wellbeing based on choice and opportunity. It is a world where people are free to choose their relationships based on trust and their own personal sense of wellbeing. They can have sex, not just as a means of producing children for the party but because of love for another person. Of course, this is not allowed in the Party’s world because the sex instinct would have a “life of its own”. Winston and Julia seek to develop their relationship in a place beyond the party’s control. They try to escape the telescreens; they go to the countryside and then try to escape in the past in Charrington’s room.  

The party controls people through constant war. There is no purpose for war it is not a war about ideas. It is also not about resources. The three larger continents have sufficient raw materials. War is about “continuous shortage of consumption goods”. It is about using up the surplus of goods. It is to use up the “products of the machine” without raising the general standard of living. If people are hungry and deprived they are more dependent upon Big Brother. The party fabricates an enemy, such as Goldstein, in order to control people’s emotions. The arty uses Goldstein as the enemy and scapegoat. He is presented as the person who is responsible for the party’s woes. Goldstein is the “primal traitor, the earliest defiler of the party’s purity”. He organises all the attacks on the party. Many spies and traitors action on his behalf were eventually “unmasked by the thought Police. Goldstein is in charge of the brotherhood, the opposition. Nobody knows whether it really existed.

It is not W’s torture or confession which are depressing; it is his conversion. Discuss. Why is conversion important to the party?

Winston’s conversion is depressing because he gives in totally to the Party. Through his conversion O’Brien shows that the Party will always win. O’Brien explains to Winston that conversion is important because the Party does not tolerate any thoughts or emotions that exist outside its control. O’Brien explains to Winston that it does not want to shoot traitors as the Russians did during the purges. It must ensure that heretics genuinely love the party, “heart and soul” (267). The Party wants to ensure that the heretic is “one of ourselves”. It wants to reshape and remodel the individual in the party’s image. They insist that the victim’s confession is “true”, which prevents people turning into martyrs and heroes of an opposing cause.

Why is this depressing?

Winston’s conversion is also depressing because Orwell encourages readers to have hope in Winston. Orwell portrays a character who has a lot of courage and although it seems impossible, we dare to hope that he might defeat Big Brother. Also, Winston is aware of how the party is destroying his individual freedoms. Winston detests the party’s system. He is determined in his attempt to resist and defy the Party. (Comment on the past) He seems determined to cling to his personal memories and to insist on external reality. Winston knows that “who controls the past controls the future”. Winston wants to maintain a record of the past, because he knows that this is the only way that members of the party will be aware of how Big Brother is destroying their freedom. The party wants to keep changing the past and alters historical documents so it can prove that the Party is always right. Winston realises that if people do not remember what the past was like, then there can be no standards of comparison. People are not aware of their oppression. In addition, Winston withstands a great deal of torture. Winston knows exactly how the party is trying to oppress individuals and he seeks to resist. (LINK) He puts up a courageous fight against the Party. The fact that he gives up his fight is very disappointing to readers.

Why is it depressing: Significance of Room 101

Sadly and after so much resistance, Winston gives up the fight in Room 101. The Party uses Room 101 and the “fear of the worst thing in the world” as the ultimate weapon in the conversion process. When Winston gives up the fight, the party proves that Room 101 will always work. There is nothing a person can do to rebel against the Party’s theory and system of power will always triumph. Winston betrays Julia who was a beacon of light and a symbol of his resistance. She gave him hope to love and trust another human being outside of the party’s control. He fears the rats, the “worst thing in the world” and states, “Do it to Julia. I can’t care what you do to her.” Orwell shows through this conversion that the Party’s use of power for power for power’s sake is successful. The Party courageously recognises that the object of power is “power” and this helps to defeat all its enemies.

The end result: Orwell depicts a very cynical picture of power because Winston eventually comes to love and accept the Party. His acceptance is genuine. He becomes a shell of a person. He is “emotionally” dead. He becomes completely submerged in the Party. “He had won the victory over himself. He loved Big Brother.”

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