Qualitative Research Critique Essay

Introduction, background of the studies, the articles’ application, ethical considerations.

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Formation and research of the PICOT question require an understanding of various factors and aspects that affect it. These include the importance and impact of the issue in nursing practice, the variables needed to investigate it, and the importance of management. The PICOT question of this study is: “In registered nurses (P), can the introduction of an advanced workload plan (I), compared to no efforts from the management (C), reduce the issue of understaffing (O), within a six- month period (T)? “For this reason, the qualitative studies selected to study this issue examine the impact of understaffing on the quality of care and the importance of mentoring for its management.

The first article that contributes to the study of the PICOT question is “The relationship between workforce characteristics and perception of quality of care in mental health: A qualitative study.” Baker et al. (2019) note that despite strong demand, changes in the workforce, and government regulations, there is insufficient research on the impact of staffing on the quality of patient care in mental health services. For this reason, the main question and goal of the study are to determine the impact of staffing and skill mix on safety and quality of care in mental health services (Baker et al., 2019). The value of this article is that it examines the problem of understaffing and its negative impact on health care to justify the need for change. In addition, the more significant contribution of the article is that it identifies priorities for future research and work areas, in particular skill mix, which promotes improving the quality of patient care.

The second article that contributes to the study of the PICOT question is “How do nurse managers describe clinical nurses’ work arrangements? A qualitative study.” Gan (2020), in his article, focuses on alternative work arrangements that managers use to operate in understaffing conditions effectively. This concept means a shift in work or temporary work different from standard full-time employment conditions (Gan, 2019). In other words, nurses can take on responsibilities that are not in their role to cover the lack of staff. For this reason, Gan (2020) examines how managers describe nurses in alternative work arrangements and what impact mentoring has on the quality of work in a given setting. This article is of great importance for nursing, as it qualitatively describes the practices common in the working environment and characterizes the role of a leader in the management of understaffing. Consequently, the author’s findings contribute to the manager’s work and practices for effective personnel management.

Both articles are necessary and valuable for studying the PICOT Question. The article by Baker et al. (2019) is needed to justify the research problem as it demonstrates the impact of a nursing staff shortage on the quality of patient care. This aspect is critical for healthcare as it influences patients’ health outcomes and satisfaction and, therefore, facilities’ funding. In turn, the availability of financial resources affects the ability of facilities to hire and educate employees. Hence, this article is necessary to explain the significance and background of the PICOT question.

An article by Gan (2020) is also essential for exploring the PICOT question since it describes one of the practical approaches to manage understaffing. Managers often apply alternative work arrangements to ensure adequate quality of care in the face of a staff shortage; however, they are often used intuitively. Therefore, this approach must be studied to design and use an advanced workload plan adequately. In addition, the article provides an overview of one of the manager’s functions, such as mentoring, which is essential to the success of nurses’ practice. Thus, this article is useful for studying the method of overcoming the problem presented by the PICOT question.

The articles also have similarities with the interventions and comparison groups of the PICOT question, which demonstrates their relevance for research. First, Gan (2020) examines the impact of mentoring interventions on a group of nurses using alternative work arrangements. Consequently, these groups coincide entirely with the PICOT question, since in both cases, a specific managerial intervention in the work of a nurse is compared with the absence of a manager’s actions. The article by Baker et al. (2019) also has an intervention group similar to the PICOT question as they study the impact of nurses shortage and their skills. However, nurses are also a comparative group because the effect of a manager’s actions on skills or operations has not been studied. Consequently, both articles and the PICOT question aim to examine the work of nurses and various factors’ influence on it.

Both studies have the same research, data collection, and analysis methods. Gan (2020) and Baker et al. (2019) used a semi-structured interview with open-ending questions to gather information and obtain a complete overview of the respondents’ experiences. The authors of both articles conducted telephone interviews, transcribed audio recordings, and analyzed them using the open coding method. The only difference is that Gan (2020) used reflection to compose and examine items, while Baker et al. (2019) adapted questions from the Twitter discussion.

One of the drawbacks is that the authors conducted interviews via phone, which made it difficult for them to observe the participants’ responses and ask clarifying questions. However, the advantage of this method is the convenience for the respondents, along with the detail of the answers, which can bring unexpected findings to the researchers. In addition, the disadvantage and advantage of Gan (2020) may be his experience, which, on the one hand, contributed to the interpretation of answers, but at the same time could influence his objectivity.

Both articles had significant findings for research and nursing practice. Baker et al. (2019) concluded that while understaffing decreases the quality of care and the safety of patients and staff, safe staffing requires more than enough employees. Nursing mix skills also have a significant impact on staff interaction and performance. At the same time, Gan (2020) found that managers distinguish nurses according to their alternative work arrangements, although this typology is flexible. In addition, managers perceive temporary and regular nurses differently, expecting high knowledge and adaptation from the first group. For this reason, managers often devote insufficient time to mentoring temporary nurses, which can negatively affect their skills, quality of work, and interaction with permanent staff.

Consequently, both articles contribute to nursing practice as they demonstrate the areas for nurses’ and managers’ development. Baker et al. (2019) emphasize the importance of having enough staff and developing their skill mix to ensure safety and quality care. At the same time, Gan (2020) demonstrates the importance of mentoring and allocating time resources for all nurses, regardless of their responsibilities and working conditions. Consequently, the findings of both authors are useful for nurse managers and personnel management.

The studies have ethical considerations related to the privacy of information. The participants shared their personal experiences in the hospital, and their statements could harm their relationships with managers or co-workers. In addition, participants could also disclose their professional mistakes that could affect their careers. However, this problem in both cases was solved by signing a consent form for participation, ensuring data confidentiality, and replacing real names with pseudonyms. In addition, since the interview was conducted via phone, the researchers could not see the participants’ faces, which also added to the confidentiality of the information.

Gan I. (2019). How do nurse managers describe clinical nurses’ work arrangements? A qualitative study. Nursing Open, 7 (1), 160–169. Web.

Baker, J. A., Canvin, K., & Berzins, K. (2019). The relationship between workforce characteristics and perception of quality of care in mental health: A qualitative study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 100 , 1-21. Web.

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Qualitative Nursing, Research Paper Example

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Guidelines for Analysis of a Qualitative Nursing Research Critique

The study purpose is clear? What are they? The proposal focuses on the acceptance of the adoption of eMAR among critical care nurses. According to Poon et al (2010), bar-code eMAR technology incorporates several technologies into the workflow of the nursing staff to ensure correct medication administration. This will help with the reduction of medication errors and will increase the ability to provide more effective care to patients in the critical care unit.

The study design is consistent with its qualitative approach? List the study design. If not stated, what should it be? According to Burns and Grove (2009), qualitative research is used to detect a target level of behavior and the reasons that drive it. A qualitative study is usually focused on a small group of people to guide the construction of a hypothesis. A qualitative study’s results are considered descriptive rather than predictive. Grounded theory focuses on an area of the study and gathering data from a variety of different methods, such as interviews and observation of critical care nurses attitudes toward the use of eMAR (Polit and Beck, 2004).

The subjects are obtained using a method consistent with the stated qualitative methodology? What are the sample characteristics? The survey was given to 15 nurses in the ICU, which comprised every nurse on every shift. The surveys were kept anonymous. In addition to the surveys, observations were made during each shift so the researcher could get a better understanding of attitudes relating to the nurses’ use of the eMAR.

List the studies strengths and limitations. Strengths of the study would include such things as the setting of the study, which was the critical care unit. This is considered to be a strength because patients need medications throughout various intervals during the day. A limitation of the study would be that the study only focused on one area of the hospital and this, although it was a qualitative study in design, could have been larger as to assess another unit with a different category of patients, such as the pediatric unit.

The setting is appropriate for the study. The setting of this study, the critical care unit, is appropriate because, as stated before, the patients receive a large amount of medication and it is received throughout the day at various intervals.

  Evidence of data saturation is provided. The data would sufficiently be saturated in this study because in addition to the surveys the nurses completed after the course of the two-week period, there were observations every single day during various times throughout the day. If an observation was performed every single day at various times throughout the day every single day for fourteen days, there is going to be an overlap in the the information; thus, data saturation will occur as a result and there will be no more applicable data to be collected regarding this particular study interval.

What data analysis procedures were used? The data analysis procedure, although not necessarily described in great detail in the proposal, was one of content analysis. Merriam (2009) states that content analysis is incorporated into almost every qualitative study because the researcher is investigating certain themes and recurring patterns of meaning or random statements made by participants in the study. So, it is sufficient to say content analysis was involved in this process because it is involved routinely in almost every qualitative process to some extent due to interviews, observations, and other methods of data collection.

What are the Inclusion/Exclusion criteria? The study included all nurses working in the critical care unit of the hospital on both the day and night shifts during the course of the study’s two-week period. Any person not working as a nurse in that unit during that time period was excluded from the study.

What are the study themes/findings? From the entire group, 12 of the 15 nurses believed the eMAR would provide better safety to patients as far as the distribution of medications was concerned after the initial learning process. Three nurses believed the system was extremely difficult to master and two nurses believed the system was quite time consuming. Six nurses believed the ‘red flag’ function was the most important feature to the eMAR because it helped them in double-checking to avoid drug interactions.

  What are the study conclusions? Based on the initial findings from the critical care unit, it was suggested by the administration that the eMAR be incorporated into one unit of the hospital at a time, beginning with the critical care unit and proceeding with every unit and then each general ambulatory floor until finally the emergency room was converted and the process would then be complete.

Burns, N., & Grove, S. K. (2009). The practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier.

Merriam, S. (2009). Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2004). Nursing research: Principles and methods (7th ed.). Philadephia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Poon, E., Keohane, C., Yoon, C., Ditmore, M., Bane, A., Levtzion-Korach, O., Moniz, T., Rothschild, J.M., Kachalia, A. B., Hayes, J., Churchill, W. W., Lipsitz, S., Whittemore, A. D., Bates, D. W., &Gandhi, T. K. (2010). Effect of bar-code technology on the safety of medication administration. The New England Journal of Medicine , 362 (18), 1698-1707. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

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  • Calvin Moorley 1 ,
  • Xabi Cathala 2
  • 1 Nursing Research and Diversity in Care, School of Health and Social Care , London South Bank University , London , UK
  • 2 Institute of Vocational Learning , School of Health and Social Care, London South Bank University , London , UK
  • Correspondence to Dr Calvin Moorley, Nursing Research and Diversity in Care, School of Health and Social Care, London South Bank University, London SE1 0AA, UK; Moorleyc{at}lsbu.ac.uk


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In order to make a decision about implementing evidence into practice, nurses need to be able to critically appraise research. Nurses also have a professional responsibility to maintain up-to-date practice. 1 This paper provides a guide on how to critically appraise a qualitative research paper.

What is qualitative research?

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Useful terms

Some of the qualitative approaches used in nursing research include grounded theory, phenomenology, ethnography, case study (can lend itself to mixed methods) and narrative analysis. The data collection methods used in qualitative research include in depth interviews, focus groups, observations and stories in the form of diaries or other documents. 3


Title, keywords, authors and abstract.

In a previous paper, we discussed how the title, keywords, authors’ positions and affiliations and abstract can influence the authenticity and readability of quantitative research papers, 4 the same applies to qualitative research. However, other areas such as the purpose of the study and the research question, theoretical and conceptual frameworks, sampling and methodology also need consideration when appraising a qualitative paper.

Purpose and question

The topic under investigation in the study should be guided by a clear research question or a statement of the problem or purpose. An example of a statement can be seen in table 2 . Unlike most quantitative studies, qualitative research does not seek to test a hypothesis. The research statement should be specific to the problem and should be reflected in the design. This will inform the reader of what will be studied and justify the purpose of the study. 5

Example of research question and problem statement

An appropriate literature review should have been conducted and summarised in the paper. It should be linked to the subject, using peer-reviewed primary research which is up to date. We suggest papers with a age limit of 5–8 years excluding original work. The literature review should give the reader a balanced view on what has been written on the subject. It is worth noting that for some qualitative approaches some literature reviews are conducted after the data collection to minimise bias, for example, in grounded theory studies. In phenomenological studies, the review sometimes occurs after the data analysis. If this is the case, the author(s) should make this clear.

Theoretical and conceptual frameworks

Most authors use the terms theoretical and conceptual frameworks interchangeably. Usually, a theoretical framework is used when research is underpinned by one theory that aims to help predict, explain and understand the topic investigated. A theoretical framework is the blueprint that can hold or scaffold a study’s theory. Conceptual frameworks are based on concepts from various theories and findings which help to guide the research. 6 It is the researcher’s understanding of how different variables are connected in the study, for example, the literature review and research question. Theoretical and conceptual frameworks connect the researcher to existing knowledge and these are used in a study to help to explain and understand what is being investigated. A framework is the design or map for a study. When you are appraising a qualitative paper, you should be able to see how the framework helped with (1) providing a rationale and (2) the development of research questions or statements. 7 You should be able to identify how the framework, research question, purpose and literature review all complement each other.

There remains an ongoing debate in relation to what an appropriate sample size should be for a qualitative study. We hold the view that qualitative research does not seek to power and a sample size can be as small as one (eg, a single case study) or any number above one (a grounded theory study) providing that it is appropriate and answers the research problem. Shorten and Moorley 8 explain that three main types of sampling exist in qualitative research: (1) convenience (2) judgement or (3) theoretical. In the paper , the sample size should be stated and a rationale for how it was decided should be clear.


Qualitative research encompasses a variety of methods and designs. Based on the chosen method or design, the findings may be reported in a variety of different formats. Table 3 provides the main qualitative approaches used in nursing with a short description.

Different qualitative approaches

The authors should make it clear why they are using a qualitative methodology and the chosen theoretical approach or framework. The paper should provide details of participant inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as recruitment sites where the sample was drawn from, for example, urban, rural, hospital inpatient or community. Methods of data collection should be identified and be appropriate for the research statement/question.

Data collection

Overall there should be a clear trail of data collection. The paper should explain when and how the study was advertised, participants were recruited and consented. it should also state when and where the data collection took place. Data collection methods include interviews, this can be structured or unstructured and in depth one to one or group. 9 Group interviews are often referred to as focus group interviews these are often voice recorded and transcribed verbatim. It should be clear if these were conducted face to face, telephone or any other type of media used. Table 3 includes some data collection methods. Other collection methods not included in table 3 examples are observation, diaries, video recording, photographs, documents or objects (artefacts). The schedule of questions for interview or the protocol for non-interview data collection should be provided, available or discussed in the paper. Some authors may use the term ‘recruitment ended once data saturation was reached’. This simply mean that the researchers were not gaining any new information at subsequent interviews, so they stopped data collection.

The data collection section should include details of the ethical approval gained to carry out the study. For example, the strategies used to gain participants’ consent to take part in the study. The authors should make clear if any ethical issues arose and how these were resolved or managed.

The approach to data analysis (see ref  10 ) needs to be clearly articulated, for example, was there more than one person responsible for analysing the data? How were any discrepancies in findings resolved? An audit trail of how the data were analysed including its management should be documented. If member checking was used this should also be reported. This level of transparency contributes to the trustworthiness and credibility of qualitative research. Some researchers provide a diagram of how they approached data analysis to demonstrate the rigour applied ( figure 1 ).

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Example of data analysis diagram.

Validity and rigour

The study’s validity is reliant on the statement of the question/problem, theoretical/conceptual framework, design, method, sample and data analysis. When critiquing qualitative research, these elements will help you to determine the study’s reliability. Noble and Smith 11 explain that validity is the integrity of data methods applied and that findings should accurately reflect the data. Rigour should acknowledge the researcher’s role and involvement as well as any biases. Essentially it should focus on truth value, consistency and neutrality and applicability. 11 The authors should discuss if they used triangulation (see table 2 ) to develop the best possible understanding of the phenomena.

Themes and interpretations and implications for practice

In qualitative research no hypothesis is tested, therefore, there is no specific result. Instead, qualitative findings are often reported in themes based on the data analysed. The findings should be clearly linked to, and reflect, the data. This contributes to the soundness of the research. 11 The researchers should make it clear how they arrived at the interpretations of the findings. The theoretical or conceptual framework used should be discussed aiding the rigour of the study. The implications of the findings need to be made clear and where appropriate their applicability or transferability should be identified. 12

Discussions, recommendations and conclusions

The discussion should relate to the research findings as the authors seek to make connections with the literature reviewed earlier in the paper to contextualise their work. A strong discussion will connect the research aims and objectives to the findings and will be supported with literature if possible. A paper that seeks to influence nursing practice will have a recommendations section for clinical practice and research. A good conclusion will focus on the findings and discussion of the phenomena investigated.

Qualitative research has much to offer nursing and healthcare, in terms of understanding patients’ experience of illness, treatment and recovery, it can also help to understand better areas of healthcare practice. However, it must be done with rigour and this paper provides some guidance for appraising such research. To help you critique a qualitative research paper some guidance is provided in table 4 .

Some guidance for critiquing qualitative research

  • ↵ Nursing and Midwifery Council . The code: Standard of conduct, performance and ethics for nurses and midwives . 2015 https://www.nmc.org.uk/globalassets/sitedocuments/nmc-publications/nmc-code.pdf ( accessed 21 Aug 18 ).
  • Barrett D ,
  • Cathala X ,
  • Shorten A ,

Patient consent for publication Not required.

Competing interests None declared.

Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

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Critique of Qualitative and Quantitative Studies in Nursing

Nursing is a science besieged by increasing challenges and complexity. As a career that deals with human beings, it requires utmost care and consideration of details, as lives may be at stake. Nurses need to be critical in their decision-making skills.

This essay critically reviews two studies -one qualitative and one quantitative study. A critical review analyzes each part of the study objectively, highlighting both its strengths and weaknesses, to see if the study has integrity. Such exercise in critical thinking significantly benefits not only the readers but the one doing the critique himself because it pays attention to the details which may have been carefully or carelessly dealt with by the researchers of the study. It sharpens analytical and decision-making skills. Not because it has been published and is a peer-reviewed article does it already mean it is worth following in practical life.

The qualitative study to be reviewed is “Informal carers’ experience of caring for stroke survivors” which discusses the change in lifestyle of carers of stroke survivors, and the quantitative study to be reviewed is “Effects of acupressure on dysmenorrhea and skin temperature changes in college students: A non-randomized controlled trial”, which tests out the effectivity of alternative therapy for relieving painful effects of menstruation in women. These two studies will be analyzed part by part from their title to their conclusion. It will be scanned for the integrity of its data and how faithful it stays with appropriate research methodology to gain its seal of approval.

The essay will have the headings of each part of the study to be critically reviewed namely its title, authors and the journal it was published by, its abstract, its introductionliterature reviewbackground, the research design/methodology/methods used, the study’s rigor and validity and reliability, the ethical issues involved, its findings, its discussions, conclusions, implications, limitations and recommendations, and finally an overall conclusion based on findings from the critical review and a discussion of implications in evidence-based practice.

Qualitative Study: By Lorraine N. Smith, Maggie Lawrence, Susan M. Kerr, Peter Langhorne, Kennedy R. Lees 2004 Journal of Advanced Nursing 46 (3) 235-244

It is usual in nursing studies to have patients or the intervention as the object of investigation. However, one strong factor in facilitating the healing of illness is the carer of the patient before being admitted and after being discharged from the hospital. In this particular study, the experiences of carers of stroke survivors are showcased, and how their informal nursing tasks affect their own lives.

Title, Authors, and the Journal

The title of the article gives the readers outright what it is all about. It used simple, understandable words that help prepare the readers for what is to be discussed. However, the use of the word “informal” may be open to interpretation. Throughout the paper, it was referred to as someone who does not have nursing training, and all of a sudden was thrust to a nursing role for the patient. A more apt word may be ‘layman’ or ‘civilian’, or some other generic word to depict the true nature of the carer.

The authors’ names and major credentials were effective in gaining respect from the readers because of their impressive line-up. To have a team of master and doctoral researchers specializing in the nursing field is enough to lend credence to the article.

Coming from a well-respected journal, this peer-reviewed article impresses readers as having high scholastic merits, hence, it needs to come up too high expectations of being thoroughly researched with rigor.

The abstract has headings for background, aims, study design, findings, and conclusion which offer the actual summary of the long article. This is not usually the case with abstracts, as most give a very short summary, with all of the above components narrated without its headings, so readers may get lost as to which of those said meant the background or the findings, etc.?

The abstract was worded in such a way that it provides enough information to give readers an overview, but likewise kept a lot of details that the readers need to unearth as they read the full article.

Introduction/literature review/background

The background introduction gave a general picture of stroke and its effect not only on the patient but also the carer. It sets the tone and solid foundation for the whole article. The sub-topics are detailed although succinct. It provided all the information necessary as if anticipating any possible question that may be raised by the reader. No stone was left unturned, and while laying all the cards on the table, it did not overload the reader with useless information. The inserts (e.g. the carer interview prompt questions) were appropriately placed just enough for the reader to have a clear picture of the study while it was being narrated.

Unlike most researches, this qualitative study did not have many reviews of literature, as it was admitted from the beginning that not much is available pointing out to the carer’s perspective. Most of the research came from the data gathered itself and presented in such a way that depicted how the true situation of the interviews went, as well as the realities shared by the carer-patient pairs.

Research design/methodology/methods

The qualitative research design has been successfully detailed from the criteria set for the needed participants of the study, the data collection methods, the data analysis, and the thorough presentation of findings. The study was very well-organized.

Bowen(2005), did an in-depth investigation in a small number of communities. Like in the current article, he used purposive sampling in the selection of his participants instead of random sampling used in most experimental studies. His selected participants underwent in-depth, open-ended interviews. Padgett (1998) advocates that since the emphasis in qualitative studies is on quality rather than quantity, the objective of sampling was not to maximize numbers but to become “saturated” with information on the topic.

The taped interviews of carers set one year after the stroke of the patient was an attempt to achieve objectivity. It was assumed that being distanced from the stressful event of the stroke by one year, the patient has achieved some sort of progress from the time of the stroke while the carer has gained more nursing skills and that both have settled into a more stable arrangement. The factor of high stress in both the patient and the carer during the time the stroke happened unto the first few months under close supervisory care may have been settled into a more accepted and comfortable level.

Putting together the data gathered and sorting them into categories was a tedious task. However, the researchers were able to find a way to make sense of all the responses gathered from the participants, in coming up with summaries of themes. Bowen’s (2005) analysis of interview transcripts identified patterns in the data using thematic codes. Patton (1980) explains “Inductive analysis means that the patterns, themes, and categories of analysis come from the data; they emerge out of the data rather than being imposed on them before data collection and analysis” (p. 306). Bowen’s analysis of data entailed studying the patterns that emerge, making logical associations with the interview questions, and reference to the review of the literature.

Study Rigour

Study rigor was ensured by having the interviews transcribed verbatim and checked for accuracy then entered into a QSR NUD*IST (Non-numerical Unstructured Data Indexing Searching and Theorizing). Data were coded compared and categorized for analysis. The article did not mention who would do this.

In this study, the patient-carer pairs may have their case study, because each pair may tell a different case story. Critics argue that with the nature of case studies, the small numbers are unable to establish reliability and generalizability of findings. This is compromised by the researcher’s intense exposure to the cases at hand (LIS 39 ID.1, 1997). This study used the same interviewer to conduct all interviews using a prompt schedule which has been developed and tested in a previous study.

This prompt schedule was also used to standardize all the interviews. However, the same interviewer for all the interviews stands to suffer from fatigue and response overload. It may be suggested that effective training of interviewers be done as well as people who will serve as judges who may also be trained to determine themes in the interview answers, so these themes may be compared and analyzed objectively. This will add to the rigor of the research as well as maintain objectivity.

Ethical issues

The study was ethically sound, obtaining the necessary approval from the Local Research Ethics Committee. All the participants were briefed well with information sheets and provided written informed consent. For their convenience, the interviews were held in the participants’ homes and audiotaped with their permission. They were ensured anonymity and confidentiality. Since the interviews were conducted in the presence of the patients, carers could corroborate with them on certain issues for validation. However, interviews may have yielded more personal data if there were separate individual interviews aside from the paired ones, to truly get to the core of issues harbored by the carers. They may be holding back some issues to avoid causing conflict with the patients.

The study’s findings were presented according to the themes derived from the data, in chronological order from the time of the stroke to the present, one year later. Winter (2000) argues that with qualitative research, there may be no hypothesis or standardized or accepted tests involved. In this case, it is to investigate carers’ experiences with their stroke patients. Butt (1992) defines qualitative validity simply as the congruence of research claims to reality.

“In the case of the human sciences, it is the congruence of our text of understanding with the lived reality of persons (Eisner & Peshkin, 1990 pp. 97-98). It is quite helpful to have included actual words of the participants quoted in the text. The validity of the findings depended on how well perceptions are represented – the feelings, thinking, the experience of persons, the breadth, depth, and interrelations of issues, concerns, and themes (Butt, 1992). All these seem to be in place in the presentation of findings for this particular study.

Discussions, conclusions, implications, limitations, and recommendations

The discussion of the article pertained to salient issues raised from the in-depth interviews and focused on the voice of carers. The tone in the first part of the discussion showed sympathy towards them. However, as it went on, it widened the readers’ horizons by opening doors to future possibilities. Implications to nursing practice as well as practical conclusions to enable carers in the future to smoothly flow. This is where the article took the findings into reality.

Conclusion based on findings from a critical review and discuss implications in evidence-based practice

This article may be voted as an ideal qualitative study in terms of its compliance to high-quality standards for good research. Straus and Corbin (1990) claim that qualitative methods can be used to better understand any phenomenon about which little is yet known. These methods can also be used to see things in a new light even if much is already known about them or to gain more in-depth information which may be challenging to communicate quantitatively.

Glesne (1999) states that qualitative researchers seek out a variety of perspectives; they do not reduce the multiple interpretations to a norm. She adds that in qualitative research, face-to-face interactions are the predominant distinctive feature and also the basis for its most common problem. Such problems she states include researchers’ involvement with the people they study and the accompanying challenges and opportunities that such closeness brings. Considering the possibly stressful issues raised in the interviews, and the high emotional content of such issues, it is but appropriate that good training be provided to the interviewers to unearth useful information. As an apt recommendation for both the carers and the patients, effective and nurturing care training before the patients are discharged is in order.

Quantitative Study: Effects of acupressure on dysmenorrhea and skin temperature changes in college students: A non-randomized controlled trial By: Eun-Mi Jun,_Soonbok Chang, Duck-Hee Kang, Sue Kim 2007 International Journal of Nursing Studies 44 973–981

Title, authors, and the journal.

The title captures the readers right away because it makes use of catchwords that truly depict the study. It is assumed that the interested readership will be mostly women because it is about a topic they can relate to.

The authors’ names are Korean, and their qualifications are briefly stated, giving credibility to the paper.

The journal, being of high repute lends its good reputation to endorse this article as a peer-reviewed, scholarly work.

The abstract provided all the necessary information about the study in outline form. Details of the study components were presented so readers need not ask any more questions, but rather, jump in and read the body of the research study.

Introduction, literature review, background

This part is abundant with information gleaned from research. It reported statistics and mentioned previously done studies on the topic. Concisely written, it did not spare details about the topic.

The study took on a classic experimental design in which subjects were not aware of which treatment group they belonged to (the SP-6 treatment group or the control group provided with only a light touch). The study is meticulous in providing details on steps taken in the research design. Recruitment of subjects was a challenge to the researchers since they could not estimate the menstrual cycles of each woman at the university, so they had to be patient and lengthened the data-gathering stage. They also came up with a system to make it easier to group the subjects where the ones who volunteered on certain dates went to the treatment group and the rest of the volunteers belonged to the control group.

To avoid inter-rater error, there was only one researcher who conducted all the treatments. This researcher has thoroughly trained in the SP-6 acupressure method. Since each SP6 session lasted 20 minutes, there is a risk of researcher fatigue which may compound results.

Upon arriving at the lab, the subjects filled up a survey questionnaire. This instrument was adapted from another questionnaire and translated by one of the authors into Korean. Although that may be another risk in terms of subject understanding, the translation had high internal consistency.

Remarkably, all the variables needed in the study were made quantitatively measurable. The questionnaire was 5-pt. scale and even the severity of dysmenorrhea were provided a way to be quantified.

The tables which presented the quantitative results may look overwhelming to someone who is not adept at statistics, however, it is easy to see trends there that can be analyzed.

Validity and reliability

The independent variables in this study were the SP-6 and the Light touch placebo treatment and the dependent variables were the severity of dysmenorrhea and skin temperature changes affected by the treatment. Heiman (2002) claimed that a variable should be a measurable aspect of behavior that may change, and it is this that produces the scores and data of a study. In this study, the many steps undertaken by the subjects may have produced some confounding variables. However, the researchers took all effort to ensure that the validity and reliability of the study is maintained.

The complication of the topic may affect the sensibilities of the subject. They had to agree to some highly personal conditions such as refraining from the use of intrauterine devices and oral contraceptives for the duration of the study as well as the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or other analgesics with prostaglandin synthetase-inhibiting activity the week before the expected onset of each menstrual period. The researchers did not in any way force them to participate, as seen in the turnout of the final number of participants. Of the 312 probable subjects invited to participate, a mere 58 complied with the inclusion criteria and agreed to participate. For these women, they would not have stuck to the study had they not been treated with the utmost respect.

Results of the study were carefully presented in tables and explained per variable. Its objectivity and integrity of findings were laid out, detailing the statistical procedures used. It showed evidence that SP6 works to relieve some pain from dysmenorrhea at least after two hours of treatment.

This part was very reflective of the whole study process. It analyzed all points – its strengths and limitations and reported them as is. It was like wrapping up with the reader a journey they both took, and was evaluating the whole trip. The recommendations for further studies on the issue would be worth taking if evidence for the effectiveness of SP6 as an alternative pain alleviation treatment is to be promoted.

The conclusion, although short, completely embodied the integrity of the study. It needed no more numbers to interpret the simple conclusion of a complicated study. It only emphasized the significance of the study and the effectiveness of the treatment proposed.

Conclusion based on findings from a critical review and implications in evidence-based practice

This is another study that was tightly designed for validity and reliability. The details of each step make it possible for other researchers to replicate with their homework halfway done. The thoroughness of the researchers was exhibited in covering a vast ground of work and just leaving a few loopholes to be filled by future research.

In terms of content, it provides convincing evidence of the effectiveness of a welcome alternative therapy for pain, much needed by a growing population of women suffering from their monthly monsters.

Bowen, G.A. (2005) “Preparing a Qualitative Research-Based Dissertation: Lessons Learned”, The Qualitative Report Volume 10 Number. Web.

Butt, R. (1992) On Being Personal About the Collective. A paper presented at A.E.R.A., San Francisco.

Eisner, E.W. & Peshkin (Eds.) (1990) Qualitative Inquiry in Education. New York, N.Y.: Teachers College Press.

Glesne, C. (1999) Becoming Qualitative Researcher: An Introduction 2 nd Ed. Longman, An imprint of Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.

Heiman, G.W. (2002), Research Methods in Psychology, Third Edition, Houghton Mifflin Co.

Jun, E., Chang, S., Kang, D. & Kim, S. (2007) Effects of acupressure on dysmenorrhea and skin temperature changes in college students: A non-randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies 44 973–981.

Padgett, D. K. (Ed.). (2004). The qualitative research experience . Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.

Patton, M. Q. (1980). Qualitative evaluation methods. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Smith, L.N., Lawrence, M., Kerr, S.M., Langhorne, P., Lees, K. R. (2004) Informal carers’ experience of caring for stroke survivors. Journal of Advanced Nursing 46 (3) 235-244.

Strauss, A. & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. London: Sage.

Winter, G. (2000) “A Comparative Discussion of the Notion of ‘Validity’ in Qualitative and Quantitative Research”, The Qualitative Report, Volume 4, Numbers 3 & 4. Web.

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  1. √ 20 Qualitative Report Example ™

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    example essay critiquing qualitative nursing research

  3. Qualitative Research Paper Critique Example

    example essay critiquing qualitative nursing research

  4. Sample Research Critique Psychology : Critique Paper Example Poem

    example essay critiquing qualitative nursing research

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    example essay critiquing qualitative nursing research

  6. (PDF) Critiquing Nursing Research

    example essay critiquing qualitative nursing research



  2. RESEARCH METHODS: Abstract Critiquing

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