Experimentation on Animals Essay

Introduction, presenting the case, author’s rebuttal, works cited.

The debate about experimentation on animals, though well documented in literature, is still endeavoring to free itself from past controversies and current challenges.

This particular debate have attracted many advocates and critics, each advancing valid reasons as to whether it is morally, scientifically and logically right to subject animals to experimentation (Horner & Minifie 304). Experimentation on animals has indeed been very beneficial in medical fields.

However, it has been observed that animals suffer a great deal in the course of these experiments. It is against this background that this essay aims to expand on the debate about experimentation on animals with an aim to come up with a well-reasoned framework that could be used to offer direction on the appropriateness or inappropriateness of these experiments in modern times.

One of the reasons used by those who advocate for the use of animals in experiments is that these experiments progress important scientific knowledge that will in the long-term benefit humans as well as animals (Horner & Minifie 316). Indeed, supporters have for a very long time recognized the intrinsic value of conducting medical research with animals, especially in finding solutions to medical conditions that continue to affect mankind.

From a moral standpoint, advocates of using animals for biomedical research suggests that it is indeed morally wrong to permit people and animals to succumb to various forms of injuries and ailments when remedies and cures can be easily discovered through animal research (ILAR 1; Horner & Minifie 317).

However, critics of experimenting with animals argue that animals are subjected to a lot of pain and suffering in the course of coming up with scientific breakthroughs which in the long run may prove futile.

In this perspective, the critics argue that it is morally and spiritually wrong to cause pain and suffering for the benefit of mankind (Festing 569). In addition, the critics argue that universally acceptable benchmarks to adequately measure and control pain while subjecting animals to scientific experiments are non-existent.

Another reason espoused by supporters of experimenting with animals is that humans are susceptible to many of the same disease-causing organisms that affect animals. Current literature indeed demonstrates that “…humans have 65 infectious diseases in common with dogs, 50 with cattle, 46 with sheep and goats, 42 with pigs, 35 with horses, and 26 with fowl” (ILAR 4).

In addition, some communicable diseases such as rabies and malaria can be transmitted between animals and humans, not mentioning that other diseases such as hemophilia, diabetes, and epilepsy are common in both humans and animals. Animals are also vulnerable to a multiplicity of the same bacterial or viral infections as humans, such as anthrax and smallpox (ILAR 6).

Indeed, current literature reveals that some of the “…medical advances that have been dependent on the use of animals in their development include safe anesthetics, blood transfusions, penicillin and other antibiotics, vaccines against polio, measles and meningitis, and drugs to treat asthma, hypertension and leukemia” (Festing 570).

As such, advocates argue that it is imperative to use animals in biomedical experiments to have a better understanding of how these diseases evolve as well as their prevention and treatment modalities.

To expand on the above point, advocates of experimenting with animals propose that an animal is selected as an ‘animal model’ for biomedical studies only if it inherently shares similar characteristics with humans that are of relevance to the study (ILAR 6).

This, according to the advocates, should remove any pragmatic or moral concerns related to subjecting animals to the experiments for futile outcomes. Louis Pasteur, for instance, made use of dogs as an animal model for the purposes of studying rabies – a disease that is common in both humans and dogs.

His scientific experiment facilitated the development of a rabies vaccine primarily because dogs and humans can both develop rabies, not mentioning the fact that the immune systems of dogs and humans display similar reactions when exposed to the rabies vaccine (ILAR 6).

Critics, however, have argued that it serves no purpose to use animals as research subjects merely because they share the same diseases with humans (Horner & Minifie 318). On the contrary, scientists should use available knowledge on such diseases to search for treatment procedures using other non-animal or computer-generated models instead of struggling for a cure by subjecting another living creature to untold pain and suffering.

In addition, critics argue that the western, reductionist, scientific world is not necessary interested in discovering new forms of treatment through subjecting animals to biomedical research for the sake of mankind; rather, many scientists and organizations engage in animal experimentation in the pursuit of profit (Van Roten 539). This, according to the critics, is morally, legally and scientifically wrong.

The last reason advanced by proponents as to why experimentation on animals should continue is that animals pose minimal risks as compared to humans when it comes to testing the efficacy or efficiency of the scientific discoveries (Van Roten 538). This assertion goes hand in hand with the religious perspective of creation, which offers man dominion over all animal and plant species.

The argument also draws its strength from the moral paradigm that insinuates that it is not in the best interests of man to cause harm to fellow humans for the purpose of developing a treatment strategy aimed primarily at avoiding harm or destruction to penetrate through the realms of mankind.

In layman’s term, this assertion means that it serves no purpose to harm humans for the sake of coming up with a strategy aimed at preventing such harm. In consequence, animals come into the equation as the worthy alternatives not necessarily for man’s progression, but also for their own (Horner & Minifie 319). However, critics are quick to reject the notion of dominion of people over nature and animals, further stressing that animals have their own intrinsic value and rights that should be respected by all humans (Von Roten 539).

It is wrong to abandon experimenting on animals merely because critics and other animal activists argue that experimenting with animals in scientific research subjects them to a lot of pain and suffering. This is because the benefits accruing from such research not only benefit humans but also the animals that become inflicted by the same diseases that affect humans.

As much as it is known that some animals do suffer in research, the issue really should revolve around refining experimental processes aimed at curtailing animal pain and suffering through the use of proper restraint techniques, effective anesthetics, and acceptable dosing and euthanasia methodologies, among others (Horner & Minifie 319). It is important to note that animal experimentation progresses significant scientific knowledge aimed at benefiting both humans and animals.

The assertion by critics that it serves no purpose to use animals as research subjects merely because they share the same diseases with humans simply does not hold water. A world without vaccines, anesthetics and antibiotics is unimaginable, and these scientific breakthroughs came as a direct result of the interaction between scientists and animal research subjects (ILAR 6).

In addition, it should be realized that just as an individual undergo suffering when they become inflicted with diseases such as malaria or rabies, animals also do undergo a lot of suffering when they get inflicted by the same or common diseases. The best way forward, therefore, is to use the animals to come up with better treatment procedures for both animals and humans while maintaining the highest animal welfare standards to curtail suffering.

Lastly, it clearly serves no purpose for critics to equate animal rights with human rights in addition to rejecting the assertion on man’s domination over the animals (Von Roten 539). It is indeed true that animals have their own intrinsic values and rights which should of course be respected.

One of such right is that animals should not be subjected to unnecessary or avoidable pain and suffering, particularly for profit gain. But just as it is a violation of animal rights to cause pain and suffering to animals for profit gain on the part of humans, it is also morally unacceptable to let people suffer the consequences of diseases by not making use of animals in experiments aimed at developing superior treatment regimens to cure the ailments.

Claims and counterclaims have been floated in this paper in regards to the broad topic of experimentation on animals. From the discussion, it is evidently clear that the merits for undertaking animal experimentation for scientific gain, especially in-terms of developing treatments and cures for diseases that continue to affect both humans and animals, far outweighs the merits provided by critics against the practice.

The fact that animals should be treated with care, respect and dignity is unquestionable, and so is the fact that they should be used for bio-medical reasons so as to counteract the various forms of medical conditions affecting both humans and animals.

This conclusion synchronizes well with many public opinion polls that have dependably revealed that a majority of people around the world endorse the use of animals for scientific as well as medical gains (ILAR 1). However, it should be noted that such use should not cause unnecessary or avoidable pain and suffering to animals.

Festing, S. The Animal Research Debate. Political Quarterly 76.4 (2005): 568-572. Web.

Horner, J., & Minifie, F.D. Research Ethics 1: Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) – Historical and Contemporary Issues Pertaining to Human and Animal Experimentation. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research 54.1 (2011): 303-329. Web.

Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. Science, Medicine, and Animals. 2004. Web.

Von Roten, F.C. Mapping Perceptions of Animal Experimentation: Trend and Explanatory Factors. Social Science Quarterly 89.2 (2008): 537-549. Web.

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Home — Essay Samples — Social Issues — Animal Testing

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Argumentative Essays on Animal Testing

Hook examples for animal testing essays, the ethical dilemma hook.

Begin your essay by presenting the ethical dilemma surrounding animal testing. Explore the moral questions it raises and the conflicting viewpoints of proponents and opponents.

The Historical Perspective Hook

Take your readers on a journey through the history of animal testing. Discuss its origins, evolution, and its role in scientific and medical advancements over time.

The Scientific Advancements Hook

Highlight the scientific breakthroughs and discoveries that have resulted from animal testing. Discuss how it has contributed to medical treatments, vaccines, and the understanding of diseases.

The Alternatives and Innovations Hook

Explore alternative methods and innovations in research that aim to replace or reduce the use of animals in testing. Discuss advancements like in vitro testing and computer modeling.

The Animal Welfare Hook

Focus on the welfare and ethical treatment of animals used in testing. Discuss regulations, guidelines, and efforts to minimize harm and suffering in research.

The Legal and Regulatory Landscape Hook

Examine the legal and regulatory framework surrounding animal testing in different countries. Discuss laws, restrictions, and their enforcement.

The Public Opinion and Activism Hook

Discuss public perceptions of animal testing and the role of animal rights activists in advocating for change. Highlight notable campaigns and their impact.

The Unintended Consequences Hook

Explore unintended consequences or risks associated with animal testing, such as potential harm to humans due to species differences or the limitations of animal models.

The Future of Research Hook

Discuss the future of scientific research and the possibilities for reducing or eliminating animal testing. Explore emerging technologies and trends in biomedical research.

The Personal Story Hook

Share a personal or anecdotal story related to animal testing, such as the experiences of a researcher, activist, or someone affected by medical advancements achieved through animal testing.

Animal Testing: a Necessary Evil?

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The Ethics of Animal Testing: Scientific Progress and Animal Welfare

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Discussion Whether Animals Testing is Necessary

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The Ethics of Animal Testing: an Argument Against Its Practice

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Animal testing, referred to as animal experimentation, animal research, or in vivo testing, involves the utilization of animals other than humans in scientific experiments aimed at manipulating the factors influencing the behavior or biological processes being investigated.

Throughout history, the practice of animal testing has deep roots dating back centuries. The earliest recorded instances can be traced back to ancient civilizations, where animals were used for various scientific and medical purposes. The Greek physician Galen, during the second century AD, conducted experiments on animals to understand human anatomy and physiology. However, the formal establishment of animal testing as a systematic approach began to take shape during the 19th century with the emergence of modern medical research. In the late 1800s, advances in scientific knowledge and technology led to an increased demand for animal testing in various fields, including medicine, toxicology, and physiology. The development of anesthesia further facilitated the experimentation on animals by reducing pain and discomfort. Throughout the 20th century, animal testing became more widespread and institutionalized, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry.

Public opinion on animal testing is a complex and diverse topic, with viewpoints spanning a wide spectrum. While there are those who support the use of animals in scientific research for the advancement of human knowledge and medical breakthroughs, others express strong opposition due to ethical concerns and the perceived mistreatment of animals. Some people argue that animal testing is necessary for the development of life-saving treatments and the improvement of human health. They believe that animals provide valuable insights into human biology and the effectiveness of potential therapies. On the other hand, opponents of animal testing argue that it is cruel and unnecessary, advocating for alternative methods such as in vitro testing, computer modeling, and human cell-based assays. Public opinion on animal testing often hinges on the balance between scientific progress and animal welfare. The growing awareness of animal rights and ethical considerations has fueled debates and discussions surrounding the topic. As society becomes more conscious of animal welfare, there is an increasing demand for alternative testing methods and greater transparency in the treatment of animals involved in research. Ultimately, public opinion plays a crucial role in shaping policies and regulations surrounding animal testing.

1. Scientific advancement. 2. Human health and safety. 3. Understanding diseases. 4. Regulatory requirements. 5. Animal welfare improvements.

1. Ethical concerns. 2. Inadequate human relevance. 3. Availability of alternatives. 4. Animal welfare. 5. Speciesism and moral status.

One example of media representation is the documentary "Earthlings" directed by Shaun Monson. This influential film explores different aspects of animal exploitation, including animal testing, and highlights the ethical concerns surrounding the practice. It has garnered widespread attention and prompted discussions about the treatment of animals in scientific research. Social media platforms have also become powerful tools for activists and organizations to share information and advocate for alternatives to animal testing. Hashtags like #StopAnimalTesting and #CrueltyFree have gained traction, raising awareness and encouraging conversations on the topic.

The topic of animal testing is important due to its ethical, scientific, and societal implications. From an ethical standpoint, it raises profound questions about the treatment of sentient beings and the moral responsibility we have towards animals. It prompts us to consider the balance between scientific progress and animal welfare, urging us to explore alternative methods that minimize harm. Scientifically, animal testing has been instrumental in advancing medical knowledge and developing treatments for various diseases. However, it is essential to continually evaluate its effectiveness, limitations, and potential alternatives to ensure both human and animal well-being. Furthermore, the issue of animal testing has societal implications as it reflects our values and priorities as a society. It prompts discussions about our relationship with animals, the extent of their rights, and the importance of promoting more humane practices.

The topic of animal testing is worth writing an essay about due to its complex nature and the multitude of perspectives it encompasses. It is a subject that elicits strong emotions and raises critical ethical, scientific, and social questions. Writing an essay on animal testing allows for an in-depth exploration of these issues and encourages critical thinking and analysis. By delving into the topic, one can examine the ethical considerations surrounding the use of animals in experiments, weighing the potential benefits against the moral implications. Additionally, it provides an opportunity to evaluate the scientific validity and reliability of animal testing as a method for understanding human biology and developing medical treatments. Furthermore, an essay on animal testing opens avenues for discussing alternative approaches and advancements in technology that can reduce or replace animal experimentation. It allows for an exploration of the societal impact of animal testing, including public opinion, legislation, and the influence of media.

1. Each year, millions of animals are used in scientific experiments worldwide. According to estimates, over 100 million animals, including rabbits, mice, rats, dogs, and primates, are subjected to testing for various purposes, such as biomedical research, drug development, and toxicity testing. 2. Animal testing is not always reliable in predicting human outcomes. Studies have shown that there can be significant differences between animals and humans in terms of anatomy, physiology, and drug metabolism. This raises concerns about the validity and relevance of using animal models for understanding human diseases and developing treatments. 3. Alternatives to animal testing are emerging and gaining traction. Scientists and researchers are actively exploring innovative methods, such as in vitro cell cultures, computer modeling, and organ-on-a-chip technology, to simulate human biology and predict human responses more accurately. These alternative approaches aim to reduce or eliminate the need for animal testing while still ensuring the safety and efficacy of new products and treatments.

1. Abbott, A. (2005). Animal testing: more than a cosmetic change. Nature, 438(7065), 144-147. (https://go.gale.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA185466349&sid=googleScholar&v=2.1&it=r&linkaccess=abs&issn=00280836&p=AONE&sw=w&userGroupName=anon%7E513ffe31) 2. Doke, S. K., & Dhawale, S. C. (2015). Alternatives to animal testing: A review. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1319016413001096 Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 23(3), 223-229. 3. Hajar, R. (2011). Animal testing and medicine. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3123518/ Heart views: the official journal of the Gulf Heart Association, 12(1), 42. 4. Bottini, A. A., & Hartung, T. (2009). Food for thought… on the economics of animal testing. ALTEX-Alternatives to animal experimentation, 26(1), 3-16. (https://www.altex.org/index.php/altex/article/view/633) 5. Valappil, S. P., Misra, S. K., Boccaccini, A. R., & Roy, I. (2006). Biomedical applications of polyhydroxyalkanoates, an overview of animal testing and in vivo responses. Expert Review of Medical Devices, 3(6), 853-868. (https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1586/17434440.3.6.853) 6. File, S. E., Lippa, A. S., Beer, B., & Lippa, M. T. (2004). Animal tests of anxiety. Current protocols in neuroscience, 26(1), 8-3. (https://currentprotocols.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/0471142301.ns0803s26) 7. Madden, J. C., Enoch, S. J., Paini, A., & Cronin, M. T. (2020). A review of in silico tools as alternatives to animal testing: principles, resources and applications. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, 48(4), 146-172. (https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0261192920965977) 8. Donnellan, L. (2006). Animal testing in cosmetics: recent developments in the European Union and the United States. Animal L., 13, 251. (https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/anim13&div=18&id=&page=)

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Animal Testing Essay Guide + Topics

Animal testing argumentative essay guide

Whether you are taking a position for or against animal testing in your essay, here are some helpful hacks, tips, and tricks you can use to ace your paper.

Animal testing is a controversial issue of global scope. However, with pandemics and outbreaks being a common phenomenon and the rise of the cosmetics industry, many animals are used in scientific research. Also known as in-vivo, animal experimentation, or animal research, animal testing entails using animals in different levels of experiments to investigate the reactions, performance, and potency of various medications, drugs, cosmetic products, and foods.

Use in both biological, medical, and now beauty studies, animal testing has gained comprehensive coverage. When writing persuasive or argumentative essays, you are likely to be given an animal testing research topic for your essay. The interest of commercial bodies and pharmaceutical companies and the ethics surrounding everything that occurs around us makes writing an animal testing argumentative or persuasive essay interesting.

When we asked 100 students who had ordered custom persuasive or argumentative animal testing essays from our website, they confessed that writing the essay only seems easy at its face value. However, it becomes complicated as they plan, conduct research, and write animal research papers. Do not fear, though because, you can either get an argumentative essay expert to write your essay or a model essay for you. Alternatively, use this guide to write a paper that will check all the boxes that your professor or instructor supposes you cannot.

What to include in your introduction?

When writing an animal testing introduction, avoid wasting too many words. Instead, write an introduction that attracts your readers, piques their interest, and keeps them glued to the end. This means that you should have: (a) hook , (b)background statement (where you explore the problem at hand), and (c) your animal-testing thesis statement.

Most of the top essay writers on our website revealed that they usually search for animal testing essay examples online for inspiration : it helps get a general atmosphere surrounding a controversial topic. With such a background, they can develop a thesis statement that defines their stance and the scope of their animal research essay.

Here are some excellent ideas for your first sentence or the hook:

  • Statistics of animals killed annually for research
  • Facts on animals are mostly used
  • The position of the society
  • Catchy facts
  • Controversial statements on animal research
  • Shocking facts about animal testing, e.g., Surprisingly, as People for the Ethical Treatment of Animal reports, almost 100 million animals are killed in just the laboratories in the U.S. for research such as biology lessons, experimentation, food, drug, and cosmetic testing. Imagine how the statistics will skew upwards if we considered the entire world's population of animals killed every hour.
  • Rhetorical questions : you use this to make the reader intrigued to read more about the topic. For example, Would you rather use a drug tested on a volunteer human or other animal-safe alternative research approaches, and one that is effective or use a drug tested on animals whose failure rate is slightly high? or Do you believe that morality should be enforced in medical research, especially when animal rights are infringed?

The background of your animal testing research paper introduction can include:

  • Definition of animal testing
  • The extent of animal testing.'
  • The historical context of animal testing
  • Breakthroughs of animal testing
  • Expert opinion over animal testing
  • Description of the problem
  • The debate surrounding animal testing

Animal Testing Essay Outline/Structure

Your outline will depend on whether you are writing pro-animal testing or against animal testing research paper. Here is a generalized example of the outline for an animal testing essay.

A well-structured animal testing essay will automatically earn you marks. In most cases, it follows the conventional five-paragraph essay format divided into the introduction, main body, and conclusion.

The introduction and conclusion are each 10% of the word count, while the main body is 80%. You have to format your paper in APA, MLA, or Harvard format as your professor requires. To understand the formatting requirements, read the prompt and rubric of the animal testing essay keenly.

Remember to maintain a single idea per every body paragraph. That idea must reflect in the topic sentence of the paragraph to enable your audience to distinguish your major arguments.

The contents of the body paragraphs must also support the thesis. If there is a counterargument, make it known in your second last paragraph that precedes the conclusion.

Introduction

  • 10% of the word count
  • Begin with a stellar hook sentence
  • Provide background to your chosen topic
  • Have an outstanding thesis statement
  • Transition to the main body of your essay
  • Comprises 80% of the word count
  • It can be three paragraphs for short essays or more for a long-form research paper
  • Provide the history of animal testing, if necessary.
  • Look at the roles of regulation and legislation in preventing animal cruelty.
  • Explore the different bodies involved in preventing or lobbying against animal testing.
  • Explore the breakthroughs of animal testing
  • Explore the different alternatives to animal testing: why they can work or why they cannot
  • Each paragraph should have its idea
  • Transition to your conclusion
  • Provide a summary of the paper
  • Highlight your significant arguments and counterarguments
  • Offer recommendations, if necessary
  • Rephrase your thesis statement and show how evidence has supported it in your essay.

Alternative Methods to Animal Testing to include in your paper

Cruelty-Free International argues that non-animal testing methods are cheaper, reliable, and more effective. You can recommend some of these alternatives in your animal testing research paper or essay, considering they elongate the discussion on this seemingly controversial topic.

  • Computer modeling
  • Cell cultures
  • Human tissues
  • Volunteer studies
  • Use of egg embryo
  • Use of unicellular organisms
  • The LAL tests
  • In vitro methods

Now, when writing an argumentative essay about animal testing, especially if you take a stance against it, listing these alternatives can strengthen your arguments. Look at this model animal testing essay and craft yours along the same line.

Tips for Concluding your Animal Testing Essay

There is no different way to end an animal testing essay, as it is the same as ending any essay. Thus, when you read our cheat sheet for ending an argumentative essay , you will understand that the main thing is to have a definitive conclusion.

The conclusion is not the place to introduce new ideas. Instead, you will summarize the main points of the essay and restate the thesis in a revamped version. Show your writers the connection between your main arguments and the recommendations you are making. If there is a counterstatement, explain your rationale for it.

When writing the conclusion, make it clear, concise, and coherent. For example, an excellent animal-testing essay conclusion will have the introduction sentence, the summary of the main body, and the closing sentence.

Strive to leave your reader yearning for more : you get to tickle the best grades even from that stingy professor. Weave together the concluding paragraph with appropriate sentence transitions and do not overdo it. Keep everything simple, and you will win the main marks assigned to a reasonable conclusion.

Now that we have everything explained, we can look at some of the main topics you can use as titles for animal testing papers.

Examples of Controversial and Latest Animal Testing Essay Topics

Animal testing topics

We asked our top writers to suggest some topics they think fit well for an animal testing essay. We got a total of fifty entries that you can select and write something about. If you are stuck and want an essay sample urgently, we can write such an essay for you in a few hours, thanks to our website that helps students write essays ASAP . You can choose from these animal testing essay titles:

  • Animal testing should be banned
  • Animal testing is not ethical
  • Pros and cons of animal testing
  • Alternative methods to using animals in drugs development
  • Controversy in using animal testing in medical and cosmetic research
  • Neglected interests and inhuman practices during animal testing
  • The cruelty of animal testing
  • Horrors of animal testing
  • Accidents during animal testing
  • Ethics of transporting caged animals for animal research
  • The future of animal testing, given the advancement in biotechnology
  • Medical animal testing should be banned
  • Should guinea pigs be used for lab work research?
  • New, better, and innovative treatments for humanity
  • Using animals in medical research is ethical and essential
  • Science and the murder of one hundred million animals annually
  • Importance of animals in clinical trials
  • Importance of animal testing in vaccine development
  • Is animal testing necessary for human survival?
  • Animal testing as an experimentation industry
  • Effectiveness of animal testing
  • Exploring the role of Cruelty-Free International Organization
  • Role of religious bodies in advocating for animal-testing-free society
  • The Americans for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) organization
  • Ethical issues in animal experimentation
  • How animal cruelty affects the ecosystem
  • Animal models in vaccine development
  • Defining animal cruelty
  • Treatment versus rights of animals
  • Are animal model results safe for humans?
  • Migraine Treatment and Animal testing
  • Dinitrophenol drug for overweight and Animal testing
  • Anti-arthritis Treatment and Animal Testing
  • Animal use in unmanned war drones
  • Positive and negative outcomes of animal testing
  • Role of media in influencing animal testing
  • The politics of deception in animal testing
  • Problems associated with animal testing
  • Animal testing should be controlled and not stopped
  • Licenses that are required for one to conduct animal testing
  • Role of Big Pharma in advancing animal testing.
  • Can plants be used as an alternative to animal testing?
  • Impacts of animal testing on ecology
  • How does animal testing affect the economy?
  • Can animal testing result in bioweapons?
  • Use of technology to predict diseases and outcomes rather than animal testing.
  • Are the rights and feelings of animals considered in animal experimentation?
  • Are animals used in tests free?
  • Reasons rats, rabbits, and pigs are widely used in animal testing
  • Can volunteer human beings replace animals in medical research?
  • The best approach to take care of animals used in experimentation
  • Breakthroughs after animal testing
  • Animal testing and the cosmetics industry
  • History of animal testing
  • Role of CDC in animal testing research
  • Role of WHO on animal testing authorization

Where and how to get help with your Animal Testing Essays?

In our article, we have extensively referenced our custom essay writers who can help you ace your animal testing essays. If you feel that the guide cannot help you break down the essay or are short of time, you can pay someone on our website to write one for you. When you buy an argumentative essay from our website, we assign it to a pro writer who will research, draft, and write the paper from scratch.

Our bespoke essay service ensures that every paper is done as though you would have done it. This means that the writer cites every animal testing journal article, credible website, or relevant scholarly resources as you would have done. They do this when they summarize, paraphrase, or quote from the sources.

Therefore, you are guaranteed 100% original and plagiarism-free animal testing essays. Furthermore, whether you are for or against animal testing, we have a writer who can write your argumentative essay outline, annotated bibliography, research paper, and essay.

They can take an ethical stance or argue based on what society or professionals/experts think about the issue.

Trust us with your paper because we have done this time and again : written untraceable papers for students. Our writers are fast, accurate, respectable, and experienced. They know how to score the top grade on the rubric. All the papers we have done have been used as best argumentative essay samples on should animal testing be banned? yours could be the next one.

Are you a student with weak English and need help? Our ESL writers can craft a paper that sounds like someone who does not grasp English. Alternatively, our ENL writers also know how to tone down an English paper. After all, we serve both ESL and ENL clients. Go to our home page, click on order now, place your order and pay for it, and wait as we complete it for you.

animal experimentation conclusion to an essay

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How To Write An Animal Testing Essay?

Haiden Malecot

Table of Contents

animal experimentation conclusion to an essay

Animal testing is a long-standing problem, which bothers people all around the world. It is also known as in vivo testing or animal research; it’s the use of animals in experiments to explore the reactions of their bodies and biological systems to various irritants.

From the beginning of the scientific revolution, this method was often used in medical and biological studies. However, nowadays it is also used in commercial facilities and pharmaceutical companies to test cosmetics, hygiene products, and foods before selling them to people.

Animal testing essay approaches

Basically, there are two approaches to writing essays on animal testing.

You may choose a topic that considers the historical context, as methods of testing and other aspects that don’t require your personal point of view. When writing such an essay, remember that you need to be unprejudiced and objective, to explore the topic as a scientist.

The other approach is an argumentative essay . There’s also a vast quantity of sides to choose from but you’ll need to express your point of view or compose the topic for an essay sticking to it. Here you will have to be persuasive to convince the reader in your rightness.

Position against animal testing essay

If you are an opponent to animal testing, you may want to choose the topic, that would highlight the negative sides of the issue. Here are some arguments against animal testing for you to start off:

  • Experiments on animals are inhumane and cause animal suffering.
  • There are different alternatives for testing, that can replace animals.
  • People differ from animals. Thus, the results of animal testing might be unjustified.
  • Some products that have passed animal testing were dangerous to people.
  • Alternative methods of research are cheaper than animal testing.
  • Lots of failed experiments are useless to expend of animals’ lives.
  • Religion induces us to be merciful to all living creatures including animals.

Position pro-animal testing essay

In case you support the idea of animal testing and decided to prove that it is needed in the modern world, you’d need to be very persuasive. There are thousands of people who won’t share your opinion.

Below you can find some ideas to support animal testing:

  • Animal testing produced dozens of treatments and saved millions of people’s lives.
  • There still are no equivalent alternatives to test a fully functioning organism.
  • Some animals are similar to the human organism.
  • Animal testing prevents dangerous and harmful experiments on people.
  • There’s legislation which aims to prevent animals’ mistreatment.
  • The majority of scientists endorse the practice of animal testing.
  • Some of the products must be first tested on animals to prove humans can use them.
  • Religion establishes human domination.
  • Animals’ lives is a small price for scientific and medical progress.

Ideas on animal testing essay structure

Each essay has to be well-structured and animal testing essay is not an exception. As a rule, an essay consists of three parts: introduction, main body, and conclusion.

In the introduction , you present the problem and the topic of your essay. Provide your reader with some definitions and background information for a better understanding.

In the main body , you represent all the information, ideas and statements for your topic. Don’t forget to structure the text and break it into paragraphs, this will make your essay more readable. Ideally, you write each idea or statement in the new paragraph.

The conclusion is put at the very end when everything is already said. Here you make an inference of the whole essay without adding any new information.

Here is an example of the outline for a pro-animal testing research paper:

Introduction

  • Hook sentence.
  • Thesis statement.
  • Transition to Main Body.
  • History of the animal testing practice.
  • The role of legislation in preventing mistreatment.
  • Great discoveries, which would be impossible without animal testing.
  • Why alternatives to animal testing won’t work?
  • Transition to Conclusion.
  • Unexpected twist or a final argument.
  • Food for thought.

Writing an animal testing essay introduction

To write a successful introduction, and the whole essay as well, you need to be aware of the topic. So first of all, you need to do a lot of research work for a good start.

Searching for some animal testing essay examples might appear to be a great idea. Once you gain some background you will surely get to know what is needed to be said.

Here are some hints on what to include in your introduction:

  • Definition of animal testing.
  • Statistics.
  • Description of the problem.
  • Experts’ point of view.
  • Society’s position.
  • Some catchy facts.
  • Thesis statement – the main idea of your essay.

Best animal testing essay titles

Lack of ideas for a good title? Here’s a list of topics for the essay on animal testing.

Choose any. Each of them is catchy.

  • Pros and cons of animal testing.
  • Animal testing in cosmetics.
  • Great discoveries of animal testing.
  • Alternatives to animal testing.
  • Animal testing in your country.
  • The ethical side of animal testing.
  • Positive and negative outcomes of animal testing.
  • Horrors of animal testing.
  • Future of animal testing.
  • Animal testing and animal rights.

Crafting an animal testing essay hook

When it comes to writing, the introduction is almost a half of success. If you manage to write a good beginning, the reader will surely have a more positive vision of the whole work.

… How to grab the reader’s attention and compose a catchy beginning?

These two basic techniques are often used by speakers, but can also be applied when writing:

  • Rhetorical question. Make the reader think, ask something ambiguous or nippy, like: “Is morality valuable when it comes to medical progress and saving lives?” or “Would you kill an animal with your own hands?”
  • Shocking fact. Something like: “More than 100 million animals are abused and killed in the US yearly” or “88% of Nobel Prizes in Physiology and Medicine involved animal testing.

All in all, animal testing is newsworthy and up to date topic to discover and highlight. There are many aspects of the problem to explore and what is important – you can’t be right or wrong with your point of view.

This coin has two sides and it is for you to decide which one to stick to. Remember that your essay will benefit from honesty with yourself and the reader.

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Animal Testing Argumentative Essay: Guidelines

Argumentative Essay on Animal Testing

How to Write a Great Animal Testing Argumentative Essay?

Animal testing sample.

According to the statistical data, testing in the US is conducted on 26 million animals. Those animals are used for research in the field of commercial products and various scientific advancements. Besides, animals are used to test the latest medical treatment, check on the toxicity of drugs, and verify the level of safety that the products aimed at people will have. Animal testing is also in demand in the commercial industry and the area of health care. Since it is an issue of intense arguments whether it is ethically correct to use the animals in experiments, an animal testing argumentative essay is among the most popular topics at schools, colleges, and universities.

The idea to use animals in experiments is not new. Actually, it is a practice that dates back to 500 BC; and even at that time, there were those who supported this idea and those who were against it. The latter claim that it is cruel and inhumane to test the products using animals, and they call for the development of the new alternative techniques which will eliminate the need for animal testing.

Such organizations as PETA campaign in order to increase the range of relevant research and make the process of developing alternative testing methods faster and more efficient. It is reasonable that an animal testing essay of a student who supports this point of view will state the requirement to alleviate testing on animals. It will also contain an argument that animal testing does not ensure absolutely valid results as tests conducted on animals are different from those done to humans; that is why the question is whether animal testing has any practical sense at all.

Good Argumentative Essay Topics

On the other hand, an argumentative essay on animal testing can be written from the point of view of the advantages of the use of animals in medicine. It is wrong to hurt living beings, but it is necessary to test the safety of new products before using them for the benefit of people. Typically, rats are the first animals used for research. In case the tests prove to be effective, monkeys are the next subjects for a series of tests. Only if these experiments are successful, the product can be given to people.

An animal testing argumentative essay always mentions the benefit of reducing the number of errors and fatal mistakes owing to a round of tests on animals. It also mentions that the number of saved people’s lives is enormous owing to the sacrificed lives of animals. Actually, there is hardly any effective alternative to animal testing. Furthermore, it is subject to following strict regulations to ensure the prevention of all kinds of animal mistreatment.

In general, the debates over the use of animals in testing for medical research testing have been historically known for centuries. After the animal testing essay introduction, it is typical to present the claims of the proponents. They imply that there is no intentional harm in animal testing; moreover, the animals are well kept, fed, and treated nicely. Besides, they state that the absence of effective alternatives makes it impossible to eliminate this practice. They also emphasize the benefit of saving lives owing to animal testing. Nevertheless, certain environmental organizations aimed at the protection of animals call for no more animals in research and testing because of the cruel and inhumane practices.

Writing an animal testing argumentative essay outline , one should take into consideration that animal testing is a matter of various discussions. Thus, it is important to choose a certain position and focus the whole assignment on this point of view. A common task for the students is to work on an argumentative paper; thus, it is essential to determine and specify a definite position and then develop a thesis statement with the supporting arguments appropriately. For instance, if you make up your mind to look at the animal testing from the angle of supporting position, it is recommended to use the following arguments or similar ones.

Writing Prompts for Animal Testing Essays

Writing Prompts for Argumentative Essay on Animal Testing

Advantages to Write About in Animal Testing Essay

It is impossible to eliminate animal testing as it saves people’s lives.

According to medical researchers, the contribution of testing on animals in the advancement of health care and medicine cannot be overestimated. It is owing to the experiments conducted on animals, people can be treated for breast cancer, tuberculosis, diabetics, malaria, brain injury, and other diseases. Physicians also emphasize the role of chimpanzees in experiments aimed at looking for treatment for Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C.

There Is No Alternative to Experimenting with Animals Because Its the Safest Testing Method Known

An animal testing essay conclusion always refers to the fact that the structure of animals’ organisms that resembles that of humans makes them the most suitable material for research in product testing in the fields of medicine and cosmetics. Animal and human bodies have identical or similar processes. There is an assumption that testing can be conducted on cell organisms, but it is doubtful that it will work, as those tissues cannot be tested for blindness or blood pressure issues.

Currently, animal testing is used as a model for computer programs that will probably substitute it in the future. The provided data prove to be accurate; however, living organisms cannot be replaced with less complex computer programs that do not ensure stimulation of the brain activity.

The Biological Similarity between Animal Species and People Is the Best

The organs of the mammals are identical to those of people; besides, there is a striking genetic closeness between them. The statistical data prove that the genetic similarity between the people and mammals can be up to 98%. Animals have the same bloodstream and central nervous systems with humans; that is why the susceptibility to diseases of both of them is similar.

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Ethical Side of Animal Testing

Each essay about animal testing contains an argument about checking of medical treatment for toxicity during the animal testing procedures. It is against all ethical norms to test a new medicine on people and risk their lives. Helsinki Medical Association claims that animal testing should always go before human experiments

Additional Benefits for Animals

As a result of vaccine testing on animals, not only people but animals are saved from terminal diseases. Besides, the development of new medical products contributes to the prevention of species extinction.

Animal Testing Has the Strict Regulations

Various animal testing essay examples demonstrate that there are strict regulations for experimenting with animals nowadays. A topical issue of present-day life is the protection of animal rights, and numerous organizations control the situation. It is important to make sure that there is neither violation of animal rights not the suffering of animals from abuse.

Further Advantages of Animal Testing

The life cycles of animals are shorter than those of people; thus, the experiments on them are more reasonable than those on humans. It is possible to observe all consequences and effects of certain drugs owing to short life cycles in the course of several years or even months.

Animal Testing Implies Humane Treatment

Some students even use the fact of humane treatment of animals in the animal testing essay title. Researchers always take into account the conditions and consequences of experiments and care about animals.

Disadvantages to Write About in Animal Testing Essay

A variety of animal testing essay topics implies considering different opinions of the pros and cons of those experiments. It is important to ensure the presence of alternative ideas to prevent all kinds of bias and ensure having different perspectives on the same issue.

Human societies have always been oriented at innovation and adaptability as desired features. On the other hand, old practices have the tendency of being kept by the researchers and organizations for a number of reasons. In an animal testing argumentative essay, the aspects should be explored in detail.

First of all, let us talk about the benefits.

Ethics in Animal Testing

If the essay is written in support of animal testing, this is one of the easiest points. Animals used for testing lack moral capabilities and conscious mind despite having their DNA equal to the human one in 98 %. A good animal testing essay title always mentions this somehow. Nevertheless, animals suffer and their agony can lead to death in some serious cases.

Try to explore the issues philosophically. Touch upon attributing value to people and animals. Mention the patients with mental illnesses who have no morality or consciousness. Consider the appropriateness of experimenting on such people along with the animals.

An efficient animal testing pros and cons essay should be based on a broad topic and numerous implications for analysis.

Availability of Alternatives

The progress cannot be stopped in the present-day world. It is normal now to get rid of outdated things and introduce innovations. In a perfect why animal testing should be banned essay, try to note that there are and there will be other ways to experiment on new products. For example, it is possible to cultivate human cells and do organ replication in the laboratories to use the obtained organs for testing of biological processes.

Right, all challenges in modern research cannot be addressed via cell testing; besides, the immune system, endocrine system, blood pressure issues and other aspects of the human body cannot be analyzed using cells. On the other hand, testing practices in the laboratories can substitute some animal alternatives, if possible.

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Reduction, Refinement, and Replacement

The mentioned three RRRs (reduction, refinement, and replacement) represent a plan developed by numerous countries to ensure the decrease in the testing with the use of animals. A cosmetic animal testing essay should contain this argument for explanations of why it is important to eradicate the common practice.

  • What is the reduction ?

It is the minimization of the animal testing practice by research centers, laboratories, and companies, and regulation of the affected living creatures via introducing innovative practices and improving the experimental techniques.

  • What is refinement ?

It is changing the lives of tested animals, ensuring good living conditions, the introduction of obligatory anesthesia, and the provision of necessary medical treatment.

  • What is the replacement ?

It is a procedure of transition to innovative methods of conducting experiments with the use of computers, cell culture, micro-dosing by volunteers, human tissue tissues, and other methods.

Overrating of the Contribution

An argument that animal testing should be illegal is used by numerous researchers against the current testing practices. The supporters of the theory cite examples to prove the inevitability of animal experiments for the progress of humans. Nevertheless, it is complicated to make a prediction on how the discoveries can be made without animal testing, but the ideas of progress cannot be based on outdated practices.

It cannot be denied that the development of insulin was made owing to the dogs that had pancreases injected. On the other hand, a medical student from Germany, Paul Langerhans, saw the strange pancreatic tissue cells and encouraged Frederick Banting to make a discovery without any animal testing. Thus, there is a question of whether the disadvantages of animal testing outweigh the benefits obtained. The use of dogs sped up the process but kills many innocent animals. Insulin helped many people survive, but it is complicated to determine how the studies will be affected by animal testing results.

Insufficient Reliability

The efficiency of the animal tests on people is 95% because of the 2% genome divergence between animals and people. The European Union banned the use of animals in testing cosmetics for two reasons. Firstly, the eyes of humans are less sensitive than the eyes of rats and some other animals, thus the experiment results are unreliable. Secondly, other alternatives, for example, tissue testing, can be more effective.

Some researchers claim that animal testing should be allowed, but insufficient reliability may result in tragedies. For instance, tension, anxiety, and insomnia were treated with thalidomide medication in West Germany, and in 1957, as many as 5,000 infants died, and many lost sights, hearing or suffered severe deformities. It is not always right to use the products suitable for animals on humans. Another example is Rezulin that was a trigger of liver failure in people but treated rats with diabetes type 2 perfectly.

High Price of Animal Tests

It is common to pay no attention to this fact. It is assumed that more innovative technology will be even more expensive; however, progress always implies durability, and that should be noted. Financial losses are huge even for common dissection classes. Reliable results require numerous life forms, but computer models can use the required data for analysis in a different way.

Leaving out the Rights

The governments adopted a number of regulations in different countries of the world to ensure the protection of animals’ rights; however, it is a common practice to forget about the animals used for testing when it goes about laws.

Thinking about a good title for an essay on animal testing for medical purposes, do not forget to take into consideration this debatable point. How can it happen that the Animal Welfare Act omits fish, mice, and rats? The researchers are allowed to treat those animals in the way they need for their experiments. Try to explore how moral this situation is.

Global Progress

Your essay should emphasize the crucial importance of certain practices and lack of alternatives; however, it is also essential to touch upon the better options, available now o expected in the future. Every year, the development of technologies causes the emergence of new experimenting methods, making science more efficient and more humane. Mention the subjective opinions of the researchers and limitations of the control samples when talking about animal testing. On the other hand, note the advantages of new computer models that avoid bias and manipulation of data. Animals are less close to people than in cell cultures. All in all, it is more ethical to try alternative testing techniques as they not only protect the animals but also increase the efficiency of science.

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National Academies Press: OpenBook

Science, Medicine, and Animals (1991)

Chapter: conclusion.

People clearly want the benefits that derive from animal research. They also want animals to be well-treated and to undergo a minimum of pain and distress. These desires result from our values, from the importance we ascribe to both human and animal life.

But decisions about the use of animals should be based both on reason and values. It makes no sense to sacrifice future human health and well being by not using animals in research today. In fact, it would be immoral and selfish not to use animals in research today, given the harm that could accrue to future generations if such research were halted.

animal experimentation conclusion to an essay

The promise that animal research holds for generations of humans remains undiminished

The majority of Americans agree that animal research must continue. But legislators rarely hear from this majority, whereas they are bombarded by appeals from the small minority who wish to stop or severely curtail such research. Many scientific, medical, and patient groups have come out strongly in favor of humanely conducted animal research. The National Academy of Sciences and Institute of Medicine would like to add their voices to the chorus of support for animal research.

We owe our good health to past investigators and the animals they studied. As we decide on the future of animal research, we should keep in mind the future generations who will look back at us and ask if we acted wisely.

The necessity for animal use in biomedical research is a hotly debated topic in classrooms throughout the country. Frequently teachers and students do not have access to balanced, factual material to foster an informed discussion on the topic. This colorful, 50-page booklet is designed to educate teenagers about the role of animal research in combating disease, past and present; the perspective of animal use within the whole spectrum of biomedical research; the regulations and oversight that govern animal research; and the continuing efforts to use animals more efficiently and humanely.

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  • J Prev Med Hyg
  • v.63(2 Suppl 3); 2022 Jun

Ethical considerations regarding animal experimentation

Aysha karim kiani.

1 Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan

2 MAGI EUREGIO, Bolzano, Italy

DEREK PHEBY

3 Society and Health, Buckinghamshire New University, High Wycombe, UK

GARY HENEHAN

4 School of Food Science and Environmental Health, Technological University of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

RICHARD BROWN

5 Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

PAUL SIEVING

6 Department of Ophthalmology, Center for Ocular Regenerative Therapy, School of Medicine, University of California at Davis, Sacramento, CA, USA

PETER SYKORA

7 Department of Philosophy and Applied Philosophy, University of St. Cyril and Methodius, Trnava, Slovakia

ROBERT MARKS

8 Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel

BENEDETTO FALSINI

9 Institute of Ophthalmology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli-IRCCS, Rome, Italy

NATALE CAPODICASA

10 MAGI BALKANS, Tirana, Albania

STANISLAV MIERTUS

11 Department of Biotechnology, University of SS. Cyril and Methodius, Trnava, Slovakia

12 International Centre for Applied Research and Sustainable Technology, Bratislava, Slovakia

LORENZO LORUSSO

13 UOC Neurology and Stroke Unit, ASST Lecco, Merate, Italy

DANIELE DONDOSSOLA

14 Center for Preclincal Research and General and Liver Transplant Surgery Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca‘ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy

15 Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy

GIANLUCA MARTINO TARTAGLIA

16 Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy

17 UOC Maxillo-Facial Surgery and Dentistry, Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy

MAHMUT CERKEZ ERGOREN

18 Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Near East University, Nicosia, Cyprus

MUNIS DUNDAR

19 Department of Medical Genetics, Erciyes University Medical Faculty, Kayseri, Turkey

SANDRO MICHELINI

20 Vascular Diagnostics and Rehabilitation Service, Marino Hospital, ASL Roma 6, Marino, Italy

DANIELE MALACARNE

21 MAGI’S LAB, Rovereto (TN), Italy

GABRIELE BONETTI

Astrit dautaj, kevin donato, maria chiara medori, tommaso beccari.

22 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy

MICHELE SAMAJA

23 MAGI GROUP, San Felice del Benaco (BS), Italy

STEPHEN THADDEUS CONNELLY

24 San Francisco Veterans Affairs Health Care System, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA

DONALD MARTIN

25 Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble INP, TIMC-IMAG, SyNaBi, Grenoble, France

ASSUNTA MORRESI

26 Department of Chemistry, Biology and Biotechnology, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy

ARIOLA BACU

27 Department of Biotechnology, University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania

KAREN L. HERBST

28 Total Lipedema Care, Beverly Hills California and Tucson Arizona, USA

MYKHAYLO KAPUSTIN

29 Federation of the Jewish Communities of Slovakia

LIBORIO STUPPIA

30 Department of Psychological, Health and Territorial Sciences, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University "G. d'Annunzio", Chieti, Italy

LUDOVICA LUMER

31 Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College London, London, UK

GIAMPIETRO FARRONATO

Matteo bertelli.

32 MAGISNAT, Peachtree Corners (GA), USA

Animal experimentation is widely used around the world for the identification of the root causes of various diseases in humans and animals and for exploring treatment options. Among the several animal species, rats, mice and purpose-bred birds comprise almost 90% of the animals that are used for research purpose. However, growing awareness of the sentience of animals and their experience of pain and suffering has led to strong opposition to animal research among many scientists and the general public. In addition, the usefulness of extrapolating animal data to humans has been questioned. This has led to Ethical Committees’ adoption of the ‘four Rs’ principles (Reduction, Refinement, Replacement and Responsibility) as a guide when making decisions regarding animal experimentation. Some of the essential considerations for humane animal experimentation are presented in this review along with the requirement for investigator training. Due to the ethical issues surrounding the use of animals in experimentation, their use is declining in those research areas where alternative in vitro or in silico methods are available. However, so far it has not been possible to dispense with experimental animals completely and further research is needed to provide a road map to robust alternatives before their use can be fully discontinued.

How to cite this article: Kiani AK, Pheby D, Henehan G, Brown R, Sieving P, Sykora P, Marks R, Falsini B, Capodicasa N, Miertus S, Lorusso L, Dondossola D, Tartaglia GM, Ergoren MC, Dundar M, Michelini S, Malacarne D, Bonetti G, Dautaj A, Donato K, Medori MC, Beccari T, Samaja M, Connelly ST, Martin D, Morresi A, Bacu A, Herbst KL, Kapustin M, Stuppia L, Lumer L, Farronato G, Bertelli M. Ethical considerations regarding animal experimentation. J Prev Med Hyg 2022;63(suppl.3):E255-E266. https://doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2022.63.2S3.2768

Introduction

Animal model-based research has been performed for a very long time. Ever since the 5 th century B.C., reports of experiments involving animals have been documented, but an increase in the frequency of their utilization has been observed since the 19 th century [ 1 ]. Most institutions for medical research around the world use non-human animals as experimental subjects [ 2 ]. Such animals might be used for research experimentations to gain a better understanding of human diseases or for exploring potential treatment options [ 2 ]. Even those animals that are evolutionarily quite distant from humans, such as Drosophila melanogaster , Zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) and Caenorhabditis elegans , share physiological and genetic similarities with human beings [ 2 ]; therefore animal experimentation can be of great help for the advancement of medical science [ 2 ].

For animal experimentation, the major assumption is that the animal research will be of benefit to humans. There are many reasons that highlight the significance of animal use in biomedical research. One of the major reasons is that animals and humans share the same biological processes. In addition, vertebrates have many anatomical similarities (all vertebrates have lungs, a heart, kidneys, liver and other organs) [ 3 ]. Therefore, these similarities make certain animals more suitable for experiments and for providing basic training to young researchers and students in different fields of biological and biomedical sciences [ 3 ]. Certain animals are susceptible to various health problems that are similar to human diseases such as diabetes, cancer and heart disease [ 4 ]. Furthermore, there are genetically modified animals that are used to obtain pathological phenotypes [ 5 ]. A significant benefit of animal experimentation is that test species can be chosen that have a much shorter life cycle than humans. Therefore, animal models can be studied throughout their life span and for several successive generations, an essential element for the understanding of disease progression along with its interaction with the whole organism throughout its lifetime [ 6 ].

Animal models often play a critical role in helping researchers who are exploring the efficacy and safety of potential medical treatments and drugs. They help to identify any dangerous or undesired side effects, such as birth defects, infertility, toxicity, liver damage or any potential carcinogenic effects [ 7 ]. Currently, U.S. Federal law, for example, requires that non-human animal research is used to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of any new treatment options before proceeding to trials on humans [ 8 ]. Of course, it is not only humans benefit from this research and testing, since many of the drugs and treatments that are developed for humans are routinely used in veterinary clinics, which help animals live longer and healthier lives [ 4 ].

COVID-19 AND THE NEED FOR ANIMAL MODELS

When COVID-19 struck, there was a desperate need for research on the disease, its effects on the brain and body and on the development of new treatments for patients with the disease. Early in the disease it was noticed that those with the disease suffered a loss of smell and taste, as well as neurological and psychiatric symptoms, some of which lasted long after the patients had “survived” the disease [ 9-15 ]. As soon as the pandemic started, there was a search for appropriate animal models in which to study this unknown disease [ 16 , 17 ]. While genetically modified mice and rats are the basic animal models for neurological and immunological research [ 18 , 19 ] the need to understand COVID-19 led to a range of animal models; from fruit flies [ 20 ] and Zebrafish [ 21 ] to large mammals [ 22 , 23 ] and primates [ 24 , 25 ]. And it was just not one animal model that was needed, but many, because different aspects of the disease are best studied in different animal models [ 16 , 25 , 26 ]. There is also a need to study the transmission pathways of the zoonosis: where does it come from, what are the animal hosts and how is it transferred to humans [ 27 ]?

There has been a need for animal models for understanding the pathophysiology of COVID-19 [ 28 ], for studying the mechanisms of transmission of the disease [ 16 ], for studying its neurobiology [ 29 , 30 ] and for developing new vaccines [ 31 ]. The sudden onset of the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the fact that animal research is necessary, and that the curtailment of such research has serious consequences for the health of both humans and animals, both wild and domestic [ 32 ] As highlighted by Adhikary et al. [ 22 ] and Genzel et al. [ 33 ] the coronavirus has made clear the necessity for animal research and the danger in surviving future such pandemics if animal research is not fully supported. Genzel et al. [ 33 ], in particular, take issue with the proposal for a European ban on animal testing. Finally, there is a danger in bypassing animal research in developing new vaccines for diseases such as COVID-19 [ 34 ]. The purpose of this paper is to show that, while animal research is necessary for the health of both humans and animals, there is a need to carry out such experimentation in a controlled and humane manner. The use of alternatives to animal research such as cultured human cells and computer modeling may be a useful adjunct to animal studies but will require that such methods are more readily accessible to researchers and are not a replacement for animal experimentation.

Pros and cons of animal experimentation

Arguments against animal experimentation.

A fundamental question surrounding this debate is to ask whether it is appropriate to use animals for medical research. Is our acceptance that animals have a morally lower value or standard of life just a case of speciesism [ 35 ]? Nowadays, most people agree that animals have a moral status and that needlessly hurting or abusing pets or other animals is unacceptable. This represents something of a change from the historical point of view where animals did not have any moral status and the treatment of animals was mostly subservient to maintaining the health and dignity of humans [ 36 ].

Animal rights advocates strongly argue that the moral status of non-human animals is similar to that of humans, and that animals are entitled to equality of treatment. In this view, animals should be treated with the same level of respect as humans, and no one should have the right to force them into any service or to kill them or use them for their own goals. One aspect of this argument claims that moral status depends upon the capacity to suffer or enjoy life [ 37 ].

In terms of suffering and the capacity of enjoying life, many animals are not very different from human beings, as they can feel pain and experience pleasure [ 38 ]. Hence, they should be given the same moral status as humans and deserve equivalent treatment. Supporters of this argument point out that according animals a lower moral status than humans is a type of prejudice known as “speciesism” [ 38 ]. Among humans, it is widely accepted that being a part of a specific race or of a specific gender does not provide the right to ascribe a lower moral status to the outsiders. Many advocates of animal rights deploy the same argument, that being human does not give us sufficient grounds declare animals as being morally less significant [ 36 ].

ARGUMENTS IN FAVOR OF ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION

Those who support animal experimentation have frequently made the argument that animals cannot be elevated to be seen as morally equal to humans [ 39 ]. Their main argument is that the use of the terms “moral status” or “morality” is debatable. They emphasize that we must not make the error of defining a quality or capacity associated with an animal by using the same adjectives used for humans [ 39 ]. Since, for the most part, animals do not possess humans’ cognitive capabilities and lack full autonomy (animals do not appear to rationally pursue specific goals in life), it is argued that therefore, they cannot be included in the moral community [ 39 ]. It follows from this line of argument that, if animals do not possess the same rights as human beings, their use in research experimentation can be considered appropriate [ 40 ]. The European and the American legislation support this kind of approach as much as their welfare is respected.

Another aspect of this argument is that the benefits to human beings of animal experimentation compensate for the harm caused to animals by these experiments.

In other words, animal harm is morally insignificant compared to the potential benefits to humans. Essentially, supporters of animal experimentation claim that human beings have a higher moral status than animals and that animals lack certain fundamental rights accorded to humans. The potential violations of animal rights during animal research are, in this way, justified by the greater benefits to mankind [ 40 , 41 ]. A way to evaluate when the experiments are morally justified was published in 1986 by Bateson, which developed the Bateson’s Cube [ 42 ]. The Cube has three axes: suffering, certainty of benefit and quality of research. If the research is high-quality, beneficial, and not inflicting suffering, it will be acceptable. At the contrary, painful, low-quality research with lower likelihood of success will not be acceptable [ 42 , 43 ].

Impact of experimentations on animals

Ability to feel pain and distress.

Like humans, animal have certain physical as well as psychological characteristics that make their use for experimentation controversial [ 44 ].

In the last few decades, many studies have increased knowledge of animal awareness and sentience: they indicate that animals have greater potential to experience damage than previously appreciated and that current rights and protections need to be reconsidered [ 45 ]. In recent times, scientists as well as ethicists have broadly acknowledged that animals can also experience distress and pain [ 46 ]. Potential sources of such harm arising from their use in research include disease, basic physiological needs deprivation and invasive procedures [ 46 ]. Moreover, social deprivation and lack of the ability to carry out their natural behaviors are other causes of animal harm [ 46 ]. Several studies have shown that, even in response to very gentle handling and management, animals can show marked alterations in their physiological and hormonal stress markers [ 47 ].

In spite of the fact that suffering and pain are personalized experiences, several multi-disciplinary studies have provided clear evidence of animals experiencing pain and distress. In particular, some animal species have the ability to express pain similarly to human due to common psychological, neuroanatomical and genetic characteristics [ 48 ]. Similarly, animals share a resemblance to humans in their developmental, genetic and environmental risk factors for psychopathology. For instance, in many species, it has been shown that fear operates within a less organized subcortical neural circuit than pain [ 49 , 50 ]. Various types of depression and anxiety disorders like posttraumatic stress disorder have also been reported in mammals [ 51 ].

PSYCHOLOGICAL CAPABILITIES OF ANIMALS

Some researchers have suggested that besides their ability to experience physical and psychological pain and distress, some animals also exhibit empathy, self-awareness and language-like capabilities. They also demonstrate tools-linked cognizance, pleasure-seeking and advanced problem-solving skills [ 52 ]. Moreover, mammals and birds exhibit playful behavior, an indicator of the capacity to experience pleasure. Other taxa such as reptiles, cephalopods and fishes have also been observed to display playful behavior, therefore the current legislation prescribes the use of environmental enrichers [ 53 ]. The presence of self-awareness ability, as assessed by mirror self-recognition, has been reported in magpies, chimpanzees and other apes, and certain cetaceans [ 54 ]. Recently, another study has revealed that crows have the ability to create and use tools that involve episodic-like memory formation and its retrieval. From these findings, it may be suggested that crows as well as related species show evidence of flexible learning strategies, causal reasoning, prospection and imagination that are similar to behavior observed in great apes [ 55 ]. In the context of resolving the ethical dilemmas about animal experimentation, these observations serve to highlight the challenges involved [ 56 , 57 ].

Ethics, principles and legislation in animal experimentation

Ethics in animal experimentation.

Legislation around animal research is based on the idea of the moral acceptability of the proposed experiments under specific conditions [ 58 ]. The significance of research ethics that ensures proper treatment of experimental animals [ 58 ]. To avoid undue suffering of animals, it is important to follow ethical considerations during animal studies [ 1 ]. It is important to provide best human care to these animals from the ethical and scientific point of view [ 1 ]. Poor animal care can lead to experimental outcomes [ 1 ]. Thus, if experimental animals mistreated, the scientific knowledge and conclusions obtained from experiments may be compromised and may be difficult to replicate, a hallmark of scientific research [ 1 ]. At present, most ethical guidelines work on the assumption that animal experimentation is justified because of the significant potential benefits to human beings. These guidelines are often permissive of animal experimentation regardless of the damage to the animal as long as human benefits are achieved [ 59 ].

PRINCIPLE OF THE 4 RS

Although animal experimentation has resulted in many discoveries and helped in the understanding numerous aspects of biological science, its use in various sectors is strictly controlled. In practice, the proposed set of animal experiments is usually considered by a multidisciplinary Ethics Committee before work can commence [ 60 ]. This committee will review the research protocol and make a judgment as to its sustainability. National and international laws govern the utilization of animal experimentation during research and these laws are mostly based on the universal doctrine presented by Russell and Burch (1959) known as principle of the 3 Rs. The 3Rs referred to are Reduction, Refinement and Replacement, and are applied to protocols surrounding the use of animals in research. Some researchers have proposed another “R”, of responsibility for the experimental animal as well as for the social and scientific status of the animal experiments [ 61 ]. Thus, animal ethics committees commonly review research projects with reference to the 4 Rs principles [ 62 ].

The first “R”, Reduction means that the experimental design is examined to ensure that researchers have reduced the number of experimental animals in a research project to the minimum required for reliable data [ 59 ]. Methods used for this purpose include improved experimental design, extensive literature search to avoid duplication of experiments [ 35 ], use of advanced imaging techniques, sharing resources and data, and appropriate statistical data analysis that reduce the number of animals needed for statistically significant results [ 2 , 63 ].

The second “R”, Refinement involves improvements in procedure that minimize the harmful effects of the proposed experiments on the animals involved, such as reducing pain, distress and suffering in a manner that leads to a general improvement in animal welfare. This might include for example improved living conditions for research animals, proper training of people handling animals, application of anesthesia and analgesia when required and the need for euthanasia of the animals at the end of the experiment to curtail their suffering [ 63 ].

The third “R”, Replacement refers to approaches that replace or avoid the use of experimental animals altogether. These approaches involve use of in silico methods/computerized techniques/software and in vitro methods like cell and tissue culture testing, as well as relative replacement methods by use of invertebrates like nematode worms, fruit flies and microorganisms in place of vertebrates and higher animals [ 1 ]. Examples of proper application of these first “3R2 principles are the use of alternative sources of blood, the exploitation of commercially used animals for scientific research, a proper training without use of animals and the use of specimen from previous experiments for further researches [ 64-67 ].

The fourth “R”, Responsibility refers to concerns around promoting animal welfare by improvements in experimental animals’ social life, development of advanced scientific methods for objectively determining sentience, consciousness, experience of pain and intelligence in the animal kingdom, as well as effective involvement in the professionalization of the public discussion on animal ethics [ 68 ].

OTHER ASPECTS OF ANIMAL RESEARCH ETHICS

Other research ethics considerations include having a clear rationale and reasoning for the use of animals in a research project. Researchers must have reasonable expectation of generating useful data from the proposed experiment. Moreover, the research study should be designed in such a way that it should involve the lowest possible sample size of experimental animals while producing statistically significant results [ 35 ].

All individual researchers that handle experimental animals should be properly trained for handling the particular species involved in the research study. The animal’s pain, suffering and discomfort should be minimized [ 69 ]. Animals should be given proper anesthesia when required and surgical procedures should not be repeated on same animal whenever possible [ 69 ]. The procedure of humane handling and care of experimental animals should be explicitly detailed in the research study protocol. Moreover, whenever required, aseptic techniques should be properly followed [ 70 ]. During the research, anesthetization and surgical procedures on experimental animals should only be performed by professionally skilled individuals [ 69 ].

The Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guidelines that are issued by the National Center for the Replacement, Refinement, and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) are designed to improve the documentation surrounding research involving experimental animals [ 70 ]. The checklist provided includes the information required in the various sections of the manuscript i.e. study design, ethical statements, experimental procedures, experimental animals and their housing and husbandry, and more [ 70 ].

It is critical to follow the highest ethical standards while performing animal experiments. Indeed, most of the journals refuse to publish any research data that lack proper ethical considerations [ 35 ].

INVESTIGATORS’ ETHICS

Since animals have sensitivity level similar to the human beings in terms of pain, anguish, survival instinct and memory, it is the responsibility of the investigator to closely monitor the animals that are used and identify any sign of distress [ 71 ]. No justification can rationalize the absence of anesthesia or analgesia in animals that undergo invasive surgery during the research [ 72 ]. Investigators are also responsible for giving high-quality care to the experimental animals, including the supply of a nutritious diet, easy water access, prevention of and relief from any pain, disease and injury, and appropriate housing facilities for the animal species [ 73 ]. A research experiment is not permitted if the damage caused to the animal exceeds the value of knowledge gained by that experiment. No scientific advancement based on the destruction and sufferings of another living being could be justified. Besides ensuring the welfare of animals involved, investigators must also follow the applicable legislation [ 74 , 75 ].

To promote the comfort of experimental animals in England, an animal protection society named: ‘The Society for the Preservation of Cruelty to Animals’ (now the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals) was established (1824) that aims to prevent cruelty to animal [ 76 ].

ANIMAL WELFARE LAWS

Legislation for animal protection during research has long been established. In 1876 the British Parliament sanctioned the ‘Cruelty to Animals Act’ for animal protection. Russell and Burch (1959) presented the ‘3 Rs’ principles: Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, for use of animals during research [ 61 ]. Almost seven years later, the U.S.A also adopted regulations for the protection of experimental animals by enacting the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act of 1966 [ 60 ]. In Brazil, the Arouca Law (Law No. 11,794/08) regulates the animal use in scientific research experiments [ 76 ].

These laws define the breeding conditions, and regulate the use of animals for scientific research and teaching purposes. Such legal provisions control the use of anesthesia, analgesia or sedation in experiments that could cause distress or pain to experimental animals [ 59 , 76 ]. These laws also stress the need for euthanasia when an experiment is finished, or even during the experiment if there is any intense suffering for the experimental animal [ 76 ].

Several national and international organizations have been established to develop alternative techniques so that animal experimentation can be avoided, such as the UK-based National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) ( www.caat.jhsph.edu ), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) [ 77 ], the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW) ( www.ufaw.org.uk ), The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) [ 78 ], and The Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) ( www.caat.jhsph.edu ). The Brazilian ‘Arouca Law’ also constitutes a milestone, as it has created the ‘National Council for the Control of Animal Experimentation’ (CONCEA) that deals with the legal and ethical issues related to the use of experimental animals during scientific research [ 76 ].

Although national as well as international laws and guidelines have provided basic protections for experimental animals, the current regulations have some significant discrepancies. In the U.S., the Animal Welfare Act excludes rats, mice and purpose-bred birds, even though these species comprise almost 90% of the animals that are used for research purpose [ 79 ]. On the other hand, certain cats and dogs are getting special attention along with extra protection. While the U.S. Animal Welfare Act ignores birds, mice and rats, the U.S. guidelines that control research performed using federal funding ensure protections for all vertebrates [ 79 , 80 ].

Living conditions of animals

Choice of the animal model.

Based on all the above laws and regulations and in line with the deliberations of ethical committees, every researcher must follow certain rules when dealing with animal models.

Before starting any experimental work, thorough research should be carried out during the study design phase so that the unnecessary use of experimental animals is avoided. Nevertheless, certain research studies may have compelling reasons for the use of animal models, such as the investigation of human diseases and toxicity tests. Moreover, animals are also widely used in the training of health professionals as well as in training doctors in surgical skills [ 1 , 81 ].

Researcher should be well aware of the specific traits of the animal species they intend to use in the experiment, such as its developmental stages, physiology, nutritional needs, reproductive characteristics and specific behaviors. Animal models should be selected on the basis of the study design and the biological relevance of the animal [ 1 ].

Typically, in early research, non-mammalian models are used to get rapid insights into research problems such as the identification of gene function or the recognition of novel therapeutic options. Thus, in biomedical and biological research, among the most commonly used model organisms are the Zebrafish, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans . The main advantage of these non-mammalian animal models is their prolific reproducibility along with their much shorter generation time. They can be easily grown in any laboratory setting, are less expensive than the murine animal models and are somewhat more powerful than the tissue and cell culture approaches [ 82 ].

Caenorhabditis elegans is a small-sized nematode with a short life cycle and that exists in large populations and is relatively inexpensive to cultivate. Scientists have gathered extensive knowledge of the genomics and genetics of Caenorhabditis elegans ; but Caenorhabditis elegans models, while very useful in some respects, are unable to represent all signaling pathways found in humans. Furthermore, due to its short life cycle, scientists are unable to investigate long term effects of test compounds or to analyze primary versus secondary effects [ 6 ].

Similarly, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has played a key role in numerous biomedical discoveries. It is small in size, has a short life cycle and large population size, is relatively inexpensive to breed, and extensive genomics and genetics information is available [ 6 ]. However, its respiratory, cardiovascular and nervous systems differ considerably from human beings. In addition, its immune system is less developed when compared to vertebrates, which is why effectiveness of a drug in Drosophila melanogaster may not be easily extrapolated to humans [ 83 ].

The Zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) is a small freshwater teleost, with transparent embryos, providing easy access for the observation of organogenesis and its manipulation. Therefore, Zebrafish embryos are considered good animal models for different human diseases like tuberculosis and fetal alcohol syndrome and are useful as neurodevelopmental research models. However, Zebrafish has very few mutant strains available, and its genome has numerous duplicate genes making it impossible to create knockout strains, since disrupting one copy of the gene will not disrupt the second copy of that gene. This feature limits the use of Zebrafish as animal models to study human diseases. Additionally they are rather expensive, have long life cycle, and genomics and genetics studies are still in progress [ 82 , 84 ].

Thus, experimentation on these three animals might not be equivalent to experimentation on mammals. Mammalian animal model are most similar to human beings, so targeted gene replacement is possible. Traditionally, mammals like monkey and mice have been the preferred animal models for biomedical research because of their evolutionary closeness to humans. Rodents, particularly mice and rats, are the most frequently used animal models for scientific research. Rats are the most suitable animal model for the study of obesity, shock, peritonitis, sepsis, cancer, intestinal operations, spleen, gastric ulcers, mononuclear phagocytic system, organ transplantations and wound healing. Mice are more suitable for studying burns, megacolon, shock, cancer, obesity, and sepsis as mentioned previously [ 85 ].

Similarly, pigs are mostly used for stomach, liver and transplantation studies, while rabbits are suitable for the study of immunology, inflammation, vascular biology, shock, colitis and transplantations. Thus, the choice of experimental animal mainly depends upon the field of scientific research under consideration [ 1 ].

HOUSING AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENRICHMENT

Researchers should be aware of the environment and conditions in which laboratory animals are kept during research, and they also need to be familiar with the metabolism of the animals kept in vivarium, since their metabolism can easily be altered by different factors such as pain, stress, confinement, lack of sunlight, etc. Housing conditions alter animal behavior, and this can in turn affect experimental results. By contrast, handling procedures that feature environmental enrichment and enhancement help to decrease stress and positively affect the welfare of the animals and the reliability of research data [ 74 , 75 ].

In animals, distress- and agony-causing factors should be controlled or eliminated to overcome any interference with data collection as well as with interpretation of the results, since impaired animal welfare leads to more animal usage during experiment, decreased reliability and increased discrepancies in results along with the unnecessary consumption of animal lives [ 86 ].

To reduce the variation or discrepancies in experimental data caused by various environmental factors, experimental animals must be kept in an appropriate and safe place. In addition, it is necessary to keep all variables like humidity, airflow and temperature at levels suitable for those species, as any abrupt variation in these factors could cause stress, reduced resistance and increased susceptibility to infections [ 74 ].

The space allotted to experimental animals should permit them free movement, proper sleep and where feasible allow for interaction with other animals of the same species. Mice and rats are quite sociable animals and must, therefore, be housed in groups for the expression of their normal behavior. Usually, laboratory cages are not appropriate for the behavioral needs of the animals. Therefore, environmental enrichment is an important feature for the expression of their natural behavior that will subsequently affect their defense mechanisms and physiology [ 87 ].

The features of environmental enrichment must satisfy the animals’ sense of curiosity, offer them fun activities, and also permit them to fulfill their behavioral and physiological needs. These needs include exploring, hiding, building nests and gnawing. For this purpose, different things can be used in their environment, such as PVC tubes, cardboard, igloos, paper towel, cotton, disposable masks and paper strips [ 87 ].

The environment used for housing of animals must be continuously controlled by appropriate disinfection, hygiene protocols, sterilization and sanitation processes. These steps lead to a reduction in the occurrence of various infectious agents that often found in vivarium, such as Sendai virus, cestoda and Mycoplasma pulmonis [ 88 ].

Euthanasia is a term derived from Greek, and it means a death without any suffering. According to the Brazilian Arouca Law (Article 14, Chapter IV, Paragraphs 1 and 2), an animal should undergo euthanasia, in strict compliance with the requirements of each species, when the experiment ends or during any phase of the experiment, wherever this procedure is recommended and/or whenever serious suffering occurs. If the animal does not undergo euthanasia after the intervention it may leave the vivarium and be assigned to suitable people or to the animal protection bodies, duly legalized [ 1 ].

Euthanasia procedures must result in instant loss of consciousness which leads to respiratory or cardiac arrest as well as to complete brain function impairment. Another important aspect of this procedure is calm handling of the animal while taking it out of its enclosure, to reduce its distress, suffering, anxiety and fear. In every research project, the study design should include the details of the appropriate endpoints of these experimental animals, and also the methods that will be adopted. It is important to determine the appropriate method of euthanasia for the animal being used. Another important point is that, after completing the euthanasia procedure, the animal’s death should be absolutely confirmed before discarding their bodies [ 87 , 89 ].

Relevance of animal experimentations and possible alternatives

Relevance of animal experiments and their adverse effects on human health.

One important concern is whether human diseases, when inflicted on experimental animals, adequately mimic the progressions of the disease and the treatment responses observed in humans. Several research articles have made comparisons between human and animal data, and indicated that the results of animals’ research could not always be reliably replicated in clinical research among humans. The latest systematic reviews about the treatment of different clinical conditions including neurology, vascular diseases and others, have established that the results of animal studies cannot properly predict human outcomes [ 59 , 90 ].

At present, the reliability of animal experiments for extrapolation to human health is questionable. Harmful effects may occur in humans because of misleading results from research conducted on animals. For instance, during the late fifties, a sedative drug, thalidomide, was prescribed for pregnant women, but some of the women using that drug gave birth to babies lacking limbs or with foreshortened limbs, a condition called phocomelia. When thalidomide had been tested on almost all animal models such as rats, mice, rabbits, dogs, cats, hamsters, armadillos, ferrets, swine, guinea pig, etc., this teratogenic effect was observed only occasionally [ 91 ]. Similarly, in 2006, the compound TGN 1412 was designed as an immunomodulatory drug, but when it was injected into six human volunteer, serious adverse reactions were observed resulting from a deadly cytokine storm that in turn led to disastrous systemic organ failure. TGN 1412 had been tested successfully in rats, mice, rabbits, and non-human primates [ 92 ]. Moreover, Bailey (2008) reported 90 HIV vaccines that had successful trial results in animals but which failed in human beings [ 93 ]. Moreover, in Parkinson disease, many therapeutic options that have shown promising results in rats and non-human primate models have proved harmful in humans. Hence, to analyze the relevance of animal research to human health, the efficacy of animal experimentation should be examined systematically [ 94 , 95 ]. At the same time, the development of hyperoxaluria and renal failure (up to dialysis) after ileal-jejunal bypass was unexpected because this procedure was not preliminarily evaluated on an animal model [ 96 ].

Several factors play a role in the extrapolation of animal-derived data to humans, such as environmental conditions and physiological parameters related to stress, age of the experimental animals, etc. These factors could switch on or off genes in the animal models that are specific to species and/or strains. All these observations challenge the reliability and suitability of animal experimentation as well as its objectives with respect to human health [ 76 , 92 ].

ALTERNATIVE TO ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION/DEVELOPMENT OF NEW PRODUCTS AND TECHNIQUES TO AVOID ANIMAL SACRIFICE IN RESEARCH

Certainly, in vivo animal experimentation has significantly contributed to the development of biological and biomedical research. However it has the limitations of strict ethical issues and high production cost. Some scientists consider animal testing an ineffective and immoral practice and therefore prefer alternative techniques to be used instead of animal experimentation. These alternative methods involve in vitro experiments and ex vivo models like cell and tissue cultures, use of plants and vegetables, non-invasive human clinical studies, use of corpses for studies, use of microorganisms or other simpler organism like shrimps and water flea larvae, physicochemical techniques, educational software, computer simulations, mathematical models and nanotechnology [ 97 ]. These methods and techniques are cost-effective and could efficiently replace animal models. They could therefore, contribute to animal welfare and to the development of new therapies that can identify the therapeutics and related complications at an early stage [ 1 ].

The National Research Council (UK) suggested a shift from the animal models toward computational models, as well as high-content and high-throughput in vitro methods. Their reports highlighted that these alternative methods could produce predictive data more affordably, accurately and quickly than the traditional in vivo or experimental animal methods [ 98 ].

Increasingly, scientists and the review boards have to assess whether addressing a research question using the applied techniques of advanced genetics, molecular, computational and cell biology, and biochemistry could be used to replace animal experiments [ 59 ]. It must be remembered that each alternative method must be first validated and then registered in dedicated databases.

An additional relevant concern is how precisely animal data can mirror relevant epigenetic changes and human genetic variability. Langley and his colleagues have highlighted some of the examples of existing and some emerging non-animal based research methods in the advanced fields of neurology, orthodontics, infectious diseases, immunology, endocrine, pulmonology, obstetrics, metabolism and cardiology [ 99 ].

IN SILICO SIMULATIONS AND INFORMATICS

Several computer models have been built to study cardiovascular risk and atherosclerotic plaque build-up, to model human metabolism, to evaluate drug toxicity and to address other questions that were previously approached by testing in animals [ 100 ].

Computer simulations can potentially decrease the number of experiments required for a research project, however simulations cannot completely replace laboratory experiments. Unfortunately, not all the principles regulating biological systems are known, and computer simulation provide only an estimation of possible effects due to the limitations of computer models in comparison with complex human tissues. However, simulation and bio-informatics are now considered essential in all fields of science for their efficiency in using the existing knowledge for further experimental designs [ 76 ].

At present, biological macromolecules are regularly simulated at various levels of detail, to predict their response and behavior under certain physical conditions, chemical exposures and stimulations. Computational and bioinformatic simulations have significantly reduced the number of animals sacrificed during drug discovery by short listing potential candidate molecules for a drug. Likewise, computer simulations have decreased the number of animal experiments required in other areas of biological science by efficiently using the existing knowledge. Moreover, the development of high definition 3D computer models for anatomy with enhanced level of detail, it may make it possible to reduce or eliminate the need for animal dissection during teaching [ 101 , 102 ].

3D CELL-CULTURE MODELS AND ORGANS-ON-CHIPS

In the current scenario of rapid advancement in the life sciences, certain tissue models can be built using 3D cell culture technology. Indeed, there are some organs on micro-scale chip models used for mimicking the human body environment. 3D models of multiple organ systems such as heart, liver, skin, muscle, testis, brain, gut, bone marrow, lungs and kidney, in addition to individual organs, have been created in microfluidic channels, re-creating the physiological chemical and physical microenvironments of the body [ 103 ]. These emerging techniques, such as the biomedical/biological microelectromechanical system (Bio-MEMS) or lab-on-a-chip (LOC) and micro total analysis systems (lTAS) will, in the future, be a useful substitute for animal experimentation in commercial laboratories in the biotechnology, environmental safety, chemistry and pharmaceutical industries. For 3D cell culture modeling, cells are grown in 3D spheroids or aggregates with the help of a scaffold or matrix, or sometimes using a scaffold-free method. The 3D cell culture modeling conditions can be altered to add proteins and other factors that are found in a tumor microenvironment, for example, or in particular tissues. These matrices contain extracellular matrix components such as proteins, glycoconjugates and glycosaminoglycans that allow for cell communication, cell to cell contact and the activation of signaling pathways in such a way that the morphological and functional differentiation of these cells can accurately mimic their environment in vivo . This methodology, in time, will bridge the gap between in vivo and in vitro drug screening, decreasing the utilization of animal models during research [ 104 ].

ALTERNATIVES TO MICROBIAL CULTURE MEDIA AND SERUM-FREE ANIMAL CELL CULTURES

There are moves to reduce the use of animal derived products in many areas of biotechnology. Microbial culture media peptones are mostly made by the proteolysis of farmed animal meat. However, nowadays, various suppliers provide peptones extracted from yeast and plants. Although the costs of these plant-extracted peptones are the same as those of animal peptones, plant peptones are more environmentally favorable since less plant material and water are required for them to grow, compared with the food grain and fodder needed for cattle that are slaughtered for animal peptone production [ 105 ].

Human cell culture is often carried out in a medium that contains fetal calf serum, the production of which involves animal (cow) sacrifice or suffering. In fact, living pregnant cows are used and their fetuses removed to harvest the serum from the fetal blood. Fetal calf serum is used because it is a natural medium rich in all the required nutrients and significantly increases the chances of successful cell growth in culture. Scientists are striving to identify the factors and nutrients required for the growth of various types of cells, with a view to eliminating the use of calf serum. At present, most cell lines could be cultured in a chemically-synthesized medium without using animal products. Furthermore, data from chemically-synthesized media experiments may have better reproducibility than those using animal serum media, since the composition of animal serum does change from batch to batch on the basis of animals’ gender, age, health and genetic background [ 76 ].

ALTERNATIVES TO ANIMAL-DERIVED ANTIBODIES

Animal friendly affinity reagents may act as an alternative to antibodies produced, thereby removing the need for animal immunization. Typically, these antibodies are obtained in vitro by yeast, phage or ribosome display. In a recent review, a comparative analysis between animal friendly affinity reagents and animal derived-antibodies showed that the affinity reagents have superior quality, are relatively less time consuming, have more reproducibility and are more reliable and are cost-effective [ 106 , 107 ].

Conclusions

Animal experimentation led to great advancement in biological and biomedical sciences and contributed to the discovery of many drugs and treatment options. However, such experimentation may cause harm, pain and distress to the animals involved. Therefore, to perform animal experimentations, certain ethical rules and laws must be strictly followed and there should be proper justification for using animals in research projects. Furthermore, during animal experimentation the 4 Rs principles of reduction, refinement, replacement and responsibility must be followed by the researchers. Moreover, before beginning a research project, experiments should be thoroughly planned and well-designed, and should avoid unnecessary use of animals. The reliability and reproducibility of animal experiments should also be considered. Whenever possible, alternative methods to animal experimentation should be adopted, such as in vitro experimentation, cadaveric studies, and computer simulations.

While much progress has been made on reducing animal experimentation there is a need for greater awareness of alternatives to animal experiments among scientists and easier access to advanced modeling technologies. Greater research is needed to define a roadmap that will lead to the elimination of all unnecessary animal experimentation and provide a framework for adoption of reliable alternative methodologies in biomedical research.

Acknowledgements

This research was funded by the Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano in the framework of LP 15/2020 (dgp 3174/2021).

Conflicts of interest statement

Authors declare no conflict of interest.

Author's contributions

MB: study conception, editing and critical revision of the manuscript; AKK, DP, GH, RB, Paul S, Peter S, RM, BF, NC, SM, LL, DD, GMT, MCE, MD, SM, Daniele M, GB, AD, KD, MCM, TB, MS, STC, Donald M, AM, AB, KLH, MK, LS, LL, GF: literature search, editing and critical revision of the manuscript. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.

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INTERNATIONAL BIOETHICS STUDY GROUP : Derek Pheby , Gary Henehan , Richard Brown , Paul Sieving , Peter Sykora , Robert Marks , Benedetto Falsini , Natale Capodicasa , Stanislav Miertus , Lorenzo Lorusso , Gianluca Martino Tartaglia , Mahmut Cerkez Ergoren , Munis Dundar , Sandro Michelini , Daniele Malacarne , Tommaso Beccari , Michele Samaja , Matteo Bertelli , Donald Martin , Assunta Morresi , Ariola Bacu , Karen L. Herbst , Mykhaylo Kapustin , Liborio Stuppia , Ludovica Lumer , and Giampietro Farronato

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The ethics of animal experimentation.

Many medical research institutions make use of non-human animals as test subjects. Animals may be subject to experimentation or modified into conditions useful for gaining knowledge about human disease or for testing potential human treatments. Because animals as distant from humans as mice and rats share many physiological and genetic similarities with humans, animal experimentation can be tremendously helpful for furthering medical science.

However, there is an ongoing debate about the ethics of animal experimentation. Some people argue that all animal experimentation should end because it is wrong to treat animals merely as tools for furthering knowledge. According to this point of view, an animal should have as much right as a human being to live out a full life, free of pain and suffering. Others argue that while it is wrong to unnecessarily abuse animals, animal experimentation must continue because of the enormous scientific resource that animal models provide. Proponents of continued animal experimentation often also point out that progress can still be made to improve the conditions of laboratory animals and they fully support efforts to improve living conditions in laboratories, to use anesthesia appropriately, and to require trained personnel to handle animals.

On closer scrutiny, there exists a wide range of positions on the debate over the ethics of animal testing. The two views mentioned above represent two common positions at the opposing ends of the spectrum. Others endorse a view closer to the middle of the spectrum. Usually, this middle view accepts experimentation on some, but not all, animals and aims to avoid unnecessary use of animals in scientific research by pursuing alternatives to animal testing.

The following sections briefly outline a few of the arguments for and against animal experimentation. They do not represent every possible argument, or even necessarily the best arguments. They also do not necessarily reflect the views of the HOPES team. They are simply our effort to review and raise awareness of the underlying issues.

  • The Case Against Animal Experimentation
  • The Case For Animal Experimentation
  • A Middle Ground

The Case Against Animal Experimentation ^

An important part of the debate over animal rights centers on the question of the moral status of an animal. Most people agree that animals have at least some moral status – that is why it is wrong to abuse pets or needlessly hurt other animals. This alone represents a shift from a past view where animals had no moral status and treating an animal well was more about maintaining human standards of dignity than respecting any innate rights of the animal. In modern times, the question has shifted from whether animals have moral status to how much moral status they have and what rights come with that status.

The strongest pro animal rights answer to this question would be that non-human animals have exactly the same moral status as humans and are entitled to equal treatment. The ethicists who endorse this position do not mean that animals are entitled to the very same treatment as humans; arguing that animals should have the right to vote or hold office is clearly absurd. The claim is that animals should be afforded the same level of respectful treatment as humans; in short, we should not have the right to kill animals, force them into our service, or otherwise treat them merely as means to further our own goals.

One common form of this argument claims that moral status comes from the capacity to suffer or to enjoy life. In respect to his capacity, many animals are no different than humans. They can feel pain and experience pleasure. Therefore, they should have the same moral status and deserve equal treatment.

Supporters of this type of argument frequently claim that granting animals less moral status than humans is just a form of prejudice called “speciesism.” We have an innate tendency, they say, to consider the human species more morally relevant merely because it is the group to which we belong. However, we look upon past examples of this behavior as morally condemnable. Being of a particular race or gender does not give one any grounds for declaring outsiders to be of a lower moral status. Many animal rights advocates argue similarly—that just because we are human is not sufficient grounds to declare animals less morally significant.

The Case For Animal Experimentation ^

Defenders of animal experimentation usually argue that animals cannot be considered morally equal to humans. They generally use this claim as the cornerstone of an argument that the benefits to humans from animal experimentation outweigh or “make up for” the harm done to animals. The first step in making that argument is to show that humans are more important than animals. Below, I will outline one of the more common arguments used to reach this conclusion.

Some philosophers advocate the idea of a moral community. Roughly speaking, this is a group of individuals who all share certain traits in common. By sharing these traits, they belong to a particular moral community and thus take on certain responsibilities toward each other and assume specific rights. For example, in most human moral communities all individuals have the right to make independent decisions and live autonomous lives – and with that right comes the responsibility to respect others’ independence.

Although a moral community could theoretically include animals, it frequently does not. The human moral community, for instance, is often characterized by a capacity to manipulate abstract concepts and by personal autonomy. Since most animals do not have the cognitive capabilities of humans and also do not seem to possess full autonomy (animals do not rationally choose to pursue specific life goals), they are not included in the moral community. Once animals have been excluded from the moral community, humans have only a limited obligation towards them; on this argument, we certainly would not need to grant animals all normal human rights.

If animals do not have the same rights as humans, it becomes permissible to use them for research purposes. Under this view, the ways in which experimentation might harm the animal are less morally significant than the potential human benefits from the research.

One problem with this type of argument is that many humans themselves do not actually fulfill the criteria for belonging to the human moral community. Both infants and the mentally handicapped frequently lack complex cognitive capacities, full autonomy, or even both of these traits. Are those individuals outside the human moral community? Do they lack fundamental human rights and should we use them for experimentation? One philosophical position actually accepts those consequences and argues that those humans have the exact same rights (or lack of rights) as non-human animals. However, most people are uncomfortable with that scenario and some philosophers have put forth a variety of reasons to include all humans in the human moral community. A common way to “return” excluded individuals to the human moral community is to note how close these individuals come to meeting the criteria. In fact, some of them (the infants) will surely meet all of the criteria in the future. With that in mind, the argument runs, it is best practice to act charitably and treat all humans as part of the moral community.

In summary, defenders of animal experimentation argue that humans have higher moral status than animals and fundamental rights that animals lack. Accordingly, potential animal rights violations are outweighed by the greater human benefits of animal research.

A Middle Ground ^

There is a middle ground for those who feel uncomfortable with animal experimentation, but believe that in some circumstances the good arising out of experimentation does outweigh harm to the animal. Proponents of the middle ground position usually advocate a few basic principals that they believe should always be followed in animal research.

One principle calls for the preferential research use of less complex organisms whenever possible. For example bacteria , fruit flies, and plants would be preferred over mammals. This reflects a belief in a hierarchy of moral standing with more complex animals at the top and microorganisms and plants at the bottom. A philosophical grounding for this sort of hierarchy is the “moral worth as richness of life” model. This point of view suggests that more complicated organisms have richer, more fulfilling lives and that it is the richness of the life that actually correlates with moral worth.

Another principle is to reduce animal use as far as possible in any given study. Extensive literature searches, for instance, can ensure that experiments are not unnecessarily replicated and can ensure that animal models are only used to obtain information not already available in the scientific community. Another way to reduce animal use is to ensure that studies are conducted according to the highest standards and that all information collected will be useable. Providing high quality, disease-free environments for the animals will help ensure that every animal counts. Additionally, well designed studies and appropriate statistical analysis of data can minimize the number of animals required for statistically significant results.

A third principle is to ensure the best possible treatment of the animals used in a study. This means reducing pain and suffering as much as possible. When appropriate, anesthesia should be used; additionally, studies should have the earliest possible endpoints after which animals who will subsequently experience disease or suffering can be euthanized. Also, anyone who handles the animals should be properly trained.

The “bottom line” for the middle ground position is that animal experimentation should be avoided whenever possible in favor of alternative research strategies.

For further reading:

  • Singer, Peter. “All Animals are Equal.” Ethics in Practice . LaFollette, Hugh ed. Blackwell Publishing. 2007. Peter Singer is one of the best publicly known advocates of animal rights and animal equality. This philosophical essay briefly presents his views.
  • Fox, Michael Allen. “The Moral Community.” Ethics in Practice. LaFollette, Hugh ed. Blackwell Publishing. 2007. This essay defends animal experimentation.
  • Frey, R.G. “Animals and Their Medical Use.” Contemporary Debates in Applied Ethics. Cohen, Andrew and Wellman, Christopher eds. Blackwell Publishing. 2005 In this essay Frey puts forth a view where animals do matter, but human welfare is considered more important.
  • Regan, Tom. “Empty Cages: Animals Rights and Vivisection.” Contemporary Debates in Applied Ethics. Cohen, Andrew and Wellman, Christopher eds. Blackwell Publishing. 2005. This essay supports animal rights.
  • “Ethics and Alternatives”. Research Animal Resources. University of Minnesota. 2003. Ethics and Alternatives for Animal Use in Research and Teaching . A great resource describing some ways to minimize the use of animals in research and to practice the best standards when using animals.

– Adam Hepworth, 11-26-08

© 2020 HOPES Stanford University

HOPES is a team of faculty and undergraduate students at Stanford University dedicated to making scientific information about Huntington’s disease (HD) more readily accessible to the public. Our goal is to survey the rapidly growing scientific literature on HD and to present this information in a web source.

We emphasize that we are neither medical professionals, nor are we affiliated with the researchers and laboratories mentioned on our pages. The information we present is intended for educational purposes only and should not be construed as offering diagnoses or recommendations. We operate as a not-for-profit public service organization, and our funding is entirely from private sources.

Ethical care for research animals

WHY ANIMAL RESEARCH?

The use of animals in some forms of biomedical research remains essential to the discovery of the causes, diagnoses, and treatment of disease and suffering in humans and in animals., stanford shares the public's concern for laboratory research animals..

Many people have questions about animal testing ethics and the animal testing debate. We take our responsibility for the ethical treatment of animals in medical research very seriously. At Stanford, we emphasize that the humane care of laboratory animals is essential, both ethically and scientifically.  Poor animal care is not good science. If animals are not well-treated, the science and knowledge they produce is not trustworthy and cannot be replicated, an important hallmark of the scientific method .

There are several reasons why the use of animals is critical for biomedical research: 

••  Animals are biologically very similar to humans. In fact, mice share more than 98% DNA with us!

••  Animals are susceptible to many of the same health problems as humans – cancer, diabetes, heart disease, etc.

••  With a shorter life cycle than humans, animal models can be studied throughout their whole life span and across several generations, a critical element in understanding how a disease processes and how it interacts with a whole, living biological system.

The ethics of animal experimentation

Nothing so far has been discovered that can be a substitute for the complex functions of a living, breathing, whole-organ system with pulmonary and circulatory structures like those in humans. Until such a discovery, animals must continue to play a critical role in helping researchers test potential new drugs and medical treatments for effectiveness and safety, and in identifying any undesired or dangerous side effects, such as infertility, birth defects, liver damage, toxicity, or cancer-causing potential.

U.S. federal laws require that non-human animal research occur to show the safety and efficacy of new treatments before any human research will be allowed to be conducted.  Not only do we humans benefit from this research and testing, but hundreds of drugs and treatments developed for human use are now routinely used in veterinary clinics as well, helping animals live longer, healthier lives.

It is important to stress that 95% of all animals necessary for biomedical research in the United States are rodents – rats and mice especially bred for laboratory use – and that animals are only one part of the larger process of biomedical research.

Our researchers are strong supporters of animal welfare and view their work with animals in biomedical research as a privilege.

Stanford researchers are obligated to ensure the well-being of all animals in their care..

Stanford researchers are obligated to ensure the well-being of animals in their care, in strict adherence to the highest standards, and in accordance with federal and state laws, regulatory guidelines, and humane principles. They are also obligated to continuously update their animal-care practices based on the newest information and findings in the fields of laboratory animal care and husbandry.  

Researchers requesting use of animal models at Stanford must have their research proposals reviewed by a federally mandated committee that includes two independent community members.  It is only with this committee’s approval that research can begin. We at Stanford are dedicated to refining, reducing, and replacing animals in research whenever possible, and to using alternative methods (cell and tissue cultures, computer simulations, etc.) instead of or before animal studies are ever conducted.

brown mouse on blue gloved hand

Organizations and Resources

There are many outreach and advocacy organizations in the field of biomedical research.

  • Learn more about outreach and advocacy organizations

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Stanford Discoveries

What are the benefits of using animals in research? Stanford researchers have made many important human and animal life-saving discoveries through their work. 

  • Learn more about research discoveries at Stanford

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Why Animal Testing Should Be Banned

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Environment , Nursing & Health

Environmental Protection , Other Diseases & Conditions

Animal Ethics , Disease

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Animal Essay

what happens in spring animals in spring Book

500 Words Essay on Animal

Animals carry a lot of importance in our lives. They offer humans with food and many other things. For instance, we consume meat, eggs, dairy products. Further, we use animals as a pet too. They are of great help to handicaps. Thus, through the animal essay, we will take a look at these creatures and their importance.

animal essay

Types of Animals

First of all, all kinds of living organisms which are eukaryotes and compose of numerous cells and can sexually reproduce are known as animals. All animals have a unique role to play in maintaining the balance of nature.

A lot of animal species exist in both, land and water. As a result, each of them has a purpose for their existence. The animals divide into specific groups in biology. Amphibians are those which can live on both, land and water.

Reptiles are cold-blooded animals which have scales on their body. Further, mammals are ones which give birth to their offspring in the womb and have mammary glands. Birds are animals whose forelimbs evolve into wings and their body is covered with feather.

They lay eggs to give birth. Fishes have fins and not limbs. They breathe through gills in water. Further, insects are mostly six-legged or more. Thus, these are the kinds of animals present on earth.

Importance of Animals

Animals play an essential role in human life and planet earth. Ever since an early time, humans have been using animals for their benefit. Earlier, they came in use for transportation purposes.

Further, they also come in use for food, hunting and protection. Humans use oxen for farming. Animals also come in use as companions to humans. For instance, dogs come in use to guide the physically challenged people as well as old people.

In research laboratories, animals come in use for drug testing. Rats and rabbits are mostly tested upon. These researches are useful in predicting any future diseases outbreaks. Thus, we can protect us from possible harm.

Astronomers also use animals to do their research. They also come in use for other purposes. Animals have use in various sports like racing, polo and more. In addition, they also have use in other fields.

They also come in use in recreational activities. For instance, there are circuses and then people also come door to door to display the tricks by animals to entertain children. Further, they also come in use for police forces like detection dogs.

Similarly, we also ride on them for a joyride. Horses, elephants, camels and more come in use for this purpose. Thus, they have a lot of importance in our lives.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Conclusion of Animal Essay

Thus, animals play an important role on our planet earth and in human lives. Therefore, it is our duty as humans to protect animals for a better future. Otherwise, the human race will not be able to survive without the help of the other animals.

FAQ on Animal Essay

Question 1: Why are animals are important?

Answer 1: All animals play an important role in the ecosystem. Some of them help to bring out the nutrients from the cycle whereas the others help in decomposition, carbon, and nitrogen cycle. In other words, all kinds of animals, insects, and even microorganisms play a role in the ecosystem.

Question 2: How can we protect animals?

Answer 2: We can protect animals by adopting them. Further, one can also volunteer if one does not have the means to help. Moreover, donating to wildlife reserves can help. Most importantly, we must start buying responsibly to avoid companies which harm animals to make their products.

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Persuasive Essay Against Animal Testing

Animal testing affects over 100 million animals a year. The main animals that are used are birds, fish, monkeys, guinea pigs, hamsters, rabbits, cats, dogs, frogs, rats, and mice. These animals are used for cosmetic, drug, chemical, and food testing. These animals also struggle in medical training, biology lessons, and interest-guided experiments (“Animal Testing Facts and Statistics”). While animal testing helps researchers develop new treatments and drugs, it needs to be put to an end because it is inhumane, it is inaccurate, and there are other testing methods.

Animal testing needs to be stopped because it is harsh. First animals are put through experiments that torment them. According to Kabene, the animals undergo painful experiments for, “cosmetic and medical tests.” This needs to stop especially the non-medical animal testing that is causing animals to go through extreme amounts of pain. The way that animals suffer when they are not going through tests is also cruel. For example, Jiaa states that animals are, “storage into cramped spaces, and lack of quality/quantity in nutrition.” Even when the animals are not going through painful testing, they receive poor behavior from the people looking after them. Some of the animals that do accommodate either go through life changes that affect them for the rest of their life or the animals will be neutralized. For example, losing their eyesight, muscle coordination, and possibly even their limbs (Jiaa). Those are the results of animal testing. Animal testing is inhumane, and it needs to be stopped.

Furthermore, animal testing gives inaccurate results that are why terminating it needs to occur. According to “Pros & Cons- ProCon.org,” “94% of drugs that pass animal test fail in human trials.” This quote shows that animal testing is ineffective. More than three-fourths of the drugs that worked in animals were unsuccessful in the human trials. That makes animal testing highly imprecise. The reason this happens is that humans and animals have different biological make-ups. They have cellular, metabolic, and anatomic differences. That makes animals inadequate test subjects for humans. Also, animal testing could mislead scientists to overlook cures and treatments (“Pros & Cons - ProCon.org”). Since animal testing gives ineffective results for human experiments it needs to be stopped.       

Animal testing can be stopped because there are other alternatives to it. For example, Curtis states that, “to conduct tests on ingredients and finished products in humans under critical observation.” The quote is saying that human test subjects could be used instead of animals. Human volunteers are available for specific experiments. The human test subjects have been way more accurate than animal test subjects could ever be. Another alternative is vitro testing, which are tests done in a petri dish of human cells (“Pros & Cons - ProCon.org”). This alternative is a crucial advancement for the stopping of animal testing. The reason why is that no harm to humans or animals would be done in this alternative. Human volunteers and vitro testing are the two best alternatives to animal testing. Both would be better than animal testing because these alternatives can give more accurate results. Which would benefit humans more than testing on animals. Finding alternatives to animal testing is a major step to ending animal testing. 

There are some positives to animal testing, but the negatives far outweigh the positives. For example, it helps provide product safety for humans. It slims the chances of humans being affected by certain everyday products like cosmetics. For instance, skin irritation and even death during the human testing phase. Except animal testing would not help with this because animals have different skin and different biological make-ups than humans. Which would lead to inaccurate results, and nobody could be sure how it would genuinely affect humans till it is tested on humans. Another result of animal testing is medical advancement. Specifically, vaccines and medical procedures like open-heart surgery. Some vaccines that were tested on animals and have worked in the human trials are hepatitis B and polio. Also, by testing on animals, veterinary medicine has benefited. Doing experiments on animals gives researchers a promising idea of how that experiment is going to affect the human body (Jiaa). Except, animal testing is inaccurate and, it is hard to see what will happen until testing is done on humans.  Although animal testing is harmful and inhumane to animals there are some positives. However, there are more negatives to animal testing than there are positives.

In conclusion, animal testing needs to come to an end. First, animal testing is inhumane. It is cruel because the animals are constantly getting mistreated. Second, many of the test results are inaccurate and fail in human trials. Third, there are other alternatives to animal testing like human volunteers and vitro testing. Lastly, there are some positives to animal testing like product safety and medical improvement. Except there are more negatives to animal testing than positives and it must be stopped. Animal testing needs to be put to an end. 

Works cited

“Animal Testing Facts and Statistics.” PETA, 6 Oct. 2021, https://www.peta.org/issues/animals-used-for-experimentation/animals-used-experimentation-factsheets/animal-experiments-overview/. 

Curtis, Gary L. "An alternative to animal testing." Drug & Cosmetic Industry, vol. 150, no. 4, 

Apr. 1992, pp. 46+. Gale Academic OneFile Select, link.gale.com/apps/doc/A12092354/GPS?u=tonk7465&sid=bookmark-GPS&xid=45eab0ca. Accessed 2 Nov. 2021.

Jiaa, Sherry. “The Debate on Animal Experimentation.” Sather Health, 29 Dec. 2017, https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~sather/the-debate-on-animal-experimentation/. 

Kabene, Stefane, and Said Baadel. “Bioethics: A Look at Animal Testing in Medicine and Cosmetics in the UK.” Journal of Medical Ethics & History of Medicine, vol. 12, no. 1, Feb. 2019, pp. 1–11. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=145249939&site=ehost-live

“Pros & Cons - ProCon.org.” Animal Testing, 10 June 2020, animal-testing.procon.org/.

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Animal Experimentation Essay Example

Today many animals like rats, pigs, and buffalos are being used for scientific experiments before applying them to human beings. Students are assigned essay assignments on this topic and they have to express their ideologies on the subject. Here is an essay sample in animal experimentation which is given by Students Assignment Help as assistance to the students for writing their essay work. With the support of this sample essay, students can understand the issue clearly at the same time help could be taken for the structure and essay introduction writing as well.

Essay Sample on Animal Experimentation

  • Thesis Statement of Animal Experimentation Essay
  • Introduction of Animal Experimentation Essay
  • What is wrong with the Animal Testing process?
  • How to keep a Control on the Experimentation on Animals?
  • Is there any Government Initiative to stop Animal Experimentation?
Thesis Statement of Animal Experimentation Essay Experimentation on animals must be stopped to save their lives as many animals die due to the wrong chemicals that are injected into their body during the experiment. Introduction of Animal Experimentation Essay If we move around our head in the surrounding we will come to know the importance of animals in our life. But still, we are using them as objects for the experimentations of the various medicines and their effects on these animals before trying them on human beings. This is creating a serious threat to these animals’ life and they are in great danger. Here in this essay main focus will be on the problem of animal experimentation and how to check this problem which is increasing day by day. Also, a note on the government initiatives in this field will be given in the essay to provide complete information to the readers regarding this topic. Main Body of Animal Experimentation Essay Get a complete idea about how to check the problem of animal experimentation and what are the main issues that are limiting the government to take stern action against this injustice with the animals. What is wrong with the Animal Testing process? Every animal or human on this earth has the right of nature in which we cannot snatch their life from them. But in modern times in order to experiment with various researches in pharmaceutical companies, it is becoming very normal to torture the animals through chemical experiments. Most of these animals fail to sustain themselves with the chemicals and thus eventually die. But now we need to take some stern actions to control this on a large scale as many animals which are innocent are losing their lives at a very huge scale. Hire an Essay Writer to Write your Complete Essay on Time Order Now How to keep a Control on the Experimentation on Animals? The control on the experimentation on Animals could be done when there are solid government rules that do not allow any such activity to take place. International wildlife conventions should interfere with this matter now as this is high time to secure the animal rights which are supporting so many life activities of us. There are local companies who are involved in this process of doing experiments on the newborn animals as well and eventually these animals die off. So this heinous crime with the body of animals should be stopped to bring out the effective samples of the medicines. Both animals and humans have equal rights to living on this earth. If not given by the law then they are vested with this right from nature as well. Is there any Government Initiative to stop Animal Experimentation? Over the period of time now the government has been awakening from the slumbers and certain actions that save the lives of animals from such experiments are being taken in present time. Wildlife action act is a live example of saving the lives of animals and their protection rights as well. But still, this is an international law and hardly followed by the local bodies which are still involved in the pursuit of slaying animals for their so-called experiments of the medicines. But the biggest challenge that government has from taking an action against these experiments is the lack of alternatives for doing experiments for the medicines. As if no prior experiment will be done it can become the cause of side effects on a human being. Consult Essay Writing Expert & Get Premium Essay Topics Order Now Conclusion The above essay brings a conclusion that although we are involved in the process of doing animal testing we are forced to do so. This is because there is no alternative to substitute these experiments on someone else. It can put the human race in danger and that is why the government is not taking hard and fast action on it. But at the same time, this must be noticed that animals are not a public property that could be used for such reasons.

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  2. The Ethical Dilemma of Animal Testing: A Comprehensive Examination Free

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  3. 309 Animal experimentation For against essay

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  4. Animal experimentation essay. Animal Experimentation in the World

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  5. Animal Testing and Experimentation Free Essay Example

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  1. Experimentation on Animals

    Experimentation on Animals Essay Exclusively available on IvyPanda Updated: Jan 26th, 2024 Table of Contents Introduction The debate about experimentation on animals, though well documented in literature, is still endeavoring to free itself from past controversies and current challenges. We will write a custom essay on your topic 809 writers online

  2. Animal Testing Essays

    Essay topics General Overview 45 essay samples found 1 Animal Testing: a Necessary Evil? 2 pages / 860 words Introduction Animal testing has been performed since ancient times, and today it remains a controversial and sensitive issue.

  3. Animal Testing Essay : A Definitive Writing Guide + Topics

    Catchy facts Controversial statements on animal research Shocking facts about animal testing, e.g., Surprisingly, as People for the Ethical Treatment of Animal reports, almost 100 million animals are killed in just the laboratories in the U.S. for research such as biology lessons, experimentation, food, drug, and cosmetic testing.

  4. Animal Testing Essay

    November 4, 2020 by Prasanna Animal Testing Essay: Animal Testing is a hotly debated topic in our society. Animal testing uses animals and organisms as a test subject and are exposed to clinical trials before conducting human trials. Scientists use them to determine the effectiveness of a drug or other products and see any side effects.

  5. IELTS Animal Testing Essay

    (Words 278) Comments This animal testing essay would achieve a high score. It fully answers all parts of the task - explaining the arguments ' for ' in the first paragraph and the arguments ' against ' in the next. Conclusions are then drawn with the writer giving their opinion in the conclusion.

  6. How To Write An Animal Testing Essay?

    Updated: 4/7/2021 Table of Contents Animal testing essay approaches Position against animal testing essay Position pro-animal testing essay Ideas on animal testing essay structure Writing an animal testing essay introduction Best animal testing essay titles Crafting an animal testing essay hook

  7. Animal Testing Argumentative Essay Writing Guide

    An animal testing essay conclusion always refers to the fact that the structure of animals' organisms that resembles that of humans makes them the most suitable material for research in product testing in the fields of medicine and cosmetics. Animal and human bodies have identical or similar processes. There is an assumption that testing can ...

  8. Conclusion

    Conclusion. People clearly want the benefits that derive from animal research. They also want animals to be well-treated and to undergo a minimum of pain and distress. These desires result from our values, from the importance we ascribe to both human and animal life. But decisions about the use of animals should be based both on reason and values.

  9. The Flaws and Human Harms of Animal Experimentation

    Introduction. Annually, more than 115 million animals are used worldwide in experimentation or to supply the biomedical industry. 1 Nonhuman animal (hereafter "animal") experimentation falls under two categories: basic (i.e., investigation of basic biology and human disease) and applied (i.e., drug research and development and toxicity and safety testing).

  10. 20 Animal Testing Articles to Support Your Persuasive Essay

    Image #1: Professional, ethical scientists carefully monitoring and testing animals and developing life-saving cures. Image #2: People needlessly injecting, probing, and torturing defenseless animals. While some of you may have an image that's somewhere between ethical testing and torture, I'm sure many of you will either see Image #1 or ...

  11. Animal Experimentation Essays

    by Andre Fredo Testing on animals is common practice for products such as cosmetics or drugs. Some people regard testing on animals as completely wrong and inhumane and they believe is should not be allowed. Do you agree or disagree with this statement?

  12. Conclusion for animal testing Free Essays

    627 Words 2 Pages Good Essays Read More Animal Testing issues that could very easily alter our way of living. Animal testing is one of these issues; the use of non-human animals in experiments.

  13. Ethical considerations regarding animal experimentation

    Introduction Animal model-based research has been performed for a very long time. Ever since the 5 th century B.C., reports of experiments involving animals have been documented, but an increase in the frequency of their utilization has been observed since the 19 th century [ 1 ].

  14. The Ethics of Animal Experimentation

    Many medical research institutions make use of non-human animals as test subjects. Animals may be subject to experimentation or modified into conditions useful for gaining knowledge about human disease or for testing potential human treatments. Because animals as distant from humans as mice and rats share many physiological and genetic similarities with humans, animal experimentation can be ...

  15. WHY ANIMAL RESEARCH?

    There are several reasons why the use of animals is critical for biomedical research: • Animals are biologically very similar to humans. In fact, mice share more than 98% DNA with us! • Animals are susceptible to many of the same health problems as humans - cancer, diabetes, heart disease, etc.

  16. Why Animal Testing Should Be Banned

    Animal testing isn't free, the people performing the experiments are costing them a lot of money, but remember. ... In conclusion to my discursive essay, animal testing should be completely banned from every single country in the world no matter what cosmetic or biological use they are trying to investigate as this is causing pain and ...

  17. Animal Essay for Students and Children

    First of all, all kinds of living organisms which are eukaryotes and compose of numerous cells and can sexually reproduce are known as animals. All animals have a unique role to play in maintaining the balance of nature. A lot of animal species exist in both, land and water. As a result, each of them has a purpose for their existence.

  18. Persuasive Essay Against Animal Testing

    However, there are more negatives to animal testing than there are positives. In conclusion, animal testing needs to come to an end. First, animal testing is inhumane. It is cruel because the animals are constantly getting mistreated. Second, many of the test results are inaccurate and fail in human trials.

  19. Essay On Animal Experimentation

    Animal Experimentation Essay Example. Today many animals like rats, pigs, and buffalos are being used for scientific experiments before applying them to human beings. Students are assigned essay assignments on this topic and they have to express their ideologies on the subject. Here is an essay sample in animal experimentation which is given by ...

  20. Argumentative Essay against Animal Testing

    Bekoff claimed that "non-human animals are extremely smart and demonstrate emotional and moral intelligence". As he has proved in his numerous studies, animals can feel the same emotions that humans do, so animal testing can cause terrifying pain that animals can feel as much as humans.