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MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics
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MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (9 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
Guidelines for referring to the works of others in your text using MLA style are covered throughout the MLA Handbook and in chapter 7 of the MLA Style Manual . Both books provide extensive examples, so it's a good idea to consult them if you want to become even more familiar with MLA guidelines or if you have a particular reference question.
Basic in-text citation rules
In MLA Style, referring to the works of others in your text is done using parenthetical citations . This method involves providing relevant source information in parentheses whenever a sentence uses a quotation or paraphrase. Usually, the simplest way to do this is to put all of the source information in parentheses at the end of the sentence (i.e., just before the period). However, as the examples below will illustrate, there are situations where it makes sense to put the parenthetical elsewhere in the sentence, or even to leave information out.
- The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends (1) upon the source medium (e.g. print, web, DVD) and (2) upon the source’s entry on the Works Cited page.
- Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page. More specifically, whatever signal word or phrase you provide to your readers in the text must be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of the corresponding entry on the Works Cited page.
In-text citations: Author-page style
MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number(s) should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence. For example:
Both citations in the examples above, (263) and (Wordsworth 263), tell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page 263 of a work by an author named Wordsworth. If readers want more information about this source, they can turn to the Works Cited page, where, under the name of Wordsworth, they would find the following information:
Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads . Oxford UP, 1967.
In-text citations for print sources with known author
For print sources like books, magazines, scholarly journal articles, and newspapers, provide a signal word or phrase (usually the author’s last name) and a page number. If you provide the signal word/phrase in the sentence, you do not need to include it in the parenthetical citation.
These examples must correspond to an entry that begins with Burke, which will be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of an entry on the Works Cited page:
Burke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature, and Method . University of California Press, 1966.
In-text citations for print sources by a corporate author
When a source has a corporate author, it is acceptable to use the name of the corporation followed by the page number for the in-text citation. You should also use abbreviations (e.g., nat'l for national) where appropriate, so as to avoid interrupting the flow of reading with overly long parenthetical citations.
In-text citations for sources with non-standard labeling systems
If a source uses a labeling or numbering system other than page numbers, such as a script or poetry, precede the citation with said label. When citing a poem, for instance, the parenthetical would begin with the word “line”, and then the line number or range. For example, the examination of William Blake’s poem “The Tyger” would be cited as such:
The speaker makes an ardent call for the exploration of the connection between the violence of nature and the divinity of creation. “In what distant deeps or skies. / Burnt the fire of thine eyes," they ask in reference to the tiger as they attempt to reconcile their intimidation with their relationship to creationism (lines 5-6).
Longer labels, such as chapters (ch.) and scenes (sc.), should be abbreviated.
In-text citations for print sources with no known author
When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name, following these guidelines.
Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work (such as an article) or italicize it if it's a longer work (e.g. plays, books, television shows, entire Web sites) and provide a page number if it is available.
Titles longer than a standard noun phrase should be shortened into a noun phrase by excluding articles. For example, To the Lighthouse would be shortened to Lighthouse .
If the title cannot be easily shortened into a noun phrase, the title should be cut after the first clause, phrase, or punctuation:
In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title appears in the parenthetical citation, and the full title of the article appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry on the Works Cited page. Thus, the writer includes the title in quotation marks as the signal phrase in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader directly to the source on the Works Cited page. The Works Cited entry appears as follows:
"The Impact of Global Warming in North America." Global Warming: Early Signs . 1999. www.climatehotmap.org/. Accessed 23 Mar. 2009.
If the title of the work begins with a quotation mark, such as a title that refers to another work, that quote or quoted title can be used as the shortened title. The single quotation marks must be included in the parenthetical, rather than the double quotation.
Parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages, used in conjunction, allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay, so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work.
Author-page citation for classic and literary works with multiple editions
Page numbers are always required, but additional citation information can help literary scholars, who may have a different edition of a classic work, like Marx and Engels's The Communist Manifesto . In such cases, give the page number of your edition (making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page, of course) followed by a semicolon, and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume (vol.), book (bk.), part (pt.), chapter (ch.), section (sec.), or paragraph (par.). For example:
Author-page citation for works in an anthology, periodical, or collection
When you cite a work that appears inside a larger source (for instance, an article in a periodical or an essay in a collection), cite the author of the internal source (i.e., the article or essay). For example, to cite Albert Einstein's article "A Brief Outline of the Theory of Relativity," which was published in Nature in 1921, you might write something like this:
See also our page on documenting periodicals in the Works Cited .
Citing authors with same last names
Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials (or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials) in your citation. For example:
Citing a work by multiple authors
For a source with two authors, list the authors’ last names in the text or in the parenthetical citation:
Corresponding Works Cited entry:
Best, David, and Sharon Marcus. “Surface Reading: An Introduction.” Representations , vol. 108, no. 1, Fall 2009, pp. 1-21. JSTOR, doi:10.1525/rep.2009.108.1.1
For a source with three or more authors, list only the first author’s last name, and replace the additional names with et al.
Franck, Caroline, et al. “Agricultural Subsidies and the American Obesity Epidemic.” American Journal of Preventative Medicine , vol. 45, no. 3, Sept. 2013, pp. 327-333.
Citing multiple works by the same author
If you cite more than one work by an author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks.
Citing two articles by the same author :
Citing two books by the same author :
Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the work, and, when appropriate, the page number(s):
Citing multivolume works
If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon. Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number(s). (If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses.)
Citing the Bible
In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using (and underline or italicize the title), as each version varies in its translation, followed by book (do not italicize or underline), chapter, and verse. For example:
If future references employ the same edition of the Bible you’re using, list only the book, chapter, and verse in the parenthetical citation:
John of Patmos echoes this passage when describing his vision (Rev. 4.6-8).
Citing indirect sources
Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited within another source. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd. in" to indicate the source you actually consulted. For example:
Note that, in most cases, a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect source.
Citing transcripts, plays, or screenplays
Sources that take the form of a dialogue involving two or more participants have special guidelines for their quotation and citation. Each line of dialogue should begin with the speaker's name written in all capitals and indented half an inch. A period follows the name (e.g., JAMES.) . After the period, write the dialogue. Each successive line after the first should receive an additional indentation. When another person begins speaking, start a new line with that person's name indented only half an inch. Repeat this pattern each time the speaker changes. You can include stage directions in the quote if they appear in the original source.
Conclude with a parenthetical that explains where to find the excerpt in the source. Usually, the author and title of the source can be given in a signal phrase before quoting the excerpt, so the concluding parenthetical will often just contain location information like page numbers or act/scene indicators.
Here is an example from O'Neill's The Iceman Cometh.
WILLIE. (Pleadingly) Give me a drink, Rocky. Harry said it was all right. God, I need a drink.
ROCKY. Den grab it. It's right under your nose.
WILLIE. (Avidly) Thanks. (He takes the bottle with both twitching hands and tilts it to his lips and gulps down the whiskey in big swallows.) (1.1)
Citing non-print or sources from the Internet
With more and more scholarly work published on the Internet, you may have to cite sources you found in digital environments. While many sources on the Internet should not be used for scholarly work (reference the OWL's Evaluating Sources of Information resource), some Web sources are perfectly acceptable for research. When creating in-text citations for electronic, film, or Internet sources, remember that your citation must reference the source on your Works Cited page.
Sometimes writers are confused with how to craft parenthetical citations for electronic sources because of the absence of page numbers. However, these sorts of entries often do not require a page number in the parenthetical citation. For electronic and Internet sources, follow the following guidelines:
- Include in the text the first item that appears in the Work Cited entry that corresponds to the citation (e.g. author name, article name, website name, film name).
- Do not provide paragraph numbers or page numbers based on your Web browser’s print preview function.
- Unless you must list the Web site name in the signal phrase in order to get the reader to the appropriate entry, do not include URLs in-text. Only provide partial URLs such as when the name of the site includes, for example, a domain name, like CNN.com or Forbes.com, as opposed to writing out http://www.cnn.com or http://www.forbes.com.
Miscellaneous non-print sources
Two types of non-print sources you may encounter are films and lectures/presentations:
In the two examples above “Herzog” (a film’s director) and “Yates” (a presentor) lead the reader to the first item in each citation’s respective entry on the Works Cited page:
Herzog, Werner, dir. Fitzcarraldo . Perf. Klaus Kinski. Filmverlag der Autoren, 1982.
Yates, Jane. "Invention in Rhetoric and Composition." Gaps Addressed: Future Work in Rhetoric and Composition, CCCC, Palmer House Hilton, 2002. Address.
Electronic sources may include web pages and online news or magazine articles:
In the first example (an online magazine article), the writer has chosen not to include the author name in-text; however, two entries from the same author appear in the Works Cited. Thus, the writer includes both the author’s last name and the article title in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader to the appropriate entry on the Works Cited page (see below).
In the second example (a web page), a parenthetical citation is not necessary because the page does not list an author, and the title of the article, “MLA Formatting and Style Guide,” is used as a signal phrase within the sentence. If the title of the article was not named in the sentence, an abbreviated version would appear in a parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence. Both corresponding Works Cited entries are as follows:
Taylor, Rumsey. "Fitzcarraldo." Slant , 13 Jun. 2003, www.slantmagazine.com/film/review/fitzcarraldo/. Accessed 29 Sep. 2009.
"MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The Purdue OWL , 2 Aug. 2016, owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/. Accessed 2 April 2018.
To cite multiple sources in the same parenthetical reference, separate the citations by a semi-colon:
Time-based media sources
When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, such as a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference. For example: (00:02:15-00:02:35).
When a citation is not needed
Common sense and ethics should determine your need for documenting sources. You do not need to give sources for familiar proverbs, well-known quotations, or common knowledge (For example, it is expected that U.S. citizens know that George Washington was the first President.). Remember that citing sources is a rhetorical task, and, as such, can vary based on your audience. If you’re writing for an expert audience of a scholarly journal, for example, you may need to deal with expectations of what constitutes “common knowledge” that differ from common norms.
The MLA Handbook describes how to cite many different kinds of authors and content creators. However, you may occasionally encounter a source or author category that the handbook does not describe, making the best way to proceed can be unclear.
In these cases, it's typically acceptable to apply the general principles of MLA citation to the new kind of source in a way that's consistent and sensible. A good way to do this is to simply use the standard MLA directions for a type of source that resembles the source you want to cite.
You may also want to investigate whether a third-party organization has provided directions for how to cite this kind of source. For example, Norquest College provides guidelines for citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers —an author category that does not appear in the MLA Handbook . In cases like this, however, it's a good idea to ask your instructor or supervisor whether using third-party citation guidelines might present problems.
How to cite an online work.
To create a basic works-cited-list entry for an online work, list the author, the title of the work, the title of the website as the title of the container, and the publication details. You may need to include other elements depending on the type of work (e.g., book, scholarly article, blog post) and how you accessed it (e.g., from a journal website, from a database). Below are sample entries for online works along with links to posts containing many other examples.
Article on a website
Deresiewicz, William. “The Death of the Artist—and the Birth of the Creative Entrepreneur.” The Atlantic , 28 Dec. 2014, theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2015/01/ the-death-of-the-artist-and-the-birth-of-thecreative-entrepreneur/383497/.
Book on a website
Poe, Edgar Allan. “The Masque of the Red Death.” The Complete Works of Edgar Allan Poe , edited by James A. Harrison, vol. 4, Thomas Y. Crowell, 1902, pp. 250-58. HathiTrust Digital Library , hdl.handle.net/2027/coo.31924079574368.
Journal Article in a Database
Goldman, Anne. “Questions of Transport: Reading Primo Levi Reading Dante.” The Georgia Review , vol. 64, no. 1, spring 2010, pp. 69-88. JSTOR , www.jstor.org/stable/41403188.
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Consider your source's credibility. ask these questions:, contributor/author.
- Has the author written several articles on the topic, and do they have the credentials to be an expert in their field?
- Can you contact them? Do they have social media profiles?
- Have other credible individuals referenced this source or author?
- Book: What have reviews said about it?
- What do you know about the publisher/sponsor? Are they well-respected?
- Do they take responsibility for the content? Are they selective about what they publish?
- Take a look at their other content. Do these other articles generally appear credible?
- Does the author or the organization have a bias? Does bias make sense in relation to your argument?
- Is the purpose of the content to inform, entertain, or to spread an agenda? Is there commercial intent?
- Are there ads?
- When was the source published or updated? Is there a date shown?
- Does the publication date make sense in relation to the information presented to your argument?
- Does the source even have a date?
- Was it reproduced? If so, from where?
- If it was reproduced, was it done so with permission? Copyright/disclaimer included?
What You Need to Know About MLA Formatting
Writing a paper soon? If your assignment requires the use of Modern Language Association (MLA) style, then you're in luck! EasyBib® has tools to help you create citations for over 50 source types in this style, as well as a guide to show you how an MLA paper should be formatted. Review the guide to learn how to format a paper's title page, paragraphs, margins, quotations, abbreviations, numbers, tables, and more! There are even tips on editing, as well as on the type of paper you choose to print your paper on—yes, it's that comprehensive!
A Handy Guide for Using APA Format
Ever wonder how to cite a book with no author in APA style? Do you know how graphics should be formatted in a paper? Thanks to our EasyBib® guide on citing and formatting in American Psychological Association (APA) style, you don't have to guess anymore! We break down the guidelines for you into separate, digestible chunks of information that range from the ways to present headers, to use of abbreviations, to how to format titles for citations. There are also several helpful citation examples for you to review. Read up and start learning today!
Chicago Style Simplified
Jump start your knowledge of the Chicago Manual of Style (or Turabian style) with our structured EasyBib® guides. Each one will teach you the structure of a Chicago-style citation, followed by a real-life citation example for you to examine. Begin with our "“"Quick Guide" on citing common source types (books, magazines, newspapers, and websites). Then, discover why we have footnotes and how they work, or choose a "How to Cite" guide based on the source type you're using (e.g. photo, film, tweet, journal, blog, video on YouTube, conference paper, etc.). You're in charge of your own learning path!
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How to Cite an Article
Last Updated: November 22, 2022 References
This article was co-authored by wikiHow staff writer, Jennifer Mueller, JD . Jennifer Mueller is a wikiHow Content Creator. She specializes in reviewing, fact-checking, and evaluating wikiHow's content to ensure thoroughness and accuracy. Jennifer holds a JD from Indiana University Maurer School of Law in 2006. There are 8 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been viewed 91,392 times. Learn more...
Articles in scholarly journals and magazines, both in print and online, are common sources for research papers. Provide an in-text citation every time you paraphrase or quote from the article, and include a full citation in a bibliography at the end of your paper. While the basic information in your citation will be the same, the format varies depending on whether you're using the Modern Language Association (MLA), American Psychological Association (APA), or Chicago style of citation.
- Example: Buchman, Dana.
- If there are 2 authors, separate their names with a comma, typing the word "and" before the last author's name. Only invert the first author's name. For example: Martin, Johnathan A., and Christopher Jackson.
- For 3 or more authors, list the first author's name, followed by a comma and the abbreviation "et. al." For example: Fontela, Pablo, et. al.
- Example: Buchman, Dana. "A Special Education."
- If the article has a subtitle, type a colon and a space after the title, then type the subtitle in title case. Place a period at the end of the subtitle, inside the closing quotation marks.
- Example: Buchman, Dana. "A Special Education." Good Housekeeping , Mar. 2006,
- For scholarly journals, include the volume and issue numbers after the name of the publication. Separate these elements with commas. For example: Bagchi, Alaknanda. "Conflicting Nationalisms": The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi's Bashai Tudu ." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature , vol. 15, no. 1, 1996,
- If the article appears in a smaller regional or local publication, type the location in brackets after the title of the publication. For example: Trembacki, Paul. "Brees Hopes to Win Heisman for Team." Purdue Exponent [West Lafayette, IN], 5 Dec. 2000,
- Print example: Buchman, Dana. "A Special Education." Good Housekeeping , Mar. 2006, pp. 143-148.
- Online example: Trembacki, Paul. "Brees Hopes to Win Heisman for Team." Purdue Exponent [West Lafayette, IN], 5 Dec. 2000, www.purdueexponent.org/sports/article_b6f722b8-9595-58b8-849b-5a8447bbf793.html.
MLA Works Cited Format
Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article in Title Case." Title of Publication , Day Month Year, pp. ##-##. URL or DOI.
- For example, you might write: "For a woman who had encountered few obstacles on the road to success, having a daughter with learning disabilities presented challenges and an opportunity to grow as a person (Buchman 147)."
- If the source was not paginated, only the author's name is needed. If you incorporated the author's name in the body of your paper and the source is not paginated, you don't need a parenthetical citation.
- Example: Will, G. F. (2004, July 5).
- If there are multiple authors, separate their names with commas. Use an ampersand (&) before the last author's name.
- Example: Will, G. F. (2004, July 5). Waging war on Wal-Mart.
- Print example: Will, G. F. (2004, July 5). Waging war on Wal-Mart. Newsweek, 144 ,
- For online-only sources, include the domain extension (such as ".com" or ".org) in the publication title. If the source also exists in print, leave the domain extension out of the publication title. For example: Romm, J. (2008, February 27). The cold truth about climate change. Salon.com .
- Print example: Will, G. F. (2004, July 5). Waging war on Wal-Mart. Newsweek, 144 , 64.
- Online example: Romm, J. (2008, February 27). The cold truth about climate change. Salon.com . http://www.salon.com/2008/02/27/global_warming_deniers/
APA Reference List Format
Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year, Month Day). Title of article in sentence case. Title of Publication , Page#. Retrieved from URL.
- For example, you might write: "Romm (2008) concluded that international reports actually underestimated the threat of climate change."
- If you don't include the author's name in the body of your paper, use a standard parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence, inside the closing punctuation. For example, you might write: "Many climate change deniers misinterpret scientific consensus as groupthink (Romm, 2008)."
- Example: Goldman, Jason G.
- Example: Goldman, Jason G. "Lizards Learn a Silly Walk after Losing Their Tail."
- If the article has a subtitle, type a colon and a space after the title, then type the subtitle in title case. Place a period at the end of the subtitle.
- Example: Goldman, Jason G. "Lizards Learn a Silly Walk after Losing Their Tail." Scientific American , December 1, 2017.
- For articles in scholarly journals include the volume and issue numbers, then place the date of publication in parentheses. Place a colon after the date of publication. For example: Bunce, Valerie. "Rethinking Recent Democratization: Lessons from the Postcommunist Experience." World Politics 55, no. 2 (2003):
- Print example: Bunce, Valerie. "Rethinking Recent Democratization: Lessons from the Postcommunist Experience." World Politics 55, no. 2 (2003): 167-192.
- Online example: Goldman, Jason G. "Lizards Learn a Silly Walk after Losing Their Tail." Scientific American , December 1, 2017. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/lizards-learn-a-silly-walk-after-losing-their-tail/.
Chicago Bibliography Format
Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article in Title Case." Title of Publication , Month Day, Year. URL.
- Print example: Valerie Bunce, "Rethinking Recent Democratization: Lessons from the Postcommunist Experience," World Politics 55, no. 2 (2003): 167-192.
- Online example: Jason G. Goldman, "Lizards Learn a Silly Walk after Losing Their Tail," Scientific American , December 1, 2017, https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/lizards-learn-a-silly-walk-after-losing-their-tail/.
You might also like.
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/mla_style/mla_formatting_and_style_guide/mla_works_cited_electronic_sources.html
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/mla_style/mla_formatting_and_style_guide/mla_works_cited_periodicals.html
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/mla_style/mla_formatting_and_style_guide/mla_in_text_citations_the_basics.html
- ↑ http://guides.libraries.psu.edu/apaquickguide/articles
- ↑ https://libraryguides.vu.edu.au/apa-referencing/7JournalArticles
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/in_text_citations_the_basics.html
- ↑ https://libguides.heidelberg.edu/chicago/article
- ↑ https://rdc.libguides.com/c.php?g=372661&p=2697745
About This Article
To cite an article in MLA, start with the authors last name, followed by a comma, their first name, and a period. Then, add the title of the article in quotation marks with a period at the end of the title inside the quotes. Next, include the title of the periodical in italics, followed by a comma and the date of publication written in a day-month-year format. Finally, put a comma after the year, followed by the page number or URL where the article can be found and a period. To learn how to cite an article using Chicago or APA style, keep reading! Did this summary help you? Yes No
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APA 7th Edition Citation Examples
- Volume and Issue Numbers
- Page Numbers
- Undated Sources
- Citing a Source Within a Source
Citing a Source within a Source
- In-Text Citations
- Academic Journals
- Encyclopedia Articles
- Book, Film, and Product Reviews
- Online Classroom Materials
- Conference Papers
- Technical + Research Reports
- Court Decisions
- Treaties and Other International Agreements
- Federal Regulations: I. The Code of Federal Regulations
- Federal Regulations: II. The Federal Register
- Executive Orders
- Charter of the United Nations
- Federal Statutes
- Dissertations and Theses
- Interviews, E-mail Messages + Other Personal Communications
- Social Media
- Business Sources
Scenario: You read a 2007 article by Linhares and Brum that cites an earlier article, by Klein. You want to cite Klein's article, but you have not read Klein's article itself.
Reference list citation
Linhares, A., & Brum, P. (2007). Understanding our understanding of strategic scenarios: What role do chunks play? Cognitive Science , 31 (6), 989-1007. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1080/03640210701703725
Your Reference list will contain the article you read, by Linhares and Brum. Your Reference list will NOT contain a citation for Klein's article.
Klein's study (as cited in Linhares & Brum, 2007) found that...
Your in-text citation gives credit to Klein and shows the source in which you found Klein's ideas.
See Publication Manual , p. 258.
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- Next: In-Text Citations >>
- Last Updated: Aug 29, 2023 6:16 PM
- URL: https://libguides.umgc.edu/apa-examples
Penn State University Libraries
Apa quick citation guide.
- In-text Citation
- Citing Generative AI
- Citing Web Pages and Social Media
- Citing Articles
- Citing Books
- Citing Business Reports
- Other Formats
- APA Style Quiz
Note: Citations with more than one line of text should have a hanging indent of 1/2 inch or 5 spaces.
- Author (last name, initials only for first & middle names)
- Date of publication of article (year and month for monthly publications; year, month and day for daily or weekly publications)
- Title of article (capitalize only the first word of title and subtitle, and proper nouns)
- Title of publication in italics (i.e., Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Newsweek, New York Times )
- Volume number in italics and issue number, if given
- Page numbers of article, if given
- For articles retrieved online, include DOI, if available. Includes URLs only if they will work for readers. For articles retrieved through a database, do not include the database information or URL in the reference. For more information, see the APA Style and Grammar Guidelines pages on databases and DOIs and URLs.
For more examples, see the APA Style and Grammar Guidelines entries for magazine , newspaper, and scholarly journal articles.
Swedin, E. G. (2006, May/June). Designing babies: A eugenics race with China? The Futurist , 40, 18-21.
Will, G. F. (2004, July 5). Waging war on Wal-Mart. Newsweek , 144 , 64.
Duhigg, C. (2019, October 10). Is Amazon unstoppable? The New Yorker. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2019/10/21/is-amazon-unstoppable
Dougherty, R. (2006, January 11). Jury convicts man in drunk driving death. Centre Daily Times , p. 1A.
Laber-Warren, E. (2019, October 17). You're only as old as you feel. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/10/17/well/mind/age-subjective-feeling-old.html
Scholarly journal article:
Blattner, J., & Bacigalupo, A. (2007). Using emotional intelligence to develop executive leadership and team and organizational development. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 59 (3), 209-219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1065-92188.8.131.52
Rifkind, D. (2005, April 10). Breaking their vows. [Review of the book The mermaid chair, by S.M. Kidd]. Washington Post , p. T6.
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- Last Updated: Jul 19, 2023 2:50 PM
- URL: https://guides.libraries.psu.edu/apaquickguide
Generate accurate APA citations for free
- Knowledge Base
- How to cite a website in APA Style
How to Cite a Website in APA Style | Format & Examples
Published on November 5, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on June 17, 2022.
APA website citations usually include the author, the publication date, the title of the page or article, the website name, and the URL. If there is no author, start the citation with the title of the article. If the page is likely to change over time, add a retrieval date.
If you are citing an online version of a print publication (e.g. a newspaper , magazine , or dictionary ), use the same format as you would for print, with a URL added at the end. Formats differ for online videos (e.g. TED Talks ), images , and dissertations .
Use the buttons below to explore the format.
Generate accurate APA citations with Scribbr
Table of contents, citing an entire website, how to cite online articles, websites with no author, websites with no date, how to cite from social media, frequently asked questions about apa style citations.
When you refer to a website in your text without quoting or paraphrasing from a specific part of it, you don’t need a formal citation. Instead, you can just include the URL in parentheses after the name of the site:
One of the most popular social media sites, Instagram (http://instagram.com), allows users to share images and videos.
For this kind of citation, you don’t need to include the website on the reference page . However, if you’re citing a specific page or article from a website, you will need a formal in-text citation and reference list entry.
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The AI-powered Citation Checker helps you avoid common mistakes such as:
- Missing commas and periods
- Incorrect usage of “et al.”
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Various kinds of articles appear online, and how you cite them depends on where the article appears.
Online articles from newspapers, magazines, and blogs
Articles appearing in online versions of print publications (e.g. newspapers and magazines) are cited like their print versions, but with an added URL.
The same format is used for blog posts. Just include the blog name where you would usually put the name of the magazine or newspaper.
Articles from online-only news sites
For articles from news sites without print equivalents (e.g. BBC News, Reuters), italicize the name of the article and not the name of the site.
When a web page does not list an individual author, it can usually be attributed to an organization or government . If this results in the author name being identical to the site name, omit the site name, as in the example below.
If you can’t identify any author at all, replace the author name with the title of the page or article.
In the in-text citation , put the title in quotation marks if it is in plain text in the reference list, or in italics if it is in italics in the reference list. Note that title case is used for the title here, unlike in the reference list. Shorten the title to the first few words if necessary.
When a web page or article does not list a publication or revision date, replace the date with “n.d.” (“no date”) in all citations.
If an online source is likely to change over time, it is recommended to include the date on which you accessed it.
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As social media posts are usually untitled, use the first 20 words of the post, in italics, as a title. Also include any relevant information about the type of post and any multimedia aspects (e.g. videos, images, sound, links) in square brackets.
On some social media sites (such as Twitter ), users go by usernames instead of or in addition to their real names. Where the author’s real name is known, include it, along with their username in square brackets:
In some cases, you’ll want to cite a whole social media profile instead of a specific post. In these cases, include an access date, because a profile will obviously change over time:
When citing a webpage or online article , the APA in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and year of publication. For example: (Worland & Williams, 2015). Note that the author can also be an organization. For example: (American Psychological Association, 2019).
If you’re quoting you should also include a locator. Since web pages don’t have page numbers, you can use one of the following options:
- Paragraph number: (Smith, 2018, para. 15).
- Heading or section name: ( CDC, 2020, Flu Season section)
- Abbreviated heading: ( CDC, 2020, “Key Facts” section)
When you quote or paraphrase a specific passage from a source, you need to indicate the location of the passage in your APA in-text citation . If there are no page numbers (e.g. when citing a website ) but the text is long, you can instead use section headings, paragraph numbers, or a combination of the two:
(Caulfield, 2019, Linking section, para. 1).
Section headings can be shortened if necessary. Kindle location numbers should not be used in ebook citations , as they are unreliable.
If you are referring to the source as a whole, it’s not necessary to include a page number or other marker.
When no individual author name is listed, but the source can clearly be attributed to a specific organization—e.g., a press release by a charity, a report by an agency, or a page from a company’s website—use the organization’s name as the author in the reference entry and APA in-text citations .
When no author at all can be determined—e.g. a collaboratively edited wiki or an online article published anonymously—use the title in place of the author. In the in-text citation, put the title in quotation marks if it appears in plain text in the reference list, and in italics if it appears in italics in the reference list. Shorten it if necessary.
APA Style usually does not require an access date. You never need to include one when citing journal articles , e-books , or other stable online sources.
However, if you are citing a website or online article that’s designed to change over time, it’s a good idea to include an access date. In this case, write it in the following format at the end of the reference: Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://www.uva.nl/en/about-the-uva/about-the-university/about-the-university.html
Instead of the author’s name, include the first few words of the work’s title in the in-text citation. Enclose the title in double quotation marks when citing an article, web page or book chapter. Italicize the title of periodicals, books, and reports.
No publication date
If the publication date is unknown , use “n.d.” (no date) instead. For example: (Johnson, n.d.).
Cite this Scribbr article
If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.
Caulfield, J. (2022, June 17). How to Cite a Website in APA Style | Format & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved November 7, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/apa-examples/website/
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What Is Cite This For Me's Citation Generator?
Cite This For Me’s open-access generator is an automated citation machine that turns any of your sources into citations in just a click. Using a citation generator helps students to integrate referencing into their research and writing routine; turning a time-consuming ordeal into a simple task.
A citation machine is essentially a works cited generator that accesses information from across the web, drawing the relevant information into a fully-formatted bibliography that clearly presents all of the sources that have contributed to your work.
If you don’t know how to cite correctly, or have a fast-approaching deadline, Cite This For Me’s accurate and intuitive citation machine will lend you the confidence to realise your full academic potential. In order to get a grade that reflects all your hard work, your citations must be accurate and complete. Using a citation maker to create your references not only saves you time but also ensures that you don’t lose valuable marks on your assignment.
Not sure how to format your citations, what citations are, or just want to find out more about Cite This For Me’s citation machine? This guide outlines everything you need to know to equip yourself with the know-how and confidence to research and cite a wide range of diverse sources in your work.
Why Do I Need To Cite?
Simply put, referencing is the citing of sources used in essays, articles, research, conferences etc. When another source contributes to your work, you have to give the original owner the appropriate credit. After all, you wouldn’t steal someone else’s possessions so why would you steal their ideas?
Any factual material or ideas you take from another source must be acknowledged in a reference, unless it is common knowledge (e.g. President Kennedy was killed in 1963). Failing to credit all of your sources, even when you’ve paraphrased or completely reworded the information, is plagiarism. Plagiarizing will result in disciplinary action, which can range from losing precious points on your assignment to expulsion from your university.
What’s more, attributing your research infuses credibility and authority into your work, both by supporting your own ideas and by demonstrating the breadth of your research. For many students, crediting sources can be a confusing and tedious process, but it’s a surefire way to improve the quality of your work so it’s essential to get it right. Luckily for you, using Cite This For Me’s citation machine makes creating accurate references easier than ever, leaving more time for you to excel in your studies.
In summary, the referencing process serves three main functions:
- To validate the statements and conclusions in your work by providing directions to other sound sources that support and verify them.
- To help your readers locate, read and check your sources, as well as establishing their contribution to your work.
- To give credit to the original author and hence avoid committing intellectual property theft (known as ‘plagiarism’ in academia).
How Do I Cite My Sources With The Cite This For Me's Citation Machine?
Cite This For Me’s citation generator is the most accurate citation machine available, so whether you’re not sure how to format in-text citations or are looking for a foolproof solution to automate a fully-formatted works cited list, this citation machine will solve all of your referencing needs.
Referencing your source material doesn’t just prevent you from losing valuable marks for plagiarism, it also provides all of the information to help your reader find for themselves the book, article, or other item you are citing. The accessible interface of this citation builder makes it easy for you to identify the source you have used – simply enter its unique identifier into the citation machine search bar. If this information is not available you can search for the title or author instead, and then select from the search results that appear below the citation generator.
The good news is that by using tools such as Cite This For Me, which help you work smarter, you don’t need to limit your research to sources that are traditional to cite. In fact, there are no limits to what you can reference, whether it be a YouTube video, website or a tweet.
To use the works cited generator, simply:
- Select from APA, MLA, Chicago, ASA, IEEE and AMA * styles.
- Choose the type of source you would like to cite (e.g. website, book, journal, video).
- Enter the URL , DOI , ISBN , title, or other unique source information into the citation generator to find your source.
- Click the ‘Cite’ button on the citation machine.
- Copy your new reference from the citation generator into your bibliography or works cited list.
- Repeat for each source that has contributed to your work.
*If you require another referencing style for your paper, essay or other academic work, you can select from over 7,500 styles.
Once you have created your Cite This For Me account you will be able to use the citation machine to generate multiple references and save them into a project. Use the highly-rated iOS or Android apps to create references in a flash with your smartphone camera, export your complete bibliography in one go, and much more.
What Will The Citation Machine Create For Me?
Cite This For Me’s citation maker will generate your reference in two parts; an in-text citation and a full reference to be copied straight into your work.
The citation machine will auto-generate the correct formatting for your works cited list or bibliography depending on your chosen style. For instance, if you select a parenthetical style on the citation machine it will generate an in-text citation in parentheses, along with a full reference to slot into your bibliography. Likewise, if the citation generator is set to a footnote style then it will create a fully-formatted reference for your reference page and bibliography, as well as a corresponding footnote to insert at the bottom of the page containing the relevant source.
Parenthetical referencing examples:
In-text example: A nation has been defined as an imagined community (Anderson, 2006).* Alternative format: Anderson (2006) defined a nation as an imagined community.
*The citation machine will create your references in the first style, but this should be edited if the author’s name already appears in the text.
Bibliography / Works Cited list example: Anderson, B. (2006). Imagined Communities. London: Verso.
Popular Citation Examples
- Citing archive material
- Citing artwork
- Citing an audiobook
- Citing the Bible
- Citing a blog
- Citing a book
- Citing a book chapter
- Citing a comic book
- Citing conference proceedings
- Citing a court case
- Citing a database
- Citing a dictionary entry
- Citing a dissertation
- Citing an eBook
- Citing an edited book
- Citing an email
- Citing an encyclopedia article
- Citing a government publication
- Citing an image
- Citing an interview
- Citing a journal article
- Citing legislation
- Citing a magazine
- Citing a meme
- Citing a mobile app
- Citing a movie
- Citing a newspaper
- Citing a pamphlet
- Citing a patent
- Citing a play
- Citing a podcast
- Citing a poem
- Citing a presentation
- Citing a press release
- Citing a pseudonym
- Citing a report
- Citing Shakespeare
- Citing social media
- Citing a song
- Citing software
- Citing a speech
- Citing translated book
- Citing a TV Show
- Citing a weather report
- Citing a website
- Citing Wikipedia article
- Citing a YouTube video
What Are Citation Styles?
A citation style is a set of rules that you, as an academic writer, must follow to ensure the quality and relevance of your work. There are thousands of styles that are used in different academic institutions around the world, but in the US the most common are APA, MLA and Chicago.
The style you need to use will depend on the preference of your professor, discipline or academic institution – so if you’re unsure which style you should be using, consult your department and follow their guidelines exactly, as this is what you’ll be evaluated on when it comes to grading.
Referencing isn’t just there to guard against plagiarism – presenting your research in a clear and consistent way eases the reader’s comprehension. Each style has a different set of rules for both page formatting and referencing. Be sure to adhere to formatting rules such as font type, font size and line spacing to ensure that your work is easily legible. Furthermore, if your work is published as part of an anthology or collected works, each entry will need to be presented in the same style to maintain uniformity throughout. It is important to make sure that you don’t jump from one style to another, so follow the rules carefully to ensure your reference page and bibliography are both accurate and complete.
If you need a hand with your referencing then why not try Cite This For Me’s citation builder? It’s the quickest and easiest way to reference any source, in any style. The citation generator above will create your references in MLA format style as standard, but this powerful citation machine can generate fully-formatted references in thousands of the widely used global college styles – including individual university variations of each style. So, whether your subject requires you to use the APA citation , or your professor has asked you to adopt the Chicago style citation so that your work includes numbered footnotes, we’re sure to have the style you need. Cite This For Me also offers a citation machine and helpful formatting guide for styles such as ASA , IEEE or AMA . To access all of them, simply create your free account and search for your specific style.
Popular Citation Styles
- ACS Referencing Generator
- AMA Citation Generator
- APA Citation Generator
- APSA Referencing Generator
- ASA Citation Generator
- Bluebook Citation Generator
- Chicago Style Citation Generator
- Harvard Referencing Generator
- IEEE Referencing Generator
- MHRA Referencing Generator
- MLA Citation Generator
- Nature Referencing Generator
- OSCOLA Referencing Generator
- Oxford Referencing Generator
- Turabian Citation Generator
- Vancouver Referencing Generator
How Do I Format A Works Cited List Or Bibliography?
Drawing on a wide range of sources greatly enhances the quality of your work, and reading above and beyond your recommended reading list – and then using these sources to support your own thesis – is an excellent way to impress your reader. A clearly presented works cited list or bibliography demonstrates the lengths you have gone to in researching your chosen topic.
Typically, a works cited list starts on a new page at the end of the main body of text and includes a complete list of the sources you have actually cited in your paper. This list should contain all the information needed for the reader to locate the original source of the information, quote or statistic that directly contributed to your work. On the other hand, a bibliography is a comprehensive list of all the material you may have consulted throughout your research and writing process. Both provide the necessary information for readers to retrieve and check the sources cited in your work.
Each style’s guidelines will define the terminology of ‘ works cited ’ and ‘ bibliography ’, as well as providing formatting guidelines for font, line spacing and page indentations. In addition, it will instruct you on how to order your works cited list or bibliography – this will usually be either alphabetical or chronological (meaning the order that these sources appear in your work). Before submitting your work, be sure to check that you have formatted your whole paper – including your reference page and bibliography – according to your style’s formatting guidelines.
Sounds complicated? Referencing has never been so easy; Cite This For Me’s citation machine will automatically generate fully-formatted references for your works cited page or bibliography in your chosen style. Sign in to your Cite This For Me account to save and export your bibliography straight into Microsoft Word, Evernote, EndNote and more. If that sounds like too much work.
How Do Citations Actually Work?
Although the citation generator will create your bibliography and works cited list for you in record time, it is still useful to understand how this system works behind the scenes. Understanding how a citation machine actually generates references will greatly increase the quality of your work.
As well as saving you time with its citation maker, Cite This For Me provides the learning resources to help you fully understand the citing process and the benefits of adopting great referencing standards.
The referencing process:
- Find a book, journal, website or other source that will contribute to your work.
- Save the quote, image, data or other information that you will use in your work.
- Save the source information that enables you to find it again (i.e. URL, ISBN, DOI etc.).
- Format the source information into a reference.
- Copy and paste the reference into the body of the text.
- Repeat for each source that contributes to your work.
- Export or copy and paste the fully-formatted reference into your bibliography.
Manage all your citations in one place
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- MLA Citation Generator
Free MLA Citation Generator
Generate accurate citations in MLA format automatically, with MyBib!
😕 What is an MLA Citation Generator?
An MLA citation generator is a software tool designed to automatically create academic citations in the Modern Language Association (MLA) citation format. The generator will take information such as document titles, author, and URLs as in input, and output fully formatted citations that can be inserted into the Works Cited page of an MLA-compliant academic paper.
The citations on a Works Cited page show the external sources that were used to write the main body of the academic paper, either directly as references and quotes, or indirectly as ideas.
👩🎓 Who uses an MLA Citation Generator?
MLA style is most often used by middle school and high school students in preparation for transition to college and further education. Ironically, MLA style is not actually used all that often beyond middle and high school, with APA (American Psychological Association) style being the favored style at colleges across the country.
It is also important at this level to learn why it's critical to cite sources, not just how to cite them.
🙌 Why should I use a Citation Generator?
Writing citations manually is time consuming and error prone. Automating this process with a citation generator is easy, straightforward, and gives accurate results. It's also easier to keep citations organized and in the correct order.
The Works Cited page contributes to the overall grade of a paper, so it is important to produce accurately formatted citations that follow the guidelines in the official MLA Handbook .
⚙️ How do I use MyBib's MLA Citation Generator?
It's super easy to create MLA style citations with our MLA Citation Generator. Scroll back up to the generator at the top of the page and select the type of source you're citing. Books, journal articles, and webpages are all examples of the types of sources our generator can cite automatically. Then either search for the source, or enter the details manually in the citation form.
The generator will produce a formatted MLA citation that can be copied and pasted directly into your document, or saved to MyBib as part of your overall Works Cited page (which can be downloaded fully later!).
MyBib supports the following for MLA style:
Daniel is a qualified librarian, former teacher, and citation expert. He has been contributing to MyBib since 2018.
APA Style Guide: Citing an Article
- APA Style: Home
- Getting Started
- Citing a Book
- Citing an Article
- Citing a Website
- In-Text Citations
- Reference Page
- Terms & Definitions
- APA Frequently Asked Questions
- Handouts & Tutorials
- Math Center This link opens in a new window
- Research Center
- Writing Center
- Scholarly Journal Article
- Magazine Article
- Physical Newspaper Article
- Electronic Newspaper Article
Author's Last Name, Author's First Initial. Author's Middle Initial. (Year). Title of article.
Title of periodical, volume number (issue number) , pages. http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy .
Note that the citations for print journal articles and online journal articles are extremely similar. Keep in mind that a DOI or URL should be included for online journal article citations.
Online Journal Article
Smyth, A. M., Parker, A. L., & Pease, D. L. (2002) . A study of enjoyment of peas. Jo urnal of Abnormal Eating, 8 (3), 120-125 . http://www.articlehomepage.com/full/url/
Print Journal Article
Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55 , 893-896.
Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15 (3) , 5-13.
Author's Last Name, Author's First Initial. (Year, Month Day). Article Title. Magazine Title,
Volume (issue), page(s)..
Note that citations for articles accessed electronically (online) follow the same basic format for article citations, but with a URL added to the citation.
Physical Magazine Article
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135 , 28-31.
Electronic Magazine Article
Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writing the living Web. A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 149 . Retrieved from
- If the article comes from a website that is freely available to all, the URL should be provided after the words "Retrieved from". If the article comes from a subscription resources, the URL should be provided after the words "Available from".
Author's Last Name, Author's First Initial. (Year, Month Date). Article Title. Newspaper Title ,
Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today , pp. 1A, 2A.
- When citing more than one page in a newspaper article, the page numbers should be preceded by "pp.". When citing only one page in a newspaper article, the page should be preceded by "p." (for example, p.1A).
Wait till ice cream trucks get wind of this. (2007, November 21). The New York Times , p. F2.
- When a newspaper article has no author, list the title of the article first.
Author's Last name, Author's First Initial. (Year, Month Day). Article Title. Newspaper Title .
Shoop, B. (2013, February 26). Weather effects on small businesses: why it pays to be small. The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved from
- If the article comes from a website that is freely available to all, the URL should be provided after the words "Retrieved from". If the article comes from a subscription resource, the URL should be provided after the words "Available from".
The citation examples on this page and on subsequent pages have been borrowed from the Purdue Online Writing Lab ( https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/1/ ), and from the Defiance College Pilgrim Library Writing Center APA Style Guide ( http://library.defiance.edu/c.php?g=333902&p=2243144 ).
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- Last Updated: Apr 11, 2022 10:06 AM
- URL: https://library.an.edu/apastyle
Intel shelves planned chip operation expansion in Vietnam - source
A smartphone with a displayed Intel logo is placed on a computer motherboard in this illustration taken March 6, 2023. REUTERS/Dado Ruvic/Illustration/File Photo Acquire Licensing Rights
HANOI, Nov 7 (Reuters) - Intel (INTC.O) has shelved a planned investment in Vietnam that could have nearly doubled the U.S. chipmaker's operation there, one person briefed on the plans said, in a blow to the country's growing ambitions in the chips industry.
The Southeast Asian electronics manufacturing hub is home to Intel's largest factory worldwide for assembling, packaging and testing chips, and has been banking on the company further expanding there especially after Joe Biden announced deals to support Vietnam's chips industry during a visit in September.
Vietnam is keen to position itself as an alternative to China and Taiwan, amid political risks and trade tensions with the United States.
But shortly after Biden's visit, U.S. officials informed a select group of U.S. businessmen and experts that Intel had shelved an expansion plan, one of the participants in the meeting told Reuters.
The source, who declined to be named because the information was confidential, said Intel had made that decision around July.
The company did not say why it had called off the expansion, the person said, but a second source who attended two separate meetings in recent weeks between U.S. companies and top Vietnamese officials said Intel had raised concerns about the stability of power supplies and excessive bureaucracy.
One of those meetings took place last week in Hanoi and was attended by Vietnam's Deputy Prime Minister Tran Luu Quang.
Asked about the plan, Intel declined to comment but told Reuters: "Vietnam will continue to be a critical part of our global manufacturing operations as demand for semiconductors grows."
The U.S. embassy in Hanoi declined to comment. The Vietnamese government did not reply to requests for comment.
Intel's about-turn would be a blow to Vietnam's growing ambitions to play a larger role in the global semiconductor industry. It has been holding talks with chipmakers, hoping to lure firms seeking to diversify their supply chain.
The decision by Intel comes after it announced large investments in Europe in June and Vietnam suffered power shortages in the same month, forcing many manufacturers to temporarily suspend production.
Intel is also expanding its investment in chip packaging in Malaysia, one of Vietnam's main Southeast Asian rivals.
During Biden's visit to Hanoi, the White House unveiled new initiatives and investments by U.S. chips companies including Amkor (AMKR.O) , Synopsys (SNPS.O) and Marvell (MRVL.O) . Intel was not mentioned.
"You cannot take for granted that because Intel has already invested here it will invest more," Chung Seck, partner at law firm Baker & McKenzie Vietnam told Reuters.
Reuters reported in February that Intel was planning a new investment in Vietnam that could be worth about $1 billion, to boost its $1.5 billion factory in the country. Asked about the possible investment plan at the time, Intel told Reuters: "Vietnam is an important part of our global manufacturing network, but we have not announced any new investments."
Vietnam government's official portal had mentioned plans to attract $3.3 billion in additional investment from Intel, but it later removed that reference after the media reported it.
Intel and other multinationals have pressed the Vietnamese government to offer handouts worth millions of dollars when it introduces a new levy on large companies as part of a global tax overhaul. Plans for the tax and subsidies, due to be imposed next year, are still being discussed.
Reporting by Francesco Guarascio @fraguarascio; additional reporting by Max Cherney in San Francisco and Khanh Vu in Hanoi; Editing by Miyoung Kim and Miral Fahmy
Our Standards: The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.
Francesco leads a team of reporters in Vietnam that covers top financial and political news in the fast-growing southeast Asian country with a focus on supply chains and manufacturing investments in several sectors, including electronics, semiconductors, automotive and renewables. Before Hanoi, Francesco worked in Brussels on EU affairs. He was also part of Reuters core global team that covered the COVID-19 pandemic and participated in investigations into money laundering and corruption in Europe. He is an eager traveler, always keen to put on a backpack to explore new places.
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Toyota recalls 1.85 million RAV4s, citing fire risk
Toyota is recalling more than 1.85 million RAV4 vehicles due to a loose battery problem that could increase the risk of fire when the car makes “forceful turns,” the company said in a news release Wednesday.
The recall will affect 2013-2018 model year RAV4s, Toyota said. Some of those vehicles, which are compact SUVs, may have replacement batteries that “have smaller top dimensions.” Toyota said that this small-top shape could make the batteries move “when the vehicle is driven with forceful turns” and “cause the positive battery terminal” to contact a clamp and short-circuit, raising the risk of fire.
The automaker is preparing a fix. “When the remedy is available, Toyota dealers will replace the battery hold-down clamp, battery tray, and positive terminal cover” at no cost, it added. The company will notify affected customers by late December.
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The move comes after the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration said in 2021 that it had received 11 complaints alleging fires on the left side of the RAV4 engine, which were not caused by car crashes. The majority of the events occurred “during driving conditions, with four taking place with the ignition off,” the agency said in a report .
In December 2020, one RAV4 owner reported leaving the vehicle in a parking lot with the ignition turned off, according to NHTSA. The driver returned after a few minutes to find the car on fire. “The fire appeared to originate in front of vehicle,” NHTSA wrote in a summary of the incident. Firefighters were called in, but the vehicle was a total loss.
In August 2020, an owner of a 2017 RAV4 hybrid said the vehicle was going at 50 miles per hour when warning messages began appearing on the dash screen and white smoke began emerging from under the hood. “Moments later flames were coming from the engine compartment,” according to an NHTSA report. The vehicle was destroyed during the incident. A Toyota spokesman said Thursday that the recall does not include hybrids, meaning this particular incident was not relevant to the recall.
The “overall number of vehicle fire allegations with the battery as the area of origin is larger than its peer population,” NHTSA wrote .
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Election Day 2023
Trump testifies in New York civil fraud trial
By Dan Berman , Piper Hudspeth Blackburn, Mike Hayes and Jack Forrest , CNN
Key takeaways from Trump’s day on the stand
From CNN's Jeremy Herb, Lauren del Valle and Kara Scannell in New York
Donald Trump brought bombastic rhetoric to the witness stand Monday in the civil fraud case against him and his business, as he spent his time on the stand attacking the New York attorney general who brought the case and the judge overseeing the trial itself.
Trump’s testimony at times mimicked his appearances on the campaign trail, where the former president has made the four criminal cases against him – along with the New York attorney general’s civil fraud case – a central part of his argument to be elected president again in 2024.
Judge Arthur Engoron, who has clashed with Trump throughout the trial, at first tried to stop the former president’s political barbs and speechifying, telling his lawyer Chris Kise to “control your client” and threatening to have Trump removed as a witness. Eventually, the judge stropped trying to control Trump – he and the attorney general’s lawyer questioning Trump let him rant, and then mostly disregarded the missives.
The high-stakes civil case strikes at the heart of Trump’s brand – his real estate empire. New York Attorney General Letitia James is suing Trump for $250 million and seeking to bar him from doing business in the state. Engoron has already ruled Trump and his co-defendants were liable for fraud. The New York attorney general’s office said they will rest their case after Ivanka Trump’s testimony on Wednesday.
Here are some of the key takeaways from Trump's day on the stand:
- Trump's campaign comes to the courtroom: The former president’s rhetoric at times during his testimony might as well have been at one of his rallies in front of supporters. He went after the attorney general. The judge. And the “political witch hunt” that he’s been railing against for years now. On the witness stand, the charged rhetoric was even more remarkable, as he attacked the judge sitting right next to him, with James in the courtroom watching his testimony just feet away. “The fraud is on the court, not on me,” Trump said.
- Trump gets an angry response from the judge: Judge Engoron tried at the outset of Trump’s testimony to stop the former president from making speeches and instead answer the questions, but it did little to change Trump’s approach. The judge responded by threatening to remove Trump from the witness stand, though that didn’t deter the former president either. “This is not a political rally,” Engoron said to Trump, telling Trump's attorney Christopher Kise to “control your client.”
- Trump acknowledges changing valuation of Trump Tower triplex: The attorney general’s office pressed Trump on the properties central to his identity and brand: Mar-a-Lago, Trump Tower and other key parts of his real estate empire. The AG's office attorney Kevin Wallace also pressed Trump on why valuations of properties were changed, such as his Trump Tower triplex, which was devalued on his financial statement in 2017 after a Forbes article found he had dramatically exaggerated the size of the apartment. Trump acknowledged there had on occasion been mistakes, such as the Trump Tower apartment valuation.
- Trump’s descriptions of his properties: The former president’s rhetorical flourishes went beyond attacking those who are investigating him. He also took the opportunity to play salesman and play up his properties. One of his chief complaints about the judge is a citation in his decision that Mar-a-Lago was worth $18 million, a number based on Florida tax appraisal records “It’s much more valuable,” Trump said of Mar-a-Lago, “and we’ll show that in two weeks or five weeks or nine weeks or whenever this thing goes, that it’s biggest value is using it as a club.” Wallace took the answer to pin him down on that valuation. “You believe that as of today Mar-a-Lago is worth $1.5 billion?” Wallace asked. “I think between a billion and a billion-five,” Trump responded.
Keep reading takeaways here.
New York attorney general slams "distractions" during Trump testimony
New York Attorney General Letitia James called Donald Trump's actions and attacks against her and Judge Arthur Engoron on the stand "distractions."
"At the end of the day, the documentary evidence demonstrated that, in fact, he falsely inflated his assets to basically enrich himself and his family," James said.
"He continued to persistently engage in fraud. The numbers don't lie, and Mr. Trump obviously can engage in all of these distractions, and that is exactly what he did, what he committed on the stand today, engaging in distractions, and engaging in name-calling," she said.
"But I will not be bullied, I will not be harassed, this case will go on," James said.
She said Trump on the stand "rambled, he hurled insults, but we expected that."
The attorney general said her office looks forward to hearing Ivanka Trump's testimony Wednesday and closing the case.
Attorney general's office says they will rest their case after Ivanka Trump’s testimony
From CNN's Lauren del Valle, Kara Scannell, and Jeremy Herb
The New York attorney general’s office said they will rest their case after Ivanka Trump’s testimony.
Former President Donald Trump's daughter is set to testify on Wednesday. There is no court Tuesday, due to Election Day.
The attorney general's office expects to finish the direct examination of Ivanka Trump by 2 or 3 p.m. ET in the afternoon Wednesday.
Trump attorney Chris Kise said if that's the case, they'll question her on cross-examination through Thursday morning.
Per protocol, the defense will make motions after the attorney general rests.
Judge Arthur Engoron told Trump’s attorneys they can plan to start the defense case on Monday.
Kise also told the court they're on track to finish a week early by December 15.
Trump after taking stand says "I think it went very well"
From CNN Staff
Donald Trump said "I think it went very well" after the former president took the stand for nearly four hours Monday in the civil fraud trial brought by the New York attorney general against him and his company.
"I think you saw what I had to say today and it was very conclusive," Trump told reporters as he exited the courtroom. "Everything we did was absolutely right."
Trump also looked to place the case that he called a "scam" in the broader context of his campaign for president and attacked the attorney general's case.
"But, anyway, this is a case that should have never been brought and it's a case that should be immediately dismissed," he said before leaving.
Judge and Trump lawyers debate motion for a mistrial
From CNN's Lauren del Valle, Kara Scannell and Jeremy Herb in New York
Donald Trump’s lawyers said they want to make a motion for a mistrial, getting into an extended debate with Judge Arthur Engoron about how they can raise the conduct of his clerk that’s subject to a gag order.
"We would at least need to reference the subject matter," Trump's attorney Chris Kise said.
Initially, Engoron told Trump’s lawyers they should not file such a motion that referenced his staff, saying he put the gag order in place to protect them.
"I am 1000% convinced that you don't have any right or reason to complain about my confidential communications,” Engoron said.
Trump’s attorneys, who have complained about Engoron’s note-passing with his clerk, claim it’s a sign of the trial’s bias and have urged Engoron to reconsider.
Trump attorney Alina Habba told the judge, "Obviously are going to be moving for a mistrial, that is part of the plan."
"We need to have an opportunity to be heard on those things that have not been yet heard,” Habba said.
After conferring with his clerk, Engoron changed course and said that Trump’s attorneys could file a motion, but he asked them to do it in writing.
Once they agreed on a course of action, Engoron joked, “See I knew it would be a love fest.”
Trump was sitting back in his chair at the defense table while the exchange was going on.
Trump, attacking state of New York and Judge Engoron, says "I want a jury"
After a lengthy monologue from Donald Trump where he attacked the state of New York and said businesses are leaving because of cases “like his,” Kevin Wallace of the New York attorney general's office calmly said to the former president, "I promise you Mr. Trump I’m trying to get you off the stand."
"Great, I’m sure you are," Trump replied.
Trump complained of “election interference” and a “very hostile judge,” referring to Judge Arthur Engoron.
Trump then said, “I don’t have a jury. And I want a jury," he said.
Trump has complained about a lack of a jury throughout the trial.
Experts have said his attorneys could have litigated a request for a jury ahead of the trial, although the chances that he would have gotten one were slim.
Trump finishes testimony in fraud trial; Ivanka Trump to testify Wednesday
From CNN's Dan Berman
Former President Donald Trump has stepped down from the stand after nearly four hours of testimony in the civil fraud trial against him and his company.
The next witness will be his daughter Ivanka Trump on Wednesday, after which the attorney general's office plans to rest its case.
Trump's attorney Chris Kise said he believes the trial should end in mid-December.
Trump on whether he maintained accurate records from August 2014 onward: "I hope so"
When asked by the Kevin Wallace of the New York attorney general's office whether he “maintained accurate books and records” from August 2014 going forward, Donald Trump said “I hope so.”
“I hope so, I didn’t keep them myself. I hope so,” Trump testified during his civil fraud trial Monday.
“You don’t know one way or the other?” Wallace asked.
AG attorney teases Trump about his long-winded answers
During questioning from Kevin Wallace of the New York attorney general's office, Donald Trump went on a rant about how his net worth is “significantly higher” than the financial statements reported and also complained about the disclaimer clause that “goes on forever.”
Wallace then quipped, "That clause isn’t the only thing that goes on forever" referencing Trumps long-winded answers that have been the highlight of his testimony today.
Wallace got a reaction out of Trump by asking him whether he considers brand value part of his assets that cover the $2.5 billion.
“ The brand value is very substantial value. I didn’t even include that in the financial statements. I could have if I wanted to. If I was looking to build up the financial statement, I could put it in but I wasn’t looking to do that,” Trump replied.
Trump said as a total, some of his statements of financial condition are "much more."
He complained the loan documents were "ancient history."
"I don’t know how it doesn’t involve a statute of limitations," Trump says.
Trump adds it "seems ridiculous to me, but that’s ok, that’s how it’s working with this one."
Israel Quietly Pushed for Egypt to Admit Large Numbers of Gazans
The Israeli government has not publicly called for large numbers of Gazans to move to Egypt. But in private, diplomats say, it has pushed for just that — augmenting Palestinian fears of a permanent expulsion.
- Share full article
By Patrick Kingsley
Patrick Kingsley, the Jerusalem bureau chief, spoke to diplomats about Israel’s secret push for Egypt to admit hundreds of thousands of Gazans.
Israel has quietly tried to build international support in recent weeks for the transfer of several hundred thousand civilians from Gaza to Egypt for the duration of its war in the territory, according to six senior foreign diplomats.
Israeli leaders and diplomats have privately proposed the idea to several foreign governments, framing it as a humanitarian initiative that would allow civilians to temporarily escape the perils of Gaza for refugee camps in the Sinai Desert, just across the border in neighboring Egypt.
The suggestion was dismissed by most of Israel’s interlocutors — who include the United States and Britain — because of the risk that such a mass displacement could become permanent. These countries fear that such a development might destabilize Egypt and lock significant numbers of Palestinians out of their homeland, according to the diplomats, who spoke anonymously in order to discuss a sensitive matter more freely.
The idea has also been firmly rejected by Palestinians, who fear that Israel is using the war — which began on Oct. 7 after terrorists from Gaza raided Israel and killed roughly 1,400 people — to permanently displace the more than two million people living in Gaza.
More than 700,000 Palestinians either fled or were expelled from their homes in what is now Israel during the war surrounding the creation of the state in 1948. Many of their descendants are now warning that the current war will end with a similar “nakba,” or catastrophe, as the 1948 displacement is known in Arabic.
The office of Benjamin Netanyahu, the Israeli prime minister, declined to comment on the proposal.
Days after the Oct. 7 attack by Hamas, the armed Palestinian group that oversees Gaza, the Israeli military called for all residents of northern Gaza — about half the entire population of the territory — to evacuate to southern Gaza as it prepared for a ground invasion. But Israel did not publicly suggest that Palestinians cross the Egyptian border, which has been largely sealed since the start of the war.
Egypt has rejected the idea of a temporary displacement, let alone a permanent one. A spokesman for the Egyptian government declined to comment for this article, referring instead to a speech made last month by Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, the Egyptian president, that dismissed the idea.
“Egypt has affirmed and reiterated its complete rejection of the forced displacement of Palestinians and their exodus to Egyptian lands in Sinai, as this is nothing but a final liquidation of the Palestinian cause,” Mr. el-Sisi said in a speech published on his website.
Some of Mr. Netanyahu’s political allies, however, have publicly backed the idea of temporarily moving large numbers of Gazans to Egypt as well as to other countries in the region and in the West.
Danny Danon, a lawmaker from Mr. Netanyahu’s Likud party and a former Israeli ambassador to the United Nations, said he supported evacuating Gazan civilians to give Israel more room to maneuver during its ground invasion of Gaza, and to move civilians out of harm’s way.
“We’re trying to lower the level of casualties for our troops and for the civilians,” Mr. Danon said in a phone interview. “We expect not only the Egyptians, but the entire international community to make a genuine effort to support and accept the residents of Gaza.”
Mr. Danon added that the idea would need the agreement of the Egyptian government, which controls Gaza’s southern border. However, Mr. Danon is not a member of the government and could not confirm whether Israel had been pushing foreign governments to back such a plan.
Israel’s diplomatic push has added to a growing sense of uncertainty about what will happen if Israel takes control over parts or all of Gaza, even temporarily, at the end of its military operations.
Israeli ground forces invaded Gaza on Oct. 27, nearly three weeks after Hamas overran parts of southern Israel.
Israel’s stated goals are the dismantling of Hamas and the rescue of more than 240 civilians and soldiers captured by the group and its allies on Oct. 7. But Israeli officials have repeatedly said they are still assessing who should lead the enclave once those goals are achieved.
One proposal is to cede Gaza to an international force that could then help reconstruct its infrastructure and housing before handing it to the Palestinian Authority, a more moderate Palestinian institution that administers parts of the occupied West Bank. But the authority has said that it does not want to take over the territory unless Israel allows the creation of a Palestinian state in Gaza and the West Bank.
Some Israeli hard-liners advocate keeping control of Gaza and permanently expelling its Palestinian residents. A Likud lawmaker, Ariel Kallner, has called for another nakba that would “overshadow” the original mass displacement in 1948.
“Right now, one goal: Nakba!” Mr. Kallner said on Oct. 8. “Nakba in Gaza and Nakba to anyone who dares to join!” he added.
Egypt plays a delicate role in Gaza — part border guard, part mediator, part aid facilitator — but it does not want to end up as the de facto administrator of the territory. After more than a decade of internal turmoil kicked off by the Arab Spring uprising, the country is now mired in a deep economic crisis and fears a large influx of Palestinians could be even more destabilizing.
Egypt fears that the sudden transfer of Palestinians would roil northern Sinai, where the Egyptian military has struggled to contain an Islamist insurgency, or that it could lead some Palestinians to launch attacks from Sinai into Israel, which could then draw Egypt into conflict with Israel.
Palestinians in Gaza have also rejected the idea of relocating to Egypt, saying it would constitute a new nakba.
“As a Palestinian, I won’t renew the nakba again,” said Ameed Abed, 35, a resident of Jabaliya, an area of northern Gaza devastated in recent days by Israeli strikes. “We will not leave our homes,” he added in a phone interview.
Mr. Danon said that Israel did not intend to expel Gazans from the enclave and that anyone who left would be allowed to return.
The defense minister, Yoav Gallant, said last month that Israel would not seek to maintain day-to-day control over Gaza after the invasion.
But the matter is still the subject of considerable discussion and disagreement within Israel’s government and governing coalition. Some members of Mr. Netanyahu’s coalition and officials in his government have expressly called for the permanent expulsion of Palestinians from Gaza.
A department within Israel’s Intelligence Ministry , which has no executive power, published a paper on Oct. 13 recommending “the evacuation of the civilian population from Gaza to Sinai.” After the document was leaked to Local Call, an Israeli news outlet, the prime minister’s office confirmed the authenticity of the document — but said it was just a “preliminary paper.”
A far-right government minister, Amichay Eliyahu, said on Wednesday that Gazan land should be given to former Israeli soldiers who fought in Gaza — or to former Israeli settlers who lived in the enclave before Israel withdrew from it in 2005. Then, on Sunday, Mr. Eliyahu said that Israel should consider dropping a nuclear bomb on Gaza, an idea that drew condemnation from Mr. Netanyahu and other members of the government.
Video has also emerged of an Israeli military officer recently calling for Israel to reoccupy Gaza, as well as a separate video that shows a pop singer calling for the reoccupation of Gaza, prompting the approval of an audience of soldiers. In response, the Israeli military condemned the officer and said it was looking into the incident with the pop singer.
Israel captured Gaza from Egypt during the Arab-Israeli War of 1967 and established 21 Jewish settlements there. But in 2005, the Israeli government dismantled those settlements, evacuated their residents to Israel, and handed the territory to the Palestinian Authority.
Hamas forced out the authority two years later, leading Israel and Egypt to impose a blockade on the strip that has been in place for the past 16 years.
Iyad Abuheweila and Vivian Yee contributed reporting from Cairo, and Gabby Sobelman from Rehovot, Israel.
Patrick Kingsley is the Jerusalem bureau chief, covering Israel and the occupied territories. He has reported from more than 40 countries, written two books and previously covered migration and the Middle East for The Guardian. More about Patrick Kingsley
Our Coverage of the Israel-Hamas War
The Civilian Toll: Facing global criticism over a bloody military campaign in Gaza that has killed thousands of civilians , Israeli officials say it is impossible to defeat Hamas without killing innocents, a lesson they argue Americans and their allies should understand .
Waiting to Deploy: Facing a military campaign with no end in sight, 360,000 reservists who have been called up as Israel goes to war in Gaza find themselves in a holding pattern .
Gaza’s Teetering Hospitals: Doctors and nurses in Gaza’s hospitals, which are nearing collapse without electricity and basic supplies after weeks of an Israeli siege, say they are facing hard choices about who lives and who dies .
Blinken in the Middle East: During a quick trip to the region , Secretary of State Antony Blinken repeatedly warned Iran against using its proxies to widen the conflict between Israel and Hamas.
Explosion in Al Maghazi: An explosion in the densely populated part of central Gaza destroyed several buildings and appeared to have killed and wounded many people, photos and videos from the scene showed . The Gazan Health Ministry blamed an Israeli airstrike.
The Conflict’s Global Reach
U.S. Congress: Democrats in Congress, torn between their support for Israel and concern about civilian suffering in Gaza, are struggling with how far to go in calling for measures to mitigate civilian casualties as the left wing of the party escalates pressure for a cease-fire .
President Biden: After weeks of terror and retaliation in Israel and Gaza, and 20 months of war in Ukraine, Biden is confronting the limits of his leverage in the two international conflicts defining his presidency.
Social Media: Amid angry outpourings and even personal attacks, people are increasingly facing pressure to post about the Israel-Hamas war . The social networks, meanwhile, are being accused of spreading misinformation and hate speech.
A Worldwide War of Words: Iran, Russia and, to a lesser degree, China are using state and social media to support Hamas and undercut Israel, while denigrating Israel’s principal ally, the United States.
Dagestan Riot: An analysis of Telegram posts shows how a false rumor about the resettlement of Israelis in Dagestan that led to an antisemitic riot at an airport was shared online for longer and more widely than previously reported .
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