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How to Conclude an Essay | Interactive Example

Published on January 24, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on July 23, 2023.

The conclusion is the final paragraph of your essay . A strong conclusion aims to:

  • Tie together the essay’s main points
  • Show why your argument matters
  • Leave the reader with a strong impression

Your conclusion should give a sense of closure and completion to your argument, but also show what new questions or possibilities it has opened up.

This conclusion is taken from our annotated essay example , which discusses the history of the Braille system. Hover over each part to see why it’s effective.

Braille paved the way for dramatic cultural changes in the way blind people were treated and the opportunities available to them. Louis Braille’s innovation was to reimagine existing reading systems from a blind perspective, and the success of this invention required sighted teachers to adapt to their students’ reality instead of the other way around. In this sense, Braille helped drive broader social changes in the status of blindness. New accessibility tools provide practical advantages to those who need them, but they can also change the perspectives and attitudes of those who do not.

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Table of contents

Step 1: return to your thesis, step 2: review your main points, step 3: show why it matters, what shouldn’t go in the conclusion, more examples of essay conclusions, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about writing an essay conclusion.

To begin your conclusion, signal that the essay is coming to an end by returning to your overall argument.

Don’t just repeat your thesis statement —instead, try to rephrase your argument in a way that shows how it has been developed since the introduction.

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Next, remind the reader of the main points that you used to support your argument.

Avoid simply summarizing each paragraph or repeating each point in order; try to bring your points together in a way that makes the connections between them clear. The conclusion is your final chance to show how all the paragraphs of your essay add up to a coherent whole.

To wrap up your conclusion, zoom out to a broader view of the topic and consider the implications of your argument. For example:

  • Does it contribute a new understanding of your topic?
  • Does it raise new questions for future study?
  • Does it lead to practical suggestions or predictions?
  • Can it be applied to different contexts?
  • Can it be connected to a broader debate or theme?

Whatever your essay is about, the conclusion should aim to emphasize the significance of your argument, whether that’s within your academic subject or in the wider world.

Try to end with a strong, decisive sentence, leaving the reader with a lingering sense of interest in your topic.

The easiest way to improve your conclusion is to eliminate these common mistakes.

Don’t include new evidence

Any evidence or analysis that is essential to supporting your thesis statement should appear in the main body of the essay.

The conclusion might include minor pieces of new information—for example, a sentence or two discussing broader implications, or a quotation that nicely summarizes your central point. But it shouldn’t introduce any major new sources or ideas that need further explanation to understand.

Don’t use “concluding phrases”

Avoid using obvious stock phrases to tell the reader what you’re doing:

  • “In conclusion…”
  • “To sum up…”

These phrases aren’t forbidden, but they can make your writing sound weak. By returning to your main argument, it will quickly become clear that you are concluding the essay—you shouldn’t have to spell it out.

Don’t undermine your argument

Avoid using apologetic phrases that sound uncertain or confused:

  • “This is just one approach among many.”
  • “There are good arguments on both sides of this issue.”
  • “There is no clear answer to this problem.”

Even if your essay has explored different points of view, your own position should be clear. There may be many possible approaches to the topic, but you want to leave the reader convinced that yours is the best one!

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  • Argumentative
  • Literary analysis

This conclusion is taken from an argumentative essay about the internet’s impact on education. It acknowledges the opposing arguments while taking a clear, decisive position.

The internet has had a major positive impact on the world of education; occasional pitfalls aside, its value is evident in numerous applications. The future of teaching lies in the possibilities the internet opens up for communication, research, and interactivity. As the popularity of distance learning shows, students value the flexibility and accessibility offered by digital education, and educators should fully embrace these advantages. The internet’s dangers, real and imaginary, have been documented exhaustively by skeptics, but the internet is here to stay; it is time to focus seriously on its potential for good.

This conclusion is taken from a short expository essay that explains the invention of the printing press and its effects on European society. It focuses on giving a clear, concise overview of what was covered in the essay.

The invention of the printing press was important not only in terms of its immediate cultural and economic effects, but also in terms of its major impact on politics and religion across Europe. In the century following the invention of the printing press, the relatively stationary intellectual atmosphere of the Middle Ages gave way to the social upheavals of the Reformation and the Renaissance. A single technological innovation had contributed to the total reshaping of the continent.

This conclusion is taken from a literary analysis essay about Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein . It summarizes what the essay’s analysis achieved and emphasizes its originality.

By tracing the depiction of Frankenstein through the novel’s three volumes, I have demonstrated how the narrative structure shifts our perception of the character. While the Frankenstein of the first volume is depicted as having innocent intentions, the second and third volumes—first in the creature’s accusatory voice, and then in his own voice—increasingly undermine him, causing him to appear alternately ridiculous and vindictive. Far from the one-dimensional villain he is often taken to be, the character of Frankenstein is compelling because of the dynamic narrative frame in which he is placed. In this frame, Frankenstein’s narrative self-presentation responds to the images of him we see from others’ perspectives. This conclusion sheds new light on the novel, foregrounding Shelley’s unique layering of narrative perspectives and its importance for the depiction of character.

If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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Your essay’s conclusion should contain:

  • A rephrased version of your overall thesis
  • A brief review of the key points you made in the main body
  • An indication of why your argument matters

The conclusion may also reflect on the broader implications of your argument, showing how your ideas could applied to other contexts or debates.

For a stronger conclusion paragraph, avoid including:

  • Important evidence or analysis that wasn’t mentioned in the main body
  • Generic concluding phrases (e.g. “In conclusion…”)
  • Weak statements that undermine your argument (e.g. “There are good points on both sides of this issue.”)

Your conclusion should leave the reader with a strong, decisive impression of your work.

The conclusion paragraph of an essay is usually shorter than the introduction . As a rule, it shouldn’t take up more than 10–15% of the text.

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5 Examples of Concluding Words for Essays

5 Examples of Concluding Words for Essays

4-minute read

  • 19th September 2022

If you’re a student writing an essay or research paper, it’s important to make sure your points flow together well. You’ll want to use connecting words (known formally as transition signals) to do this. Transition signals like thus , also , and furthermore link different ideas, and when you get to the end of your work, you need to use these to mark your conclusion. Read on to learn more about transition signals and how to use them to conclude your essays.

Transition Signals

Transition signals link sentences together cohesively, enabling easy reading and comprehension. They are usually placed at the beginning of a sentence and separated from the remaining words with a comma. There are several types of transition signals, including those to:

●  show the order of a sequence of events (e.g., first, then, next)

●  introduce an example (e.g., specifically, for instance)

●  indicate a contrasting idea (e.g., but, however, although)

●  present an additional idea (e.g., also, in addition, plus)

●  indicate time (e.g., beforehand, meanwhile, later)

●  compare (e.g., likewise, similarly)

●  show cause and effect (e.g., thus, as a result)

●  mark the conclusion – which we’ll focus on in this guide.

When you reach the end of an essay, you should start the concluding paragraph with a transition signal that acts as a bridge to the summary of your key points. Check out some concluding transition signals below and learn how you can use them in your writing.

To Conclude…

This is a particularly versatile closing statement that can be used for almost any kind of essay, including both formal and informal academic writing. It signals to the reader that you will briefly restate the main idea. As an alternative, you can begin the summary with “to close” or “in conclusion.” In an argumentative piece, you can use this phrase to indicate a call to action or opinion:

To conclude, Abraham Lincoln was the best president because he abolished slavery.

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As Has Been Demonstrated…

To describe how the evidence presented in your essay supports your argument or main idea, begin the concluding paragraph with “as has been demonstrated.” This phrase is best used for research papers or articles with heavy empirical or statistical evidence.

As has been demonstrated by the study presented above, human activities are negatively altering the climate system.

The Above Points Illustrate…

As another transitional phrase for formal or academic work, “the above points illustrate” indicates that you are reiterating your argument and that the conclusion will include an assessment of the evidence you’ve presented.

The above points illustrate that children prefer chocolate over broccoli.

In a Nutshell…

A simple and informal metaphor to begin a conclusion, “in a nutshell” prepares the reader for a summary of your paper. It can work in narratives and speeches but should be avoided in formal situations.

In a nutshell, the Beatles had an impact on musicians for generations to come.

Overall, It Can Be Said…

To recap an idea at the end of a critical or descriptive essay, you can use this phrase at the beginning of the concluding paragraph. “Overall” means “taking everything into account,” and it sums up your essay in a formal way. You can use “overall” on its own as a transition signal, or you can use it as part of a phrase.

Overall, it can be said that art has had a positive impact on humanity.

Proofreading and Editing

Transition signals are crucial to crafting a well-written and cohesive essay. For your next writing assignment, make sure you include plenty of transition signals, and check out this post for more tips on how to improve your writing. And before you turn in your paper, don’t forget to have someone proofread your work. Our expert editors will make sure your essay includes all the transition signals necessary for your writing to flow seamlessly. Send in a free 500-word sample today!

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Conclusion transition words: Phrases for summarizing and ending

concluding words for essays

Transition words help us structure our thoughts and guide the reader or listener through what we are saying. When it’s time to summarize your message or end a paragraph, conclusion transition words let you signal this closing.

It’s good to know some synonyms for ‘in conclusion’ and ‘to conclude’, because although these are good examples of concluding words, they can get repetitive.

Our comprehensive list of transition words for conclusion and summary should give you all the inspiration you need, whether you are writing an essay or speech, or just want to become more confident forming an argument. These signal words can also be helpful for restating ideas, drawing attention to key points as you conclude.

We have included plenty of examples of how you can use these transition words for concluding paragraphs or sentences, so by the end of this article, you should be clear on how to use them properly.

concluding words for essays

Conclusion transition words with examples

We have grouped these summarizing and concluding transition words according to how and where they can be used. For example, some should only be used when forming a final conclusion, whereas others can be used to summarize sections mid-way through your speech or writing.

First, let’s be clear about the difference between a summary and a conclusion .

Summary vs conclusion

A conclusion comes at the end of a speech, chapter, or piece of text, and it brings together all of the points mentioned. A summary, however, can be placed anywhere (even at the beginning). A summary gives a brief outline of the main points but is not as in-depth as a conclusion.

If you are giving a presentation or writing a blog, you may wish to summarize the main points in your introduction so that people know what you are going to cover. You could also summarize a section part-way through before moving on to another angle or topic.

In contrast, the conclusion always comes at the end, and you should only use specific conclusion transition words as you are drawing to a close.

Transition words for conclusion paragraphs

Let’s begin with some discourse markers that signal you are moving to the concluding paragraph in your presentation, speech, essay, or paper. These can all be used to start a conclusion paragraph.

  • In conclusion
  • To conclude
  • We can conclude that
  • Given these points
  • In the final analysis
  • As can be seen
  • In the long run
  • When all is said and done
  • I’ll end by
  • As we draw to a close

The last three on this list, the ‘closing’ transition words, would generally only be used in spoken discourse.

Some transition words for order and sequencing should also help with structuring what you want to say, including the ending.

Example conclusion sentences

The following sentences show how to use conclusion words correctly:

  • In conclusion , we can say that plan A will be of greater benefit to the company.
  • When all is said and done , it’s clear that we should steer clear of this investment strategy.
  • Given these points , I believe the trial was a great success.
  • I’ll end by reminding you all that this experiment was just the beginning of a much larger project.
  • To wrap up , let’s look at how this learning can be applied.
  • In the long run , we will make more profit by investing heavily in new machinery.
  • Having analyzed seven of our competitors in detail, we can conclude that our content marketing strategy should be updated.

Transition words for summary

The following summary transition words may be used as part of a conclusion paragraph, but they are especially helpful for concisely drawing together several points.

  • To summarize
  • On the whole
  • Generally speaking
  • All things considered
  • In a nutshell (informal)
  • In any case

Note that although you can insert summary transition words anywhere, the specific phrases ‘In summary’, ‘To summarize’ and ‘To sum up’ are generally only used at the end, similar to conclusion phrases.

Example summary sentences

  • In brief , this presentation is going to cover the pros and cons of the device and how we can apply this to our own product development.
  • This new technology is, in a word , revolutionary.
  • All things considered , we found that Berlin was a great city for a weekend break.
  • To summarize , we can say that Shakespeare’s writing continues to have a global influence.
  • We can say that the combustion engine was, on the whole , a good invention.
  • In any case , we should put the necessary precautions in place.
  • Generally speaking , girls are more thoughtful than boys.

Transition words to end a paragraph

You may wish to add ending transition words in the final sentence of a paragraph to conclude the ideas in that section of text, before moving on to another point.

Here are some transition words to conclude a paragraph:

  • This means that
  • With this in mind
  • By and large
  • For the most part

Note that some of these could equally be used to begin a new paragraph, so long as that paragraph is summarizing the points previously mentioned.

Cause and effect transition words could also be helpful in this context.

Examples of transition words for the end of a paragraph

  • Jamie is a vegan and Sheryl has a lot of allergies. This means that we should be careful which restaurant we choose.
  • The weather forecast said it would rain this afternoon. With this in mind , should we postpone our hike?
  • Each of the students has their own opinion about where to go for the field trip. Ultimately , though, it’s the teacher who will decide.

Restating points as you conclude

Conclusion transition words can also signal that you are restating a point you mentioned earlier. This is common practice in both writing and speaking as it draws the reader or listener’s attention back to something you want them to keep in mind. These are, therefore, also examples of transition words for emphasizing a point .

Here are some helpful transition words for concluding or summarizing by restating points:

  • As mentioned previously
  • As stated earlier
  • As has been noted
  • As shown above
  • As I have said
  • As I have mentioned
  • As we have seen
  • As has been demonstrated

You may switch most of these between the passive and active voice, depending on which is most appropriate. For example, ‘As has been demonstrated’ could become ‘As I have demonstrated’ and ‘As shown above’ could become ‘As I have shown’.

Example sentences to restate a point in conclusion or summary

  • As I stated earlier , the only way we can get meaningful results from this survey is by including at least a thousand people.
  • As has been demonstrated throughout this conference, there are exciting things happening in the world of neuroscience.
  • As shown by this study, the trials have been promising.

If you were researching these transition words for concluding an essay, you might find it helpful to read this guide to strong essay conclusions . Of course, there are many ways to use summary transition words beyond essays. They may be a little formal for casual conversation, but they certainly can be used in speech as part of a presentation, debate, or argument.

Can you think of any other concluding words or phrases that should be on this list? Leave a comment below to share them!

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The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Conclusions

What this handout is about.

This handout will explain the functions of conclusions, offer strategies for writing effective ones, help you evaluate conclusions you’ve drafted, and suggest approaches to avoid.

About conclusions

Introductions and conclusions can be difficult to write, but they’re worth investing time in. They can have a significant influence on a reader’s experience of your paper.

Just as your introduction acts as a bridge that transports your readers from their own lives into the “place” of your analysis, your conclusion can provide a bridge to help your readers make the transition back to their daily lives. Such a conclusion will help them see why all your analysis and information should matter to them after they put the paper down.

Your conclusion is your chance to have the last word on the subject. The conclusion allows you to have the final say on the issues you have raised in your paper, to synthesize your thoughts, to demonstrate the importance of your ideas, and to propel your reader to a new view of the subject. It is also your opportunity to make a good final impression and to end on a positive note.

Your conclusion can go beyond the confines of the assignment. The conclusion pushes beyond the boundaries of the prompt and allows you to consider broader issues, make new connections, and elaborate on the significance of your findings.

Your conclusion should make your readers glad they read your paper. Your conclusion gives your reader something to take away that will help them see things differently or appreciate your topic in personally relevant ways. It can suggest broader implications that will not only interest your reader, but also enrich your reader’s life in some way. It is your gift to the reader.

Strategies for writing an effective conclusion

One or more of the following strategies may help you write an effective conclusion:

  • Play the “So What” Game. If you’re stuck and feel like your conclusion isn’t saying anything new or interesting, ask a friend to read it with you. Whenever you make a statement from your conclusion, ask the friend to say, “So what?” or “Why should anybody care?” Then ponder that question and answer it. Here’s how it might go: You: Basically, I’m just saying that education was important to Douglass. Friend: So what? You: Well, it was important because it was a key to him feeling like a free and equal citizen. Friend: Why should anybody care? You: That’s important because plantation owners tried to keep slaves from being educated so that they could maintain control. When Douglass obtained an education, he undermined that control personally. You can also use this strategy on your own, asking yourself “So What?” as you develop your ideas or your draft.
  • Return to the theme or themes in the introduction. This strategy brings the reader full circle. For example, if you begin by describing a scenario, you can end with the same scenario as proof that your essay is helpful in creating a new understanding. You may also refer to the introductory paragraph by using key words or parallel concepts and images that you also used in the introduction.
  • Synthesize, don’t summarize. Include a brief summary of the paper’s main points, but don’t simply repeat things that were in your paper. Instead, show your reader how the points you made and the support and examples you used fit together. Pull it all together.
  • Include a provocative insight or quotation from the research or reading you did for your paper.
  • Propose a course of action, a solution to an issue, or questions for further study. This can redirect your reader’s thought process and help her to apply your info and ideas to her own life or to see the broader implications.
  • Point to broader implications. For example, if your paper examines the Greensboro sit-ins or another event in the Civil Rights Movement, you could point out its impact on the Civil Rights Movement as a whole. A paper about the style of writer Virginia Woolf could point to her influence on other writers or on later feminists.

Strategies to avoid

  • Beginning with an unnecessary, overused phrase such as “in conclusion,” “in summary,” or “in closing.” Although these phrases can work in speeches, they come across as wooden and trite in writing.
  • Stating the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion.
  • Introducing a new idea or subtopic in your conclusion.
  • Ending with a rephrased thesis statement without any substantive changes.
  • Making sentimental, emotional appeals that are out of character with the rest of an analytical paper.
  • Including evidence (quotations, statistics, etc.) that should be in the body of the paper.

Four kinds of ineffective conclusions

  • The “That’s My Story and I’m Sticking to It” Conclusion. This conclusion just restates the thesis and is usually painfully short. It does not push the ideas forward. People write this kind of conclusion when they can’t think of anything else to say. Example: In conclusion, Frederick Douglass was, as we have seen, a pioneer in American education, proving that education was a major force for social change with regard to slavery.
  • The “Sherlock Holmes” Conclusion. Sometimes writers will state the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion. You might be tempted to use this strategy if you don’t want to give everything away too early in your paper. You may think it would be more dramatic to keep the reader in the dark until the end and then “wow” him with your main idea, as in a Sherlock Holmes mystery. The reader, however, does not expect a mystery, but an analytical discussion of your topic in an academic style, with the main argument (thesis) stated up front. Example: (After a paper that lists numerous incidents from the book but never says what these incidents reveal about Douglass and his views on education): So, as the evidence above demonstrates, Douglass saw education as a way to undermine the slaveholders’ power and also an important step toward freedom.
  • The “America the Beautiful”/”I Am Woman”/”We Shall Overcome” Conclusion. This kind of conclusion usually draws on emotion to make its appeal, but while this emotion and even sentimentality may be very heartfelt, it is usually out of character with the rest of an analytical paper. A more sophisticated commentary, rather than emotional praise, would be a more fitting tribute to the topic. Example: Because of the efforts of fine Americans like Frederick Douglass, countless others have seen the shining beacon of light that is education. His example was a torch that lit the way for others. Frederick Douglass was truly an American hero.
  • The “Grab Bag” Conclusion. This kind of conclusion includes extra information that the writer found or thought of but couldn’t integrate into the main paper. You may find it hard to leave out details that you discovered after hours of research and thought, but adding random facts and bits of evidence at the end of an otherwise-well-organized essay can just create confusion. Example: In addition to being an educational pioneer, Frederick Douglass provides an interesting case study for masculinity in the American South. He also offers historians an interesting glimpse into slave resistance when he confronts Covey, the overseer. His relationships with female relatives reveal the importance of family in the slave community.

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Douglass, Frederick. 1995. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself. New York: Dover.

Hamilton College. n.d. “Conclusions.” Writing Center. Accessed June 14, 2019. https://www.hamilton.edu//academics/centers/writing/writing-resources/conclusions .

Holewa, Randa. 2004. “Strategies for Writing a Conclusion.” LEO: Literacy Education Online. Last updated February 19, 2004. https://leo.stcloudstate.edu/acadwrite/conclude.html.

You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

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“Pay adequate attention to the conclusion.” Kathleen McMillan & Jonathan Weyers,  How to Write Essays & Assignments

Conclusions are often overlooked, cursory and written last minute. If this sounds familiar then it's time to change and give your conclusions some much needed attention. Your conclusion is the whole point of your essay. All the other parts of the essay should have been leading your reader on an inevitable journey towards your conclusion. So make it count and finish your essay in style.

Know where you are going

Too many students focus their essays on content rather than argument. This means they pay too much attention to the main body without considering where it is leading. It can be a good idea to write a draft conclusion before  you write your main body. It is a lot easier to plan a journey when you know your destination! 

It should only be a draft however, as quite often the writing process itself can help you develop your argument and you may feel your conclusion needs adapting accordingly.

What it should include

A great conclusion should include:

link icon

A clear link back to the question . This is usually the first thing you do in a conclusion and it shows that you have (hopefully) answered it.

icon - lightbulb in a point marker

A sentence or two that summarise(s) your main argument but in a bit more detail than you gave in your introduction.

idea with points leading to it

A series of supporting sentences that basically reiterate the main point of each of your paragraphs but show how they relate to each other and lead you to the position you have taken. Constantly ask yourself "So what?" "Why should anyone care?" and answer these questions for each of the points you make in your conclusion.

icon - exclamation mark

A final sentence that states why your ideas are important to the wider subject area . Where the introduction goes from general to specific, the conclusion needs to go from specific back out to general.

What it should not  include

Try to avoid including the following in your conclusion. Remember your conclusion should be entirely predictable. The reader wants no surprises.

icon - lightbulb crossed out

Any new ideas . If an idea is worth including, put it in the main body. You do not need to include citations in your conclusion if you have already used them earlier and are just reiterating your point.

sad face

A change of style i.e. being more emotional or sentimental than the rest of the essay. Keep it straightforward, explanatory and clear.

rubbish bin

Overused phrases like: “in conclusion”; “in summary”; “as shown in this essay”. Consign these to the rubbish bin!

Here are some alternatives, there are many more:

  • The x main points presented here emphasise the importance of...
  • The [insert something relevant] outlined above indicate that ...
  • By showing the connections between x, y and z, it has been argued here that ...

Maximise marks

Remember, your conclusion is the last thing your reader (marker!) will read. Spending a little care on it will leave her/him absolutely sure that you have answered the question and you will definitely receive a higher mark than if your conclusion was a quickly written afterthought.

Your conclusion should be around 10% of your word count. There is never a situation where sacrificing words in your conclusion will benefit your essay.

The 5Cs conclusion method: (spot the typo on this video)

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List of 50 "In Conclusion" Synonyms—Write Better with ProWritingAid

Alex Simmonds

Alex Simmonds

Cover image for in conclusion article

Table of Contents

Why is it wrong to use "in conclusion" when writing a conclusion, what can i use instead of "in conclusion" for an essay, what are some synonyms for "in conclusion" in formal writing, what are some synonyms for "in conclusion" in informal writing, what is another word for "in conclusion", what should a conclusion do in an article or paper.

The final paragraphs of any paper can be extremely difficult to get right, and yet they are probably the most important. They offer you a chance to summarize the points you have made into a neat package and leave a good impression on the reader.

Many people choose to start the last paragraph with the phrase in conclusion , but this has its downsides.

Firstly, you should only use it once. Any more than that and your essay will sound horribly repetitive. Secondly, there is the question of whether you should even use the phrase at all?

Image showing synonyms for in conclusion

Though it’s okay to use in conclusion in a speech or presentation, when writing an essay it comes across as stating the obvious. The phrase will come across as a bit unnecessary or "on the nose."

Its use in an essay is clichéd, and there are far cleaner and more elegant ways of indicating that you are going to be concluding the paper. Using in conclusion might even irritate and alienate your audience or readers.

Thankfully, there are hundreds of synonyms available in the English language which do a much better (and much more subtle) job of drawing a piece of writing to a close.

The key is to choose ones which suit the tone of the paper. Here we will look at both formal options for an essay or academic paper, and informal options for light-hearted, low key writing, or speeches.

Image showing as has been demonstrated in a sentence

If you are writing an academic essay, a white paper, a business paper, or any other formal text, you will want to use formal transitional expressions that successfully work as synonyms for in conclusion .

The following are some suggestions you could use:

As has been demonstrated

A simple way of concluding all your points and summarizing everything you have said is to confidently state that those points have convincingly proven your case:

As the research has demonstrated , kids really do love chocolate.

As all the above points have demonstrated , Dan Brown really was the most technically gifted writer of the 20th Century.

As has been demonstrated in this paper , the side-effects of the vaccine are mild in comparison to the consequences of the virus.

As has been shown

This is another way of saying as has been demonstrated , but perhaps less scientific and more literary. As has been shown would work well in literature, history, or philosophy essays.

For example:

As has been shown above , the First World War and industrialization were the drivers for a new way of seeing the world, reflected in Pound’s poetry.

In the final analysis

This is a great expression to use in your conclusion, since it’s almost as blunt as in conclusion , but is a more refined and far less clichéd way of starting the concluding paragraph.

Once you have finished your argument and started drawing things to a close, using in the final analysis allows you to tail nicely into your last summation.

In the final analysis , there can be little doubt that Transformers: Dark of the Moon represents a low point in the history of cinema.

Image showing final analysis as a substitute for in conclusion

Along with let’s review , this is short and blunt way of announcing that you intend to recap the points you have made so far, rather than actually drawing a conclusion.

It definitely works best when presenting or reading out a speech, but less well in an essay or paper.

However, it does work effectively in a scientific paper or if you wish to recap a long train of thought, argument, or sequence before getting to the final concluding lines.

To review , of the two groups of senior citizens, one was given a placebo and the other a large dose of amphetamines.

Image showing phrases to use instead of in conclusion

Another phrase you could consider is in closing . This is probably better when speaking or presenting because of how double-edged it is. It still has an in conclusion element to it, but arguably it could also work well when drawing an academic or scientific paper to a conclusion.

For example, it is particularly useful in scientific or business papers where you want to sum up your points, and then even have a call to action:

In closing then, it is clear that as a society, we all need to carefully monitor our consumption of gummy bears.

Or in an academic paper, it offers a slightly less blunt way to begin a paragraph:

In closing , how do we tie all these different elements of Ballard’s writing together?

Perhaps the most similar expression to in conclusion is in summary . In summary offers a clear indication to the reader that you are going to restate the main points of your paper and draw a conclusion from those points:

In summary , Existentialism is the only philosophy that has any real validity in the 21st century.

In summary , we believe that by switching to a subscription model...

On top of those previously mentioned, here are some other phrases that you can use as an alternative to in conclusion :

To summarize

Overall, it may be said

Taking everything into account

On the whole

In general, it can be said that

With this in mind

Considering all this

Everything considered

As a final observation

Considering all of the facts

For the most part

In light of these facts

When it comes to finishing up a speech, a light-hearted paper, blog post, or magazine article, there are a couple of informal phrases you can use rather than in conclusion :

In a nutshell

The phrase in a nutshell is extremely informal and can be used both in speech and in writing. However, it should never be used in academic or formal writing.

It could probably be used in informal business presentations, to let the audience know that you are summing up in a light-hearted manner:

In a nutshell , our new formula Pro Jazzinol shampoo does the same as our old shampoo, but we get to charge 20% more for it!

You can also use it if you want to get straight to the point at the end of a speech or article, without any fluff:

In a nutshell , our new SocialShocka app does what it says on the tin—gives you an electric shock every time you try to access your social media!

At the end of the day

This is a pretty useful expression if you want to informally conclude an argument, having made all your points. It basically means in the final reckoning or the main thing to consider is , but said in a more conversational manner:

At the end of the day , he will never make the national team, but will make a good living as a professional.

At the end of the day , the former President was never destined to unite the country…

Image showing a wedding toast

Long story short

Another informal option when replacing in conclusion is to opt for to make a long story short —sometimes shortened to long story short .

Again, this is not one you would use when writing an academic or formal paper, as it is much too conversational. It’s a phrase that is far better suited to telling a joke or story to your friends:

Long story short , Billy has only gone and started his own religion!

Would you ever use it in writing? Probably not, except for at the end of friendly, low-key presentations:

Long story short , our conclusion is that you are spending far too much money on after work company bowling trips.

And possibly at the end of an offbeat magazine article or blog post:

Long story short , Henry VIII was a great king—not so great a husband though!

Other "In Conclusion" Synonyms for Informal Writing

You can use any of the synonyms in this article when writing informally, but these are particularly useful when you want your writing to sound conversational:

By and large

On a final note

Last but not least

For all intents and purposes

The bottom line is

To put it bluntly

To wrap things up

To come to the point

To wind things up

Image showing list of words to replace in conclusion

Instead of opting for one of the above expressions or idioms, there are several different singular transition words you can use instead. Here are a couple of examples:

The perfect word to tell the reader you are reaching the end of your argument. Lastly is an adverb that means "at the end" or "in summary." It is best used when you are beginning your conclusion:

Lastly , with all the previous points in mind, there is the question of why Philip K Dick was so fascinated with alternate history?

But can also be used at the very end of your conclusion too:

Lastly then, we are left with Eliot’s own words on his inspiration for "The Waste Land."

Finally does exactly the same job as lastly . It lets the reader know that you are at the final point of your argument or are about to draw your conclusion:

Finally , we can see from all the previous points that...

Another word that can be used at beginning of the conclusion is the adverb ultimately . Meaning "in the end" or "at the end of the day," it can be used as a conclusion to both informal and formal papers or articles:

Ultimately , it comes down to whether one takes an Old Testament view of capital punishment or...

It can also be used in more survey, scientific, or charity appeal style articles as a call to action of some sort:

Ultimately , we will all need to put some thought into our own carbon footprints over the next couple of years.

A good word to conclude a scientific, or survey style paper is overall . It can be used when discussing the points, arguments or results that have been outlined in the paper up until that point.

Thus, you can say:

Overall , our survey showed that most people believe you should spread the cream before you add the jam, when eating scones.

Other Transition Words to Replace "In Conclusion"

Here are a few transition word alternatives to add to your arsenal:

Considering

Essentially

Principally

Summarizing

Pro tip: You should use transition words throughout your essay, paper, or article to guide your reader through your ideas towards your conclusion. ProWritingAid’s Transitions Report tells you how many transition words you’ve used throughout your document so you can make sure you’re supporting your readers’ understanding.

ProWritingAid transition report shows a conclusion word

It’ll also tell you what type of transitions you’ve used. If there are no conclusion words in your writing, consider using one of the synonyms from this article.

Sign up for a free ProWritingAid account to try the Transitions Report.

One of the most effective ways of finishing up a piece of writing is to ask a question, or return to the question that was asked at the beginning of the paper using. This can be achieved using how , what , why , or who .

This is sometimes referred to as the "so what?" question. This takes all your points and moves your writing (and your reader) back to the broader context, and gets the reader to ask, why are these points important? Your conclusion should answer the question "so what?" .

Image with so what question

To answer that, you circle back to the main concept or driving force of the essay / paper (usually found in the title) and tie it together with the points you have made, in a final, elegant few sentences:

How, then, is Kafka’s writing modernist in outlook?

Why should we consider Dickens’ work from a feminist perspective?

What, then , was Blake referring to, when he spoke of mind forged manacles?

In Conclusion

There are plenty of alternatives for drawing an effective and elegant close to your arguments, rather than simply stating in conclusion .

Whether you ask a question or opt for a transition expression or a single transition word, just taking the time to choose the right synonyms will make all the difference to what is, essentially, the most important part of your paper.

Want to improve your essay writing skills?

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Alex Simmonds is a freelance copywriter based in the UK and has been using words to help people sell things for over 20 years. He has an MA in English Lit and has been struggling to write a novel for most of the last decade. He can be found at alexsimmonds.co.uk.

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  • 40 Useful Words and Phrases for Top-Notch Essays

concluding words for essays

To be truly brilliant, an essay needs to utilise the right language. You could make a great point, but if it’s not intelligently articulated, you almost needn’t have bothered.

Developing the language skills to build an argument and to write persuasively is crucial if you’re to write outstanding essays every time. In this article, we’re going to equip you with the words and phrases you need to write a top-notch essay, along with examples of how to utilise them.

It’s by no means an exhaustive list, and there will often be other ways of using the words and phrases we describe that we won’t have room to include, but there should be more than enough below to help you make an instant improvement to your essay-writing skills.

This article is suitable for native English speakers and those who are  learning English at our Oxford Summer School or San Francisco Summer School and are just taking their first steps into essay writing.

General explaining

Let’s start by looking at language for general explanations of complex points.

1. In order to

Usage: “In order to” can be used to introduce an explanation for the purpose of an argument. Example: “In order to understand X, we need first to understand Y.”

2. In other words

Usage: Use “in other words” when you want to express something in a different way (more simply), to make it easier to understand, or to emphasise or expand on a point. Example: “Frogs are amphibians. In other words, they live on the land and in the water.”

3. To put it another way

Usage: This phrase is another way of saying “in other words”, and can be used in particularly complex points, when you feel that an alternative way of wording a problem may help the reader achieve a better understanding of its significance. Example: “Plants rely on photosynthesis. To put it another way, they will die without the sun.”

4. That is to say

Usage: “That is” and “that is to say” can be used to add further detail to your explanation, or to be more precise. Example: “Whales are mammals. That is to say, they must breathe air.”

5. To that end

Usage: Use “to that end” or “to this end” in a similar way to “in order to” or “so”. Example: “Zoologists have long sought to understand how animals communicate with each other. To that end, a new study has been launched that looks at elephant sounds and their possible meanings.”

Adding additional information to support a point

Students often make the mistake of using synonyms of “and” each time they want to add further information in support of a point they’re making, or to build an argument . Here are some cleverer ways of doing this.

6. Moreover

Usage: Employ “moreover” at the start of a sentence to add extra information in support of a point you’re making. Example: “Moreover, the results of a recent piece of research provide compelling evidence in support of…”

7. Furthermore

Usage:This is also generally used at the start of a sentence, to add extra information. Example: “Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that…”

8. What’s more

Usage: This is used in the same way as “moreover” and “furthermore”. Example: “What’s more, this isn’t the only evidence that supports this hypothesis.”

9. Likewise

Usage: Use “likewise” when you want to talk about something that agrees with what you’ve just mentioned. Example: “Scholar A believes X. Likewise, Scholar B argues compellingly in favour of this point of view.”

10. Similarly

Usage: Use “similarly” in the same way as “likewise”. Example: “Audiences at the time reacted with shock to Beethoven’s new work, because it was very different to what they were used to. Similarly, we have a tendency to react with surprise to the unfamiliar.”

11. Another key thing to remember

Usage: Use the phrase “another key point to remember” or “another key fact to remember” to introduce additional facts without using the word “also”. Example: “As a Romantic, Blake was a proponent of a closer relationship between humans and nature. Another key point to remember is that Blake was writing during the Industrial Revolution, which had a major impact on the world around him.”

12. As well as

Usage: Use “as well as” instead of “also” or “and”. Example: “Scholar A argued that this was due to X, as well as Y.”

13. Not only… but also

Usage: This wording is used to add an extra piece of information, often something that’s in some way more surprising or unexpected than the first piece of information. Example: “Not only did Edmund Hillary have the honour of being the first to reach the summit of Everest, but he was also appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.”

14. Coupled with

Usage: Used when considering two or more arguments at a time. Example: “Coupled with the literary evidence, the statistics paint a compelling view of…”

15. Firstly, secondly, thirdly…

Usage: This can be used to structure an argument, presenting facts clearly one after the other. Example: “There are many points in support of this view. Firstly, X. Secondly, Y. And thirdly, Z.

16. Not to mention/to say nothing of

Usage: “Not to mention” and “to say nothing of” can be used to add extra information with a bit of emphasis. Example: “The war caused unprecedented suffering to millions of people, not to mention its impact on the country’s economy.”

Words and phrases for demonstrating contrast

When you’re developing an argument, you will often need to present contrasting or opposing opinions or evidence – “it could show this, but it could also show this”, or “X says this, but Y disagrees”. This section covers words you can use instead of the “but” in these examples, to make your writing sound more intelligent and interesting.

17. However

Usage: Use “however” to introduce a point that disagrees with what you’ve just said. Example: “Scholar A thinks this. However, Scholar B reached a different conclusion.”

18. On the other hand

Usage: Usage of this phrase includes introducing a contrasting interpretation of the same piece of evidence, a different piece of evidence that suggests something else, or an opposing opinion. Example: “The historical evidence appears to suggest a clear-cut situation. On the other hand, the archaeological evidence presents a somewhat less straightforward picture of what happened that day.”

19. Having said that

Usage: Used in a similar manner to “on the other hand” or “but”. Example: “The historians are unanimous in telling us X, an agreement that suggests that this version of events must be an accurate account. Having said that, the archaeology tells a different story.”

20. By contrast/in comparison

Usage: Use “by contrast” or “in comparison” when you’re comparing and contrasting pieces of evidence. Example: “Scholar A’s opinion, then, is based on insufficient evidence. By contrast, Scholar B’s opinion seems more plausible.”

21. Then again

Usage: Use this to cast doubt on an assertion. Example: “Writer A asserts that this was the reason for what happened. Then again, it’s possible that he was being paid to say this.”

22. That said

Usage: This is used in the same way as “then again”. Example: “The evidence ostensibly appears to point to this conclusion. That said, much of the evidence is unreliable at best.”

Usage: Use this when you want to introduce a contrasting idea. Example: “Much of scholarship has focused on this evidence. Yet not everyone agrees that this is the most important aspect of the situation.”

Adding a proviso or acknowledging reservations

Sometimes, you may need to acknowledge a shortfalling in a piece of evidence, or add a proviso. Here are some ways of doing so.

24. Despite this

Usage: Use “despite this” or “in spite of this” when you want to outline a point that stands regardless of a shortfalling in the evidence. Example: “The sample size was small, but the results were important despite this.”

25. With this in mind

Usage: Use this when you want your reader to consider a point in the knowledge of something else. Example: “We’ve seen that the methods used in the 19th century study did not always live up to the rigorous standards expected in scientific research today, which makes it difficult to draw definite conclusions. With this in mind, let’s look at a more recent study to see how the results compare.”

26. Provided that

Usage: This means “on condition that”. You can also say “providing that” or just “providing” to mean the same thing. Example: “We may use this as evidence to support our argument, provided that we bear in mind the limitations of the methods used to obtain it.”

27. In view of/in light of

Usage: These phrases are used when something has shed light on something else. Example: “In light of the evidence from the 2013 study, we have a better understanding of…”

28. Nonetheless

Usage: This is similar to “despite this”. Example: “The study had its limitations, but it was nonetheless groundbreaking for its day.”

29. Nevertheless

Usage: This is the same as “nonetheless”. Example: “The study was flawed, but it was important nevertheless.”

30. Notwithstanding

Usage: This is another way of saying “nonetheless”. Example: “Notwithstanding the limitations of the methodology used, it was an important study in the development of how we view the workings of the human mind.”

Giving examples

Good essays always back up points with examples, but it’s going to get boring if you use the expression “for example” every time. Here are a couple of other ways of saying the same thing.

31. For instance

Example: “Some birds migrate to avoid harsher winter climates. Swallows, for instance, leave the UK in early winter and fly south…”

32. To give an illustration

Example: “To give an illustration of what I mean, let’s look at the case of…”

Signifying importance

When you want to demonstrate that a point is particularly important, there are several ways of highlighting it as such.

33. Significantly

Usage: Used to introduce a point that is loaded with meaning that might not be immediately apparent. Example: “Significantly, Tacitus omits to tell us the kind of gossip prevalent in Suetonius’ accounts of the same period.”

34. Notably

Usage: This can be used to mean “significantly” (as above), and it can also be used interchangeably with “in particular” (the example below demonstrates the first of these ways of using it). Example: “Actual figures are notably absent from Scholar A’s analysis.”

35. Importantly

Usage: Use “importantly” interchangeably with “significantly”. Example: “Importantly, Scholar A was being employed by X when he wrote this work, and was presumably therefore under pressure to portray the situation more favourably than he perhaps might otherwise have done.”

Summarising

You’ve almost made it to the end of the essay, but your work isn’t over yet. You need to end by wrapping up everything you’ve talked about, showing that you’ve considered the arguments on both sides and reached the most likely conclusion. Here are some words and phrases to help you.

36. In conclusion

Usage: Typically used to introduce the concluding paragraph or sentence of an essay, summarising what you’ve discussed in a broad overview. Example: “In conclusion, the evidence points almost exclusively to Argument A.”

37. Above all

Usage: Used to signify what you believe to be the most significant point, and the main takeaway from the essay. Example: “Above all, it seems pertinent to remember that…”

38. Persuasive

Usage: This is a useful word to use when summarising which argument you find most convincing. Example: “Scholar A’s point – that Constanze Mozart was motivated by financial gain – seems to me to be the most persuasive argument for her actions following Mozart’s death.”

39. Compelling

Usage: Use in the same way as “persuasive” above. Example: “The most compelling argument is presented by Scholar A.”

40. All things considered

Usage: This means “taking everything into account”. Example: “All things considered, it seems reasonable to assume that…”

How many of these words and phrases will you get into your next essay? And are any of your favourite essay terms missing from our list? Let us know in the comments below, or get in touch here to find out more about courses that can help you with your essays.

At Oxford Royale Academy, we offer a number of  summer school courses for young people who are keen to improve their essay writing skills. Click here to apply for one of our courses today, including law , business , medicine  and engineering .

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35 Transition Words for Conclusions

transition words for conclusion, explained below

When transitioning to conclusions, we can simply use the term “In conclusion”, but over time, this word starts to feel tedious and repetitive. There are better ways to do it.

Transition words help your essays flow more easily and act as signposts for your reader so they know when you’re moving from one part of an essay to another.

So, for your next essay conclusion , consider the following transition words which can help you to improve your vocabulary and academic writing skills .

I’ve saved five bonus transition words for the very end which are my personal favorites. These are for advanced students who really want to demonstrate an academic tone – don’t miss them! They’re at the very end.

Transition Words for Conclusions

1. in conclusion.

This phrase is typically used to signal the final remarks in a piece of writing. It helps summarize the main points or findings that have been discussed throughout the text. It is still generally appropriate to use, but can sometimes appear rudimentary use of the English language.

Sample Sentences:

“ In conclusion , implementing green technology in our daily lives can significantly reduce carbon footprints.”
“The research findings were quite revealing. In conclusion , more emphasis should be put on early childhood education.”

2. To sum up

This is often used to encapsulate the main points of a discussion or argument in a succinct way. It is used almost as frequently as ‘in conclusion’.

“ To sum up , a balanced diet and regular exercise are crucial for maintaining a healthy lifestyle.”
“The evidence points towards the need for more environmental protections. To sum up , without immediate action, our natural resources may become irreversibly damaged.”

3. In summary

Similar to “to sum up”, this phrase is used to provide a brief overview of the main points or findings discussed in the writing.

“ In summary , the research suggests a strong correlation between air pollution and respiratory diseases.”
“ In summary , the novel is a fascinating exploration of human resilience in the face of adversity.”

4. All in all

This phrase is used to express a final general statement or judgment considering everything that has been said. It is somewhat more colloquial than the three phrases above, making it potentially less valuable for an essay. However, in reflective pieces, it may be used. See the reflective examples below.

“ All in all , the team performed well despite the challenging circumstances.”
“ All in all , the benefits of recycling outweigh any potential disadvantages.”

5. Ultimately

This word is used to indicate the final result or fundamental reason after considering everything.

“ Ultimately , the success of the project depends on the dedication of the team members.”
“Despite initial hurdles, the venture was successful. Ultimately , perseverance and commitment were key to our success.”

6. Therefore

This word is used to introduce a logical conclusion from the evidence or reasons previously stated. It is used best to conclude a paragraph of sub-section than as the final essay conclusion.

“The cost of production has significantly decreased. Therefore , we can expect an increase in profit margins.”
“He didn’t meet the eligibility criteria. Therefore , his application was rejected.”

This is similar to “therefore” and is used to introduce a conclusion, a result or an implication. As with ‘therefore’, ‘It ‘hence’ is used best to conclude a paragraph of sub-section than as the final essay conclusion.

“He was late for his interview. Hence , he didn’t make a good impression.”
“The data was incomplete. Hence , the results of the study may not be entirely accurate.”

8. Consequently

This word is used to express a result or effect of a previous statement. It is best used mid-paragraph or in the middle of a sub-section, not an overall conclusion.

“There was heavy rainfall throughout the night. Consequently , the match was postponed.”
“The company didn’t adapt to the changing market trends. Consequently , they faced heavy losses.”

This is used to denote the conclusion or summary of something previously stated. It indicates that what follows is a result or inference from what has been stated before. It is best used mid-paragraph or in the middle of a sub-section, not an overall conclusion. While I quite like this term, some teachers see it as a bit old-timey.

“She didn’t study hard. Thus , she failed the exam.”
“The evidence is clearly inadmissible. Thus , the case should be dismissed.”

10. This essay’s final analysis is…

This phrase is used to introduce the ultimate conclusion that has been reached after consideration of all the facts.

“ This essay’s final analysis is that it is the lowest earners in society who have been hit hardest by this economic downturn.”
“ This essay’s final analysis is that it’s clear that the policy has had a positive impact on the community.”

11. On the whole

This phrase is often used when you want to make a general summary statement about a larger body of information or arguments. It implies that the statement accounts for all the details and complexities discussed previously. Generally, this is more colloquial so should only be used in less formal essay styles.

“On the whole” can help to simplify complex arguments, and it can signal that the writer has given due consideration to different perspectives or evidence before arriving at their conclusion.

“ On the whole , the company’s strategy has been effective, leading to an increase in profits and customer satisfaction.”
“Despite some negative feedback, on the whole , the policy has received wide public approval.”

12. To conclude

Similar to “In conclusion,” this phrase is a clear signal that the writer is about to wrap up their argument or findings.

“To conclude” can provide a sense of closure for the reader and it reaffirms the significance of the arguments or findings that have been presented.

“ To conclude , the study revealed that regular exercise can significantly reduce stress levels.”
“ To conclude , it is evident from the data that our marketing strategies have significantly boosted sales.”

13. To recap

This phrase is used when the writer wants to summarize the key points of their argument or discussion.

“To recap” can help to reinforce the importance of these points for the reader and it also serves as a quick reference or summary.

“ To recap , our findings suggest that the new drug can effectively alleviate symptoms in 80% of patients.”
“ To recap , our team achieved all project milestones on time and under budget.”

14. In essence

This phrase is often used when the writer wants to encapsulate the fundamental nature or core idea of their argument or discussion.

“In essence” can help to distill complex ideas or arguments down to their most basic and important elements.

“ In essence , the concept of freedom is at the heart of democratic societies.”
“ In essence , our project aims to develop sustainable solutions for waste management.”

15. In retrospect

This phrase is typically used when the writer wants to look back on a situation, decision, or period of time and make a summary statement or conclusion about it. Use it in reflective essays.

“In retrospect” can be useful for conveying a sense of learned wisdom or insight gained after the fact. It often suggests that the writer’s perspective has evolved or deepened over time.

“ In retrospect , investing in renewable energy technologies was a wise business decision.”
“ In retrospect , we could have implemented additional measures to ensure the safety of our staff during the pandemic.”

16. Overall

This is commonly used to indicate a consideration of all factors or an assessment of the situation in its entirety.

“Overall” is often used to summarize complex scenarios involving multiple elements. It represents a comprehensive viewpoint that takes into account all the variables discussed.

“ Overall , our company’s performance this year has been exceptional, with growth in nearly all sectors.”
“While the program faced some obstacles initially, overall , it has been successful in achieving its main objectives.”

17. Finally

This word is often used to indicate the last point or idea in a list or sequence.

“Finally” is a transition word that suggests the end of a discussion. It can also indicate the final and often most important point in an argument or discussion.

“ Finally , the most compelling evidence for climate change is the consistent rise in global temperatures over the past century.”
“ Finally , it’s worth mentioning the commitment and dedication of our team, which played a significant role in the project’s success.”

18. Accordingly

This word is used to express the idea that something is a logical result of something else.

“Accordingly” signifies that the statement that follows is based on what was previously mentioned. It reflects a cause-effect relationship between two points or arguments.

“We have noticed a significant increase in demand for our product. Accordingly , we have decided to increase our production capacity.”
“The weather forecast predicts heavy snowfall. Accordingly , we have postponed the event.”

19. As a result

Similar to “accordingly”, this phrase is used to indicate that something is a consequence of a previous action or situation.

“As a result” introduces the outcome of a given circumstance or set of circumstances, signifying a cause-effect relationship.

“Our competitors have lowered their prices. As a result , we have also decided to adjust our pricing strategy.”
“The new policies were not well received. As a result , the company faced significant backlash from the public.”

20. In short

This phrase is used when you want to summarize a complex idea, argument, or discussion in a concise way.

“In short” helps to condense complex or lengthy explanations into a simpler and shorter summary. It indicates a concise conclusion.

“ In short , the environmental benefits of renewable energy make it a vital component of our fight against climate change.”
“ In short , the project was a success, meeting all its goals and objectives within the allocated time and budget.”

21. In brief

This phrase is used to provide a concise summary of information or to draw a quick conclusion.

“In brief” helps to distill longer discussions or complex arguments into their most critical points. It aims to convey the gist of the matter succinctly.

“ In brief , adopting sustainable practices is not just beneficial for the environment, but it also makes economic sense.”
“ In brief , our research findings confirm the hypothesis that regular exercise can improve mental health.”

22. To summarize

This phrase helps encapsulate the key points discussed in the conversation or writing.

“To summarize” allows the writer to highlight the most important points or findings, reaffirming them for the reader. It reinforces the primary arguments or conclusions.

“ To summarize , we believe investing in renewable energy is a strategic decision that will yield long-term benefits.”
“ To summarize , the data clearly shows an upward trend in consumer demand for eco-friendly products.”

This word is often used to introduce a conclusion or a result based on the previous discussion.

“So” is a simple and effective way to link cause and effect, or problem and solution. It leads the reader directly to the outcome or conclusion.

“The experiment failed to produce the expected results, so we’ll need to revise our approach.”
“Our marketing campaign has been highly successful, so we plan to increase our advertising budget.”

24. Clearly

This word is often used to express that something is obvious or noticeable, especially after analyzing the data or arguments presented.

“Clearly” can emphasize the strength of the evidence or arguments, and it signals confidence in the conclusion.

“ Clearly , our efforts to improve customer service have resulted in higher client satisfaction rates.”
“After reviewing the data, it’s clearly evident that our sales have significantly increased since launching the new product line.”

25. After all

This phrase can be used to emphasize a decisive argument or fact that should be considered.

“After all” often introduces a compelling reason or justification that supports the conclusion. It can help stress the importance of the points previously mentioned.

“We should move forward with the merger, after all , it presents a unique opportunity to expand our market reach.”
“The committee decided to fund the project, after all , it aligns with our goals and has significant potential.”

26. As mentioned earlier

This phrase refers back to something that was stated previously in the conversation or text.

“As mentioned earlier” can be used to re-emphasize an important point or piece of evidence that supports the conclusion. It can reinforce the argument by reminding the reader of what has been discussed previously.

One downside of this is it seems redundant – why are you repeating what you said earlier rather than doing what a conclusion should do: summarizing and synthesizing your points.

“ As mentioned earlier , the correlation between the variables is strong, indicating a significant relationship.”
“ As mentioned earlier , our success is largely due to our dedicated and talented team.”

27. As has been noted

This phrase is often used to restate something important that has been pointed out in the discussion.

“As has been noted” functions similarly to “as mentioned earlier,” serving to underscore a significant point or detail previously discussed. It strengthens the conclusion by referencing crucial information.

As with the phrase “as mentioned earlier”, this one may come across as a redundant phrase and could even signal that you’re repeating yourself rather than adding value through an evaluation or revision exercise.

“ As has been noted , the high turnover rate in the company is a significant concern that requires immediate attention.”
“ As has been noted , the initiative has resulted in substantial benefits for our community.”

28. As has been shown

This phrase is used to reference evidence or arguments that have been presented earlier.

“As has been shown” emphasizes the proof or reasoning that led to the conclusion. It reaffirms the legitimacy of the conclusion based on the presented evidence.

This can also come across as redundant, though.

“ As has been shown , our new marketing strategies have significantly boosted our brand visibility.”
“ As has been shown , the new policy has had a substantial positive impact on our employees’ work-life balance.”

29. As we have seen

Similar to the above, this phrase refers to the evidence or arguments discussed earlier in the text.

“As we have seen” serves to revisit important details or arguments that have been presented. It strengthens the conclusion by directly linking it to the evidence discussed.

“ As we have seen , the implementation of stricter environmental regulations has led to significant improvements in air quality.”
“ As we have seen , investing in staff training and development leads to increased productivity and employee satisfaction.”

30. Given the above points

This phrase is used to draw a conclusion from the arguments or points that have been presented.

“Given these points” signals that the following statement is based on the information discussed earlier. It helps establish a logical connection between the conclusion and the supporting points.

“ Given the above points , it’s clear that we must take immediate action to address the climate crisis.”
“ Given the above points , our company should continue to prioritize customer service as a key aspect of our business strategy.”

31. By and large

This phrase is often used to indicate a general conclusion, considering all the information.

“By and large” is used to sum up general trends or themes that have been discussed. It signals that the conclusion takes into account all the points made, rather than focusing on one particular point.

However, it can come across as a bit informal.

“ By and large , our team’s performance this quarter has exceeded expectations.”
“ By and large , customer feedback about our new product line has been positive.”

32. For the most part

Similar to “by and large”, this phrase indicates that the conclusion drawn applies broadly but allows for exceptions.

“For the most part” suggests a nuanced conclusion that covers the majority of situations or cases but acknowledges that there may be exceptions. It indicates a balanced and fair summary.

This one’s formality level is also quite low

“ For the most part , the new legislation has been successful, though there are a few areas that require further refinement.”
“ For the most part , our employees have embraced the new remote working arrangements, though a small number have experienced challenges.”

33. As has been demonstrated

This phrase refers to the evidence or arguments presented in the body of the text that support the conclusion.

“As has been demonstrated” underscores the points or evidence that have been made and connects them directly to the conclusion. It is a way of affirming the strength of the presented arguments or evidence.

“ As has been demonstrated , the innovative design features of our product set us apart from the competition.”
“ As has been demonstrated , implementing green initiatives in our operations has both environmental and economic benefits.”

34. With this in mind

This phrase suggests that the conclusion follows logically from the information or arguments that have been presented.

“With this in mind” sets up the conclusion as a direct response or reaction to the evidence or points made. It indicates that the conclusion is informed by these considerations.

“ With this in mind , we propose an expansion of our research and development department to drive future innovation.”
“ With this in mind , it’s crucial that we continue our efforts to reduce carbon emissions and promote sustainable practices.”

35. Taking everything into account

This phrase is used to express a comprehensive conclusion that considers all the arguments, evidence, or factors presented.

“Taking everything into account” shows a thorough and thoughtful conclusion that takes into account all aspects of the discussion. It signifies a balanced and careful consideration of all the relevant information.

“ Taking everything into account , we recommend a strategic pivot towards digital marketing in order to reach a broader audience.”
“ Taking everything into account , our analysis suggests that investing in renewable energy sources would be beneficial for our long-term growth.”

Advanced Transition Phrases for Conclusions

The following are five phrases I personally use in my own academic conclusions, especially for argumentative essays. They’re for advanced students aiming to show depth of knowledge!

36. Based on the available evidence

This phrase is demonstrating that you’re about to sum up the essay’s key arguments. You are saying that you’re making an evaluation after examining all of the evidence and research on the topic. It helps to show your argument is based on evidence , which is good to show in an academic paper.

“ Based on the available evidence , it appears that the best path forward for addressing AI in the workplace is to allow it but regulate it to prevent unwanted negative externalities such as job losses.”
“ Based on the available evidence , teachers should be paid more than they currently are, given that they contribute significantly to social and economic development of societies.”

37. According to the key literature outlined in this paper

Similar to the above example, this one demonstrates that your final decision and thesis statement in your argumentative essay is based on real evidence and research, not just your opinion. So, you could begin your conclusion like this!

“ According to the key literature outlined in this paper , it appears that the best path forward for addressing AI in the workplace is to allow it but regulate it to prevent unwanted negative externalities such as job losses.”
“ According to the key literature outlined in this paper , teachers should be paid more than they currently are, given that they contribute significantly to social and economic development of societies.”

38. From an evaluation of the above arguments

This point doesn’t lean on evidence for your conclusion directly, but it does lean on the culminated evidence of the arguments you’ve put forward. You’re saying that you have put forward a range of arguments, and now, you’re going to powerfully sum them up and present your final thesis statement.

“ From an evaluation of the above arguments , the most compelling argument is that students should still be given homework, despite the fact there is evidence on both sides of the homework argument.”
“ From an evaluation of the above arguments , it is the position of this paper that schools should start later to allow children to sleep in and therefore be more rested when it is time to study.”

39. The balance of evidence finds

This statement highlights that you have looked at both the pros and cons of your topic before coming to a position. The metaphor of ‘balance’ makes us think of someone holding the points for one side of the argument in one hand, the opposing points in the other hand, and they’re weighing each up before deciding which is heavier.

“ The balance of evidence finds that essays help students to reinforce their knowledge, learn more deeply, and develop academic skills.”
“ The balance of evidence finds that taxation should be lowered in order to stimulate economic growth which, on balance, will lead to a more prosperous and thriving society.”

40. The research compellingly indicates

Lastly, the phrase “the research compellingly indicates” can be used in a transition to a conclusion because it demonstrates that you’re about to sum up all the research you’ve just made and you’re going to make a final evaluation.

“ The research compellingly indicates that visiting the doctor for a yearly check-up saves money overall, prevents backlog in hospitals, and prolongs life.”
“ The research compellingly indicates that essay writing helps students to learn their topics more deeply, develop critical thinking skills, and improve long-term retention of knowledge.”

Other Types Of Transition Words

  • Compare and Contrast: In comparison, In contrast, However, Despite this, Other researchers argue, Unlike the above point, Conflicting research finds
  • Cause and Effect : Therefore, Thus, As a result, This has led to, As a result, Because, Consequently, For that reason, Hence, For that reason
  • List Order: First, Second, Third, Forth, In the first instance, In the second instance, Firstly, Secondly, Next, Lastly, Finally
  • Time Order: Afterwards, Concurrently, Later, Meanwhile, Following, In the meantime, Simultaneously, Concomitantly, Subsequently
  • Evidence Transition Words : As can be seen in, To demonstrate, Evidence of this fact can be seen in, Proof of this point is found in, For instance, For one thing, Compelling evidence shows
  • Transitioning to examples : For example, for instance, as illustrated by, take the following case in point.
  • Emphasis and addition : In fact, Indeed, Furthermore, Particularly, Surely, Undeniably, Indesputably, Confirms, Certifies, Proves
  • Similarity: Similarly, In a similar way, Concurring research finds, likewise, equivalently, also, significantly

Well, how would someone conclude an article about how to write a good conclusion? I’ll finish up like this: every conclusion is unique. Work on your own writerly voice, come up with your own transition words for conclusions, and be creative with it. The biggest challenge you will face is staying within the formal guidelines of an academic essay. For this, rely on your teacher. Keep asking for feedback, and even specifically ask for feedback on your transition words. This will help you learn what your teacher prefers and help you to keep refining your writing style.

Chris

Chris Drew (PhD)

Dr. Chris Drew is the founder of the Helpful Professor. He holds a PhD in education and has published over 20 articles in scholarly journals. He is the former editor of the Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education. [Image Descriptor: Photo of Chris]

  • Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/chris-drew-phd/ 50 Durable Goods Examples
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concluding words for essays

Conclusion Transition Words to Use (List and Examples)

conclusion transition words

Conclusion transition words can be used by authors to reaffirm their arguments or ideas and wrap up an article, essay, or presentation. These words help writers to structure their ideas and guide the reader through the sentences. Conclusion transition words enable writers to indicate the completion of a paragraph and condense all the concepts that were discussed in the body of the article into a single concise statement.

Conclusion transition words

Conclusion transition words for concluding paragraphs

These words indicate that the author is transitioning to the final paragraph of the article or essay. These can be used as introductions to closing paragraphs. Some conclusion transition words for concluding paragraphs include:

  • To conclude
  • In conclusion
  • It can be concluded that
  • When all is said and done
  • In the long run
  • In the final analysis
  • Given these facts
  • I will end by

Example sentences

  • In conclusion, it can be said that this year’s budget will bring high economic development to the country.
  • I will end by saying that this year’s carnival was a huge success.
  • To wrap up, let us examine how this technology can be implemented in the market.
  • Given these facts, the committee has decided to implement plan A for the next financial year.
  • In the long run, the disease has proven to be too debilitating.
  • From the analysis results, it can be concluded that the patient was losing too much blood.
  • When all is said and done, the only thing that matters is that Jenna is happy.

Conclusion transition words for writing a summary

These words can be incorporated into a conclusion paragraph. However, they work especially well for succinctly bringing together a number of ideas. Some common words include:

  • To summarize
  • In any case
  • All things considered
  • Generally speaking
  • On the whole

Though these transition words can be used anywhere, “to summarize” and “in summary” are often used only at the ending,

  • In brief, today’s presentation will briefly examine the advantages and disadvantages of the new product and the changes that can be made to improve it.
  • Generally speaking, boys are more muscular than girls.
  • We can conclude that the discovery of fire, on a whole, was the most significant development in human history.
  • To summarize, one can argue that Shakespeare’s works continue to exert an impact on society at large.
  • In short, it can be seen that this plan was a complete failure.
  • In essence, his situation is not so different from hers.

Conclusion transition words for ending any paragraph

In some cases, before proceeding to a different topic, a writer may want to close a paragraph using conclusion transition words. It will bring the concepts in that paragraph to a close. Some common words include:

  • For the most part
  • With this in mind
  • This means that
  • By and large

These words could also serve as the introduction to a paragraph if it summarizes the earlier arguments.

  • For the most part, the reception was a laid-back affair.
  • All in all, the trip was really wonderful.
  • This means that the company has to rethink its policies for the next fiscal year.
  • We can say that, by and large, the student camp was extremely fruitful.
  • Ultimately, it was his decision to end the marriage.

Restating ideas when concluding

Conclusion transition words are also helpful in rehashing a subject already discussed by the author. This is a popular speaking and writing technique because it calls attention to a point the author wants the reader or audience to remember. The following transition words can be used to wrap up or summarize by restating key points:

  • As has been demonstrated
  • As I have mentioned
  • As stated above
  • As has been noted
  • As mentioned previously
  • As we have seen
  • As I have said
  • As shown earlier

Based on which one is more appropriate, you can use either the passive or active voice for these words.

  • As has been demonstrated, this technique can be successfully used in the resuscitation of patients in the emergency wards.
  • As we have seen, the success of this program entirely depends on the market conditions.
  • As mentioned previously, the company should try expanding its investment to other core sectors.

conclusion transition words

Are conclusion and summary the same?

Since conclusion transition words are used for both summary and conclusion, it is necessary to understand the difference between the two.

A conclusion is generally used while ending an essay, speech, or article, combining all the arguments that were made in the body. But a summary can be written anywhere in an article. The summary can also be written in the introduction to let the readers know the topic that is about to be covered. The conclusion is more detailed than a summary, which provides a succinct rundown of the important ideas.

Are conclusion transition words necessary?

They are necessary to effectively conclude a document and to improve its readability.

  • K12reader – Conclusion Transition Words and Phrases
  • ESL Forums – CONCLUSION Transition Words: Useful List & Examples
  • Grammarly – All About Transition Words
  • Smart Words – Transition Words

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concluding words for essays

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concluding words for essays

About the author

Dalia Y.: Dalia is an English Major and linguistics expert with an additional degree in Psychology. Dalia has featured articles on Forbes, Inc, Fast Company, Grammarly, and many more. She covers English, ESL, and all things grammar on GrammarBrain.

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concluding words for essays

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92 Essay Transition Words to Know

Matt Ellis

Abruptly switching topics in essays can be jarring; however , transition words can smooth the change for the convenience of the reader. Moreover , you can use essay transition words to start a paragraph, sentence, or clause more naturally. Additionally , essay transition words can connect new information to the previous statement so you don’t have to say everything at once.

This guide looks at how to use transition words in essays. We’ll explain what they are and how to use them, plus we even share an essay transition word list with the most common and useful transition words examples.

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What are essay transition words?

In general, transition words and phrases bridge the gap between two topics whose connection isn’t obvious. Transition words and phrases like however , although , likewise , and on the contrary cue the reader that a change is coming so they know to expect it.

The type of transition word or phrase signals which type of change is coming. For example, transition words like therefore show a cause-and-effect relationship, while transition words like in conclusion introduce a summary or wrap-up. Often, conjunctive adverbs work well as transition words.

Essay transition words are no different from other types of transition words. They are often the same words and phrases used in other pieces of writing, just used for all types of essay , such as an informative essay or a narrative essay .

How to use essay transition words

Transition words and phrases are used to make transition sentences , which either contain two opposing topics in the same sentence or join together the opposing sentences or paragraphs that come before and after the transition sentence.

Essay transition words aren’t necessary for every sentence; you need them only when a shift in topic is so pronounced that it interrupts the writing flow . For example, consider this example, which doesn’t use transition words:

The GPS told us to go left. We went right.

Although those two sentences are grammatically correct, the abrupt change in topic is a bit jarring to readers. Some may feel like they need to reread the passage because they’re worried they missed something. That’s where transition words come in handy.

The GPS told us to go left. However , we went right.

The transition word however acts as a signal to the reader to prepare for a change in topic. When the reader sees transition words like this, they know to expect the switch, so it’s not so jarring.

You can use transition words to start a paragraph, sentence, clause, or even a brief phrase or individual word.

Although tired , we had to continue.

Even in situations when the connection between topics is obvious, essay transition words can help keep your writing organized and comprehensible. This is especially true with ordinal numbers and transition words like next , then , and last , all of which keep items from a series or sequence in order.

First , you wet your hair, and then you apply the shampoo. Last , you rinse the shampoo with warm water.

Keep in mind that transition words aren’t always sentence starters . Sometimes essay transition words and phrases like also , too , or above all can come at the end of a sentence, clause, or phrase.

We were happy to get second place, but we wanted first place above all .

However, most essay transition words work best at the beginning of a sentence, where they can more effectively bridge the gap between two seemingly unrelated topics.

92 transition words examples

Essay transition word list for contradictions.

  • alternatively
  • nevertheless
  • nonetheless
  • notwithstanding
  • on the contrary
  • on the other hand

Essay transition word list for additions

  • accordingly
  • additionally
  • comparatively
  • coupled with
  • equally important
  • furthermore
  • in addition
  • in the same way
  • understandably

Essay transition word list for introducing examples

  • for example
  • for instance
  • in particular / particularly
  • specifically
  • to illustrate

Essay transition word list for conditions and cause and effect

  • as a result
  • consequently
  • for fear of
  • for this reason
  • in the event of
  • subsequently
  • under these/those circumstances

Essay transition word list for extra clarification

  • by all means
  • in other words
  • incidentally
  • predictably
  • significantly
  • undoubtedly

Essay transition word list for summarizing

  • briefly / in brief
  • in conclusion
  • in summary/summation
  • to summarize

Essay transition word list for time relations

  • at the same time
  • in the meantime

Essay transition word list for series and sequences

  • first , second , third , etc.

Essay transition words FAQs

In general, transition words and phrases bridge the gap between two topics whose connection isn’t obvious. Transition words and phrases like however , although , likewise , and on the contrary cue the reader that a change is coming so they know to expect it. Essay transition words have the same function in essays.

When should you use essay transition words?

Use essay transition words and phrases to either contain two opposing topics in the same sentence or join together the opposing sentences or paragraphs that come before and after them. Essay transition words aren’t necessary for every sentence; you need them only when a shift in topic is so pronounced that it interrupts the writing flow.

What are some essay transition words examples?

Some of the most common essay transition words examples include however , although , ultimately , in summary , next , last , also , in general , for that reason , as a result , for example , in the meantime , therefore , similarly , and likewise .

concluding words for essays

ESLBUZZ

Essential Conclusion Transition Words to Master English Writing

By: Author ESLBUZZ

Posted on Last updated: September 5, 2023

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Hello and welcome! Today, we will explore the importance of conclusion transition words and how they can be used to effectively summarize and conclude a piece of writing. We will provide a comprehensive list of transition words and phrases that are commonly used in conclusions, along with examples of how they can be used in sentences. By the end of this article, you will have a better understanding of how to use conclusion transition words to create a strong and effective conclusion to your writing.

Conclusion Transition Words

Essential Conclusion Transition Words to Master English Writing

Understanding Conclusion Transition Words

What are transition words.

Transition words are also known as discourse markers or connectives. They are words or phrases that signal a shift or connection between ideas. They help to create coherence and flow in writing and speaking by showing the relationship between different parts of a text.

Why are Transition Words Important?

Transition words are important because they help to create a clear and organized structure in writing and speaking. They make it easier for the reader or listener to follow along and understand the main points of the text. Additionally, using transition words can help to improve vocabulary and writing skills.

What are Conclusion Transition Words?

Conclusion transition words are words or phrases that are used to signal the end of a discussion or the conclusion of an argument. These words help to summarize the main points and provide closure to the reader or listener. Some examples of conclusion transition words include “in conclusion,” “to sum up,” “finally,” “in summary,” and “to conclude.” These words help to signal that the writer or speaker is wrapping up their thoughts and bringing the discussion to a close.

Examples of Transition Words in Context

Here are some example sentences that use transition words:

  • Firstly, I would like to thank everyone for coming to my presentation.
  • In addition to his academic achievements, John is also an accomplished musician.
  • However, despite these challenges, we were able to complete the project on time.
  • Therefore, it’s important to consider the environmental impact of our actions.
  • In conclusion, I believe that the benefits of exercise outweigh the risks.

Focusing on Conclusion Transition Words

Conclusion transition words are phrases or words that indicate that you are about to conclude your writing. They signal to the reader that you are summarizing your thoughts and bringing your piece to a close.

Here are some commonly used conclusion transition words to help you wrap up your writing:

Using Conclusion Transition Words in Your Writing

Here are some examples of how to use them in a sentence:

  • In conclusion, it’s important to remember that…
  • In brief, the main takeaway from this piece is…
  • To sum up, the key points to remember are…
  • In summary, the main argument of this piece is…
  • To conclude, it’s clear that…
  • To summarize, the main points of this piece are…

Conclusion Paragraphs and Concluding Words

In addition to using conclusion transition words, it’s important to write a strong conclusion paragraph. This paragraph should summarize the main points of your piece and leave the reader with a clear understanding of your argument.

Concluding words can also be used to signal the end of your piece.

Here are some examples of concluding words to end your writing:

  • To conclude

Comprehensive List of Conclusion Transition Words

Here is a list of conclusion transition words with their meanings:

Here are some example sentences that show how to use conclusion transition words in context:

  • Example: “In conclusion, it is clear that climate change is a pressing issue that requires immediate action.”
  • Finally: “Finally, after months of hard work, we were able to launch our new product.”
  • Ultimately: “Ultimately, it was the team’s dedication and perseverance that led to our success.”
  • Thus: “Thus, we can see that the data supports our hypothesis.”
  • Overall: “Overall, the study found that there was a significant correlation between exercise and mental health.”
  • In the final analysis: “In the final analysis, it was the company’s lack of transparency that led to the public’s distrust.”
  • All things considered: “All things considered, the event was a success.”
  • Therefore: “Therefore, we recommend that the company invest in renewable energy sources.”
  • All in all: “All in all, it was a great vacation.”
  • In the end: “In the end, it was the small details that made all the difference.”
  • In a word: “In a word, the experience was unforgettable.”
  • Given these points: “Given these points, it is clear that we need to make some changes to our strategy.”
  • Generally speaking: “Generally speaking, people are more productive in the morning.”
  • As a result: “As a result, we were able to increase our profits by 20%.”
  • Noted: “Noted, we will take your feedback into consideration for future projects.”
  • After all: “After all, it’s the thought that counts.”
  • In the long run: “In the long run, investing in our employees will pay off.”
  • For the most part: “For the most part, the study found that there was no significant difference between the two groups.”
  • As has been noted: “As has been noted, there are still some unanswered questions regarding the effectiveness of the treatment.”
  • On balance: “On balance, the pros outweigh the cons.”
  • Usually: “Usually, I prefer to work alone.”
  • By and large: “By and large, the event was a success.”
  • Consequently: “Consequently, we had to make some changes to our plans.”
  • Clearly: “Clearly, the data shows that there is a strong correlation between smoking and lung cancer.”
  • Lastly: “Lastly, I would like to thank everyone for their hard work and dedication.”
  • As shown above: “As shown above, there is a clear trend in the data.”

Using Conclusion Transition Words Effectively

Short and summarize.

When writing a conclusion, it is important to keep it short and summarize the main points of the paper. Using conclusion transition words such as “in summary” or “in brief” can help you achieve this. These words signal to the reader that you are summarizing the main points of the paper and preparing to conclude.

Remember to use the right conclusion transition words based on the formality of the writing. Here’s a simple guide:

  • Informal: “So, yeah,” “Anyway,” “Well, that’s all for now,” “That’s it,” “Catch you later”
  • Neutral: “In conclusion,” “To summarize,” “To sum up,” “Finally,” “In summary”
  • Formal: “Thus,” “Therefore,” “Hence,” “Consequently,” “Accordingly”

Order and Connection

When using conclusion transition words, it is important to use them in a logical order that connects the main points of the paper. For example, you can use words like “therefore” or “hence” to connect the main points of the paper to the thesis statement. This helps the reader understand the connection between the main points and the overall purpose of the paper.

Purpose and Clarification

Conclusion transition words can also be used to clarify the purpose of the paper. For example, you can use words like “in order to” or “for the purpose of” to clarify the main idea of the paper. This helps the reader understand the purpose of the paper and the main points that support it.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are some common conclusion transition words for essays?

Some common conclusion transition words for essays are “in conclusion,” “to sum up,” “finally,” “in summary,” “to conclude,” and “as a result.”

How can using transition words improve the clarity of my writing?

Using transition words can improve the clarity of your writing by helping to guide the reader through your ideas and making connections between them. They can also help to create a sense of flow and coherence in your writing.

What is the purpose of using transition words in writing?

The purpose of using transition words in writing is to help the reader follow your ideas and understand the connections between them. They can also help to create a sense of flow and coherence in your writing.

What are some examples of transitional phrases used in academic writing?

Some examples of transitional phrases used in academic writing are “on the other hand,” “in contrast,” “furthermore,” “moreover,” “in addition,” “nevertheless,” and “however.”

How can I effectively use transition words in the conclusion of my essay?

To effectively use transition words in the conclusion of your essay, you should choose words that help to summarize your main points and bring your argument to a close. Some effective transition words for conclusions include “in conclusion,” “to sum up,” and “finally.”

What are some commonly used transitional words and phrases for body paragraphs?

Some commonly used transitional words and phrases for body paragraphs include “firstly,” “secondly,” “in addition,” “furthermore,” “moreover,” “on the other hand,” “in contrast,” and “nevertheless.”

Some common conclusion transition words for essays are \"in conclusion,\" \"to sum up,\" \"finally,\" \"in summary,\" \"to conclude,\" and \"as a result.\"

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Some examples of transitional phrases used in academic writing are \"on the other hand,\" \"in contrast,\" \"furthermore,\" \"moreover,\" \"in addition,\" \"nevertheless,\" and \"however.\"

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To effectively use transition words in the conclusion of your essay, you should choose words that help to summarize your main points and bring your argument to a close. Some effective transition words for conclusions include \"in conclusion,\" \"to sum up,\" and \"finally.\"

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Some commonly used transitional words and phrases for body paragraphs include \"firstly,\" \"secondly,\" \"in addition,\" \"furthermore,\" \"moreover,\" \"on the other hand,\" \"in contrast,\" and \"nevertheless.\"

Overall, using transition words and phrases can greatly improve the clarity and coherence of your writing. By guiding the reader through your ideas and making connections between them, you can create a more effective and engaging piece of writing.

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Conclusion Starters: What they are and Examples for Common Essays

Conclusion Starters: What they are and Examples for Common Essays

Explaining Conclusion Starters

Explaining Conclusion Starters

How you start the end paragraph of your essay or research is as important as the first sentence hook used in the introduction.

The conclusion paragraph should always start with words that tell the reader that the content or piece of writing is coming to an end. A good sentence to begin the paragraph usually helps you craft a better conclusion.

concluding words for essays

What is a Conclusion Starter in Essay Writing?

A conclusion starter is a transitional phrase that lets the reader understand that they have reached the end part of the essay. This is the first step in a conclusion format that helps you sum up content rather than stopping abruptly.

writing the conclusion

Conclusion starters should include a few words that introduce the topic. These reasons make conclusion starters the most important aspects when writing conclusion paragraphs of essays and researches.

They are a simple way to help you get the job done. Conclusion starters are usually similar in most essays even if the content and format of the essays are different. Conclusion starters introduce the first sentence of your conclusion, which should be the link between the body paragraphs and the conclusion paragraph signalling that you are warping up your thoughts.

Why do we use Conclusion Starters in Writing?

Conclusion starters are vital in crafting proper conclusion starters. The following are reasons why conclusion starters are used in writing:

1. To Signal that you have Reached the Final Part of your Essay

You should start the conclusion in words that tell the reader that it is the final part of your writing and no other paragraphs will follow through.

You can only have one conclusion that should not extend to further parts.

2. To Let the Reader know that there is no other new Information

Through the conclusion starter the reader is not expecting a topic sentence with further new information about the essay.

at the end

Instead, they are set for the conclusion of the information that they have just read summarized in a few words.

3. Set the Expectation of the Reader on the Summary of the Writing

Through conclusion starters readers are able to know what to expect on the conclusion.

For example, it could be a call to action, a statement that needs more research or the obvious summary of main points

4. To Restate the main point of the Essay or Research

Conclusion starters should help reveal the thesis statement of the paper.

The main idea of the essay should be included on the first sentence of the essay to restate your stand and open way for the conclusion of the different ideas incorporated in the essay in support of the main idea.

5. To Leave with a Bang

Conclusion starters helps you as a writer to make an impression to readers. They help connect with your audience which should be your main focus.

This is by preparing them for the end of your work. Also, conclusion starters are a catchy way to introduce your conclusion paragraph.

Mastering the Art of Writing Good Conclusion Starters

Deciding the perfect and correct conclusion starters for your essay is not easy. To master the art of writing good conclusion starters you must ensure the following:

Use the Appropriate Words

This usually depends on the type of paper and the content you have written. Words such as “in conclusion” or “in summary” can be used in an essay that explains a process or tells a story about something.

writing summary

Other phrases such as “in my opinion,” “generally,” and ultimately can be used to relay the main points or stand of the writer in the essay. Always note that it is important to choose a conclusion that fully complements the content you have written.

Only a few words should Introduce the Opening Sentence

It should not take you many words to notify reader that your piece of writing is coming to an end.

Always use a few words words to start the conclusion which then are followed by a comma with the words that follow aiming at restating the main point of your paper.

Formal Tone

Do not try making the conclusion starter too fancy by exaggerating it. Use formal anguage that the readers will fully understand.

Also, the conclusion cab be crucial in revealing some points that may not have been clearly explained in the body part if the reader can understand it fully.

15 Conclusion Starters Examples for Argumentative Essays

An argumentative essay uses evidence and facts to support the main claim of the paper which is its thesis statement. The main aim is to persuade the reader to agree with the points that are being made.

conclusion starters

The conclusion paragraph of an argumentative essay should be an overview of the points that you want the reader to side with.

The first sentences of the conclusion of an argumentative essay should either restate your topic and why it is important or restate the thesis statement.

Also, the sentence can call for action, overview future studies, or address the opposing arguments rstating why the reader should side with your argument.  Conclusion starters for argumentative essays should include the following words:

  • In conclusion
  • Upon considering all the facts
  • In line with the above perspectives
  • With all the above in mind
  • With the above evidence there is no other choice than to conclude that
  • In the light of this information
  • The logical conclusion is
  • The major revelation from these arguments is
  • As the above data reveals
  • The results of the above arguments all lead to the conclusion that
  • It is clear beyond any shadow of doubt that
  • For these reasons
  • All arguments point at
  • To conclude, it is clear that

12 common conclusion starters examples for common essays

To conclude common essays, you should always be in line with the thesis statement of the essay. Also, all ideas in the essay should be reviewed on the conclusion.

The conclusion should not be a mare summary but a synthesis of your points. Instead of listing every single argument, you should draw all the points together and establish how they relate.

common conclusion starters

The ideal conclusion paragraph for every essay should restate the thesis statement on the first statement, summarize all the key supporting points that were involved in the essay, and offer your final impression on the central topic of the essay.

Conclusion starters for common essays may not be essay to come up with as one thinks because they should rhyme with the content that you have written. For example, “finally” is a conclusion starter that should be used to indicate the end of a process.

A word like “overall” is used to generalize thoughts in the conclusion paragraph. Therefore, you should always be cautious on the type of conclusion starter you choose for your essay to make it sensible. A wrong conclusion starter can make the whole conclusion paragraph loose its meaning.

Also, the right conclusion starters will help prevent mixing up ideas or coming up with new ones that may not relate to the essay at all.

Some of the commonly used conclusion starters for common essays include:

  • In a nutshell
  • For this reason
  • In my opinion
  • To wrap it up
  • As a result of the above,
  • To cut the long story short

concluding words for essays

With over 10 years in academia and academic assistance, Alicia Smart is the epitome of excellence in the writing industry. She is our chief editor and in charge of the writing department at Grade Bees.

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Conclusion Transition Words: Definition and Useful Examples

concluding words for essays

Transitions, in general, are parts of a speech that link one idea to another to achieve a smoother connection. They’re essential in presenting a logical relationship between concepts in a text. Transitional words can either be additive, adversative, causal, or sequential. A type of transition that falls under the sequential category is the conclusion transition words. When writing an essay or article, ending the whole text with a powerful conclusion creates an impact on the readers. It helps you summarize the entire essay clearly and concisely. It provides closure to the readers and reminds them of the key points that they have to remember. To effectively write a conclusion, you’ll need appropriate conclusion transition words. This helps you deliver the take away of the content in a polished manner.

Conclusion Transition Words

Definition of conclusion transition words.

Conclusion transitions are typically used to introduce a summarized text or restate the whole point of the previous ideas. Since summaries are meant to be brief, correct use of helpful transitional words is needed. These types of transitions allow you to put together the mentioned ideas in a generalized form. They are most likely written at the beginning of a sentence or paragraph. But occasionally, some are found in the middle or at the end of a statement. There’s a long list of conclusion transition words and phrases that you may use to effectively create your conclusion. A broad vocabulary of such terms is beneficial to avoid redundancy and monotony . The next section shall enumerate the most common transitions used in writing a conclusion.

Examples of Conclusion Transition Words

Conclusion transitions most often come in phrases. However, some single words can also be used. All of which aim to start or accompany a statement that expresses a generalized or final thought. Feel free to go through the succeeding list of transition words and phrases. Sample sentences are also provided to show how the conclusion transitions are used.

  • In conclusion
  • In the final analysis
  • In the long run
  • To conclude
  • For the most part
  • Given these points
  • Generally speaking
  • All things considered
  • As has been noted
  • As a final point
  • You sang from the heart, and you have a lovely voice. You had your own technique, and you nailed it.  Overall , you’ve shown a fantastic performance.
  • Those studies,  altogether , indicate that exercise is good for the body.
  • Lastly , review all the tips mentioned above and apply them to your workout routines.
  • The man,  ultimately , has learned from his mistakes.
  • Thus , it can be taken that the story is for those who should acknowledge their wrongdoings and apologize for them.
  • The bride looked lovely, and the groom was dashing. The reception was well planned. Everyone was giving the newlyweds their best wishes.  All in all , the wedding was wonderful.
  • After all , there are only two types of people in the world: the one who likes you and the one who doesn’t.
  • In summary , the boy in the story became successful despite his financial struggles.
  • In conclusion , the experiment has a significant amount of errors.
  • In short , the entire project failed to reach its goals.
  • Some people get discouraged when they’re in the middle of a challenge. Others get motivated amidst any kind of pressure.  In the end , it’s all about how you handle stress.
  • To sum up , there are many causes of eye damage. But the ways on how to prevent it are just as many.
  • He wasn’t inside the house during the incident. He was working, and his employer has attested to that. There is even a video of him being at this workplace during that time.  Given these points , it can be inferred that the man is not guilty.
  • The coach could have taken a time-out. The team only needed one successful behind-the-arc shot. Though they weren’t able to do it, the hard work they put into the last quarter was very commendable. It was a good fight,  all things considered .
  • As has been noted , conclusions should be impactful and concise.
  • As a final point , transitions are helpful devices in creating conclusions that effectively generalize everything that has been said.

Conclusion Transition Words | Infographic

Conclusion Transition Words: Definition and Useful Examples

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Synonyms of concluding

  • as in final
  • as in ending
  • as in stopping
  • as in arranging
  • as in deciding
  • as in deriving
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Thesaurus Definition of concluding

 (Entry 1 of 2)

Synonyms & Similar Words

  • terminating
  • penultimate
  • furthermost
  • farthermost

Antonyms & Near Antonyms

Thesaurus Definition of concluding  (Entry 2 of 2)

  • rounding (off or out)
  • closing out
  • ringing down the curtain (on)
  • wrapping up
  • consummating
  • inaugurating
  • determining
  • discontinuing
  • winking (out)
  • breaking off
  • leaving off
  • dead - ending
  • breaking up
  • biting the dust
  • refraining (from)
  • laying off (of)
  • packing (up or in)
  • desisting (from)
  • cutting out
  • knocking off
  • breaking down
  • winding down
  • petering (out)
  • conking (out)
  • drawing out
  • protracting
  • negotiating
  • settling (on or upon)
  • covenanting
  • renegotiating
  • talking over
  • contracting
  • hammering out
  • hashing (over)
  • working out
  • horse - trading
  • thinking (about or over)
  • contemplating
  • adjudicating
  • considering
  • ruling (on)
  • deliberating
  • singling (out)
  • handpicking
  • questioning
  • arbitrating
  • entertaining
  • mulling (over)
  • chewing over
  • turning down
  • temporizing
  • vacillating
  • shilly - shallying
  • understanding
  • extrapolating
  • speculating
  • ascertaining
  • drawing a conclusion
  • interpreting
  • rationalizing
  • conjecturing
  • finding out
  • philosophizing
  • doping (out)

Thesaurus Entries Near concluding

Cite this entry.

“Concluding.” Merriam-Webster.com Thesaurus , Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/thesaurus/concluding. Accessed 23 Feb. 2024.

More from Merriam-Webster on concluding

Nglish: Translation of concluding for Spanish Speakers

Britannica English: Translation of concluding for Arabic Speakers

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  1. How to Conclude an Essay

    Step 1: Return to your thesis To begin your conclusion, signal that the essay is coming to an end by returning to your overall argument. Don't just repeat your thesis statement —instead, try to rephrase your argument in a way that shows how it has been developed since the introduction. Example: Returning to the thesis

  2. 5 Examples of Concluding Words for Essays

    When you reach the end of an essay, you should start the concluding paragraph with a transition signal that acts as a bridge to the summary of your key points. Check out some concluding transition signals below and learn how you can use them in your writing. To Conclude…

  3. Ending the Essay: Conclusions

    Learn how to end your essay with a strong conclusion that connects the "what", "so what" and "now what" of your argument. Find general guidelines and examples for different disciplines and purposes. Avoid common pitfalls and mistakes in your conclusion.

  4. 39 Different Ways to Say 'In Conclusion' in an Essay (Rated)

    You can find better words to conclude an essay than that! So below I've outlined a list of different ways to say in conclusion in an essay using a range of analysis verbs. Each one comes with an explanation of the best time to use each phrase and an example you could consider. Contents show Read Also: How to Write a Conclusion using the 5C's Method

  5. 42 Summary & conclusion transition words (with examples)

    Learn how to use transition words for concluding paragraphs or sentences, summarizing sections, or drawing attention to key points. Find synonyms for 'in conclusion' and 'to conclude', and see examples of how to use them correctly.

  6. How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay

    1 Restate your thesis As you set out to write your conclusion and end your essay on an insightful note, you'll want to start by restating your thesis. Since the thesis is the central idea of your entire essay, it's wise to remind the reader of the purpose of your paper.

  7. PDF Strategies for Essay Writing

    the paragraph simply as a conclusion. Transitional words that signal a conclusion include in conclusion, as a result, ultimately, overall—but strong conclusions do not necessarily have to include those phrases. If you're not sure which transitional words to use—or whether to use one at all—see if

  8. Conclusions

    The conclusion pushes beyond the boundaries of the prompt and allows you to consider broader issues, make new connections, and elaborate on the significance of your findings. Your conclusion should make your readers glad they read your paper. Your conclusion gives your reader something to take away that will help them see things differently or ...

  9. Conclusions

    A change of style i.e. being more emotional or sentimental than the rest of the essay. Keep it straightforward, explanatory and clear. Overused phrases like: "in conclusion"; "in summary"; "as shown in this essay". Consign these to the rubbish bin! Here are some alternatives, there are many more: The x main points presented here ...

  10. How to Write a Conclusion (With Tips and Examples)

    1. Restate the thesis. An effective conclusion brings the reader back to the main point, reminding the reader of the purpose of the essay. However, avoid repeating the thesis verbatim. Paraphrase your argument slightly while still preserving the primary point. 2. Reiterate supporting points.

  11. Transitional Words and Phrases

    Transitions to help establish some of the most common kinds of relationships. Causation- Connecting instigator (s) to consequence (s). Chronology- Connecting what issues in regard to when they occur. Lists- Connecting numerous events. Part/Whole- Connecting numerous elements that make up something bigger.

  12. 17 Essay Conclusion Examples (Copy and Paste)

    Essay Conclusion Examples Below is a range of copy-and-paste essay conclusions with gaps for you to fill-in your topic and key arguments. Browse through for one you like (there are 17 for argumentative, expository, compare and contrast, and critical essays). Once you've found one you like, copy it and add-in the key points to make it your own. 1.

  13. Good Conclusion Starters for Final Paragraphs

    Updated July 19, 2022 Image Credits The way you end a work of writing is just as important as the hook you use to capture readers' attention and the content in between. The concluding paragraph or section of your paper should begin with words telling readers that the content is drawing to a close.

  14. List of 50 "In Conclusion" Synonyms—Write Better with ProWritingAid

    Other Transition Words to Replace "In Conclusion" Here are a few transition word alternatives to add to your arsenal: Briefly. Obviously. Considering. Therefore. Thus. Essentially. Indeed. Principally. Summarizing. Altogether. Pro tip: You should use transition words throughout your essay, paper, or article to guide your reader through your ...

  15. How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay (Examples Included!)

    Also read: How to Write a Thesis Statement. 2. Tying together the main points. Tying together all the main points of your essay does not mean simply summarizing them in an arbitrary manner. The key is to link each of your main essay points in a coherent structure. One point should follow the other in a logical format.

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    1. In order to Usage: "In order to" can be used to introduce an explanation for the purpose of an argument. Example: "In order to understand X, we need first to understand Y." 2. In other words

  17. 50+ Synonyms for "In Conclusion" with Examples

    " In conclusion " is a transitional phrase used to indicate that you are approaching the end of your writing. It serves to summarize the main points or indicate a final thought or opinion. Using synonyms for "in conclusion" can help maintain your reader's interest and offer a sense of variety and sophistication in your writing. Examples

  18. 35 Transition Words for Conclusions (2024)

    1. In conclusion This phrase is typically used to signal the final remarks in a piece of writing. It helps summarize the main points or findings that have been discussed throughout the text. It is still generally appropriate to use, but can sometimes appear rudimentary use of the English language. Sample Sentences:

  19. Conclusion Transition Words to Use (List and Examples)

    Conclusion transition words can be used by authors to reaffirm their arguments or ideas and wrap up an article, essay, or presentation. These words help writers to structure their ideas and guide the reader through the sentences. Conclusion transition words enable writers to indicate the completion of a paragraph and condense all the concepts that were discussed in the body of the article into ...

  20. 92 Essay Transition Words to Know, With Examples

    For example, transition words like therefore show a cause-and-effect relationship, while transition words like in conclusion introduce a summary or wrap-up. Often, conjunctive adverbs work well as transition words. Essay transition words are no different from other types of transition words.

  21. Essential Conclusion Transition Words to Master English Writing

    Here are some examples of concluding words to end your writing: Finally; Ultimately; All in all; To conclude; In the end; Comprehensive List of Conclusion Transition Words. Here is a list of conclusion transition words with their meanings: Word Meaning; Example: For instance: Finally: After a long time or some delay:

  22. Conclusion Starters: What they are and Examples for Common Essays

    Set the Expectation of the Reader on the Summary of the Writing. Through conclusion starters readers are able to know what to expect on the conclusion. For example, it could be a call to action, a statement that needs more research or the obvious summary of main points. 4. To Restate the main point of the Essay or Research.

  23. Conclusion Transition Words: Definition and Useful Examples

    December 3, 2020 • 1 Comment Transitions, in general, are parts of a speech that link one idea to another to achieve a smoother connection. They're essential in presenting a logical relationship between concepts in a text. Transitional words can either be additive, adversative, causal, or sequential.

  24. CONCLUDING Synonyms: 204 Similar and Opposite Words

    Synonyms for CONCLUDING: final, latest, last, closing, latter, terminating, penultimate, following; Antonyms of CONCLUDING: first, initial, beginning, starting ...