• Academic writing
  • Commonly confused words
  • Critical thinking
  • PEEL Paragraphs
  • Linking/transition words
  • Paraphrasing
  • Proofreading
  • Terms and definitions
  • Action Words: What is description, application, analysis and evaluation

Linking/transition words: Things you need to know...

All assignments are written in formal language.   You need to ensure that you demonstrate your knowledge and understanding alongside your ability to answer the question/solve the problem. 

Below are some ideas to help you to develop your structure and flow.

  • Linking / transition words and phrases join ideas, sentences and paragraphs together. They should be used within sentences and to move from one idea to another (between sentences).   

These words and phrases indicate the direction, order and flow of ideas. Significantly, they strengthen the quality and structure of your work.

  • Redundant Words - less is more.  P articularly when trying to reduce the word count, it is important to look for phrases which can be replaced with a single word.

Linking/Transition Words

Transitions link one main idea to another separated by a semi-colon or full-stop.  When the transition word is at the beginning of the sentence, it should be followed by a comma:

Among other functions, they can signal cause and effect or sequencing (see examples in the table below).

Linking words: conjunctions

Linking words within a sentence  are referred to as coordinating conjunctions.  Do not worry about the term: think about the function.

Conciseness / redundant words

Microsoft Word now has an additional feature within the Edito r - it is called conciseness or wordiness.  

  • If you cannot see the Editor menu a quick tip is to hold down the function (fn key at the bottom left of the keyboard) + F7 (top line of keys).
  • From the Refinements section - select Conciseness - if there are any suggestions a number will appear in the box alongside this option
  • A dotted line will appear under any groups of groups
  • Either select the identified text by clicking with your right mouse button OR click on the down down next to the Conciseness menu.
  • MS Word will display any alternative words which you can either select and they will be replaced in your text or reject if you want to keep the original phrases.

Examples:  try to replace phrases with a single words which mean the same.

Need to know more...

  • Related pages
  • External links
  • Academic writing Illustrates the main features of academic writing so that you are aware of what it is and what it involves
  • Critical Thinking Academic work involves thinking, not just accepting what you read or are told.
  • Terms and Definitions Important words appear in your assignments and examinations. The aim of this factsheet is to help you to fully understand what they mean.

Additional resources to help you to improve your confidence and grades:-

  • Writing Effectively  demonstrates the importance of: clarity, structure, relevance, argument and precision.
  • Writing Mechanics  gives further examples and resources on areas including: sentence structure, vocabulary, spelling, punctuation and grammar.

Linking/Transition words - Scribbr  https://www.scribbr.co.uk/syntax/transition-words-examples/ [Accessed 10 February 2023]

There are many books concerning academic writing, look around Dewey number  808

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Connecting ideas in writing

Suggestions for connecting ideas at the sentence and paragraph level in academic writing.

In academic writing, it is important to present an argument clearly and cohesively. In addition, you may be required to discuss and evaluate existing research or ideas about the topic under discussion. Often you will be assessed on your ability to do both. Developing the language to connect ideas in academic writing will help you with both these tasks. The appropriate use of ‘discourse markers,’ that is, words or phrases that signal a relationship, can reveal and reinforce the direction that your argument is taking, and make clear the relations between sections of your writing.

Here we provide suggestions for sentence openers, ‘linking words’ within sentences and between paragraphs, and alternative vocabulary choices you might use when connecting ideas in writing.

Connectives used in and between sentences

Connectives allow us to be more precise about the relationships between statements in a sentence or between sentences. Particular phrases and words serve different functions in connecting ideas and arguments. For example, different clauses or words can signal or ‘signpost’ additional or similar information, opposition or contrast, concession, cause or effect, emphasis, clarification, or a relationship in time or sequence. Some useful examples of each are categorised by function below.

Note that most of these terms can also be used to start new paragraphs. However, some of them need to be incorporated into fuller sentences to be effective as paragraph openers. For example, if you use notwithstanding as a paragraph opener you may have to add other content words to provide more information such as “Notwithstanding a lack of natural resources, the region has…”

Additionally, and, also, apart from this, as well (as), in addition, moreover, further, furthermore.

If, in that case, provided that, unless.

Correspondingly, equally, for the same reason, in a similar manner, in comparison, in the same way, on the one hand, similarly.

Alternatively, although, but, conversely, despite, even so, even though, however, in contrast, in spite of, instead, on the contrary, contrary to, nevertheless, nonetheless, notwithstanding, on the other hand, rather, still, though, yet, whereas, while.

Again, in fact, interestingly, indeed, it should be noted (that), more important(ly), most importantly, to repeat, (un)fortunately, unquestionably.

A further instance of this is..., an example of this is…, for example, for instance, such as, thus, as follows.

In other words, more simply, namely, simply put, to put it differently / another way, such as, that is.

A / the consequence of, because, due to, for, the effect of …, since, the result of …

Accordingly, as a result/consequence, consequently, for this reason, hence, so, therefore, thus.

Admittedly, although, clearly though, even though, however, indeed, obviously.

As a rule, for the most part, generally, in general, in most cases, normally, on the whole, usually.

First, second, third (etc), next, before, earlier, finally, following, given the above, later, meanwhile, subsequently, then, to conclude, while.

A note about presentation and style

Check a usage guide for exact rules for punctuation. Many introductory phrases have a comma after them. For example, 'therefore,' and 'in addition,'.

Connecting paragraphs

Apart from using the linking words / phrases above, showing the link between paragraphs could involve writing ‘hand-holding’ sentences. These are sentences that link back to the ideas of the previous paragraph. For instance, when outlining the positive and negative issues about a topic you could use the following:

Example (from beginning of previous paragraph):

  • One of the main advantages of X is…

When you are ready to move your discussion to the negative issues, you could write one of the following as a paragraph opener:

  • Having considered the positive effects of X, negative issues may now need to be taken into account…
  • Despite the positive effects outlined above, negative issues also need to be considered...

It is always important to make paragraphs part of a coherent whole text; they must not remain isolated units.

Checking for paragraph links in your own work

When you are editing your next written assignment, ask yourself the following questions as you read through your work (Gillett, Hammond, & Martala, 2009):

  • Does the start of my paragraph give my reader enough information about what the paragraph will be about?
  • Does my paragraph add to or elaborate on a point made previously and, if so, have I made this explicit with an appropriate linking word / phrase?
  • Does my paragraph introduce a completely new point or a different viewpoint to before and, if so, have I explicitly shown this with a suitable connective?
  • Have I used similar connectives repeatedly? If yes, try to vary them using the above list.

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The Ultimate List of Linking Words for Your Essay


Let’s face it: You can’t write an essay (or any other writing piece) without linking words.

Also known as connecting words or transition words, they serve to make your writing flow and help those reading your work follow the flow of your thoughts, ideas , and  arguments .

This post is your guide to linking words and their role in writing. Not only will you learn the types of these words, examples, and reasons to use them, but you’ll also get a massive list of transition words and phrases as well as linking words PDF to download and use whenever necessary.

Table of Contents:

What are Linking Words?

Why use transition words in essays, linking words examples, addition/agreement/similarity, contrast/contradiction/limitation/opposition, comparison/concession/condition, clarification, cause/effect/result, emphasis/example, generalization, illustration, location/place/space, reason/reference, time/sequence, summary/conclusion/restatement.

  • The Ultimate List of Linking Words: Download

Linking words are lexical items (words and phrases) we use to connect ideas in writing and get a reader to the next sentence or paragraph.

They aren’t about essay writing only:

Whether you write a fiction book,  marketing content , academic works,  autobiography , or poems, you’ll need to connect ideas. That’s what transition words do:

They link your thoughts and arguments into a chain to show how they relate to each other. Also known as transition words, these phrases often start a sentence or a paragraph. However, you’ll also use them in the middle of sentences to bring ideas together.

The most common places for linking words in essays are:

  • the start of a paragraph
  • the start of a sentence introducing a new idea or extending an argument 
  • the beginning of a concluding statement

Essay linking words is an integral part of academic writing. Put it simply, you can’t write a paper without using them; otherwise, your writing won’t make any sense for readers.

Transition words for essay serve to:

  • connect ideas in writing
  • create a flow of thoughts and arguments for readers to understand what you want to say
  • guide readers from one idea to another, demonstrating how they relate to each other
  • hook readers  and encourage them to read the next sentence or paragraph
  • add more information
  • support or contrast a point
  • show the result, conclude, demonstrate an effect of this or that point

Using essay maker and connecting words, each sentence and paragraph must pass readers on to the next one. These connecting words serve as an instrument to guide readers from one thought or point to the next.

Linking words examples are many, and it’s clear why: every piece of writing contains tons of connecting and transition words. Let’s take an essay sample from  Bid4Papers writers  to see the example of linking words in academic writing:


This one was an  essay introduction . 

Now, why not take a step further and look for essay linking words in  essay conclusions ?


Types and List of Linking Words to Use in Essays

Below you’ll find the ultimate list of transition words for essays by categories. Choose the role you need a word to play (reason, contrast, emphasis, restatement, etc.) and consider the corresponding table of transitions.

If you need the whole transition words list in one place, jump to the next category of this post to find the downloadable linking words pdf.

And now, for connecting words categories:

These words serve to add info to what you’ve previously stated, demonstrate the commonality between arguments, and support your thoughts.

Linking words for contrast is your instrument to show how things are different and provide counterarguments. They work best in  persuasive  and  critical  essays.

These lexical items will help you if you need to provide conditions to your statements, show how things are different/similar, or accept a point with reservation.

These words will help you with  personal  or  narrative essays: They are linking words in opinion writing that indicates you’re going to explore ideas in more detail.

Expository essays will win with these words too.

Cause and effect connecting words do what their name says exactly: demonstrating a cause of some point and providing the result of what has been done or started.

These words are for putting forward your point more forcefully, providing examples.

Perfect transition words for hypothesis essays , generalization lexical items serve to make a general statement you’ll then specify and prove in detail.

These words and phrases are for you to provide examples in essays.

Use these words to provide order and reference or clarify spatial relationships between your points or ideas.

These transitional words will help you demonstrate relationships between ideas and provide reasons for what and why has started or occurred.

Use these words in your essay when you need to indicate the time and order of what you say.

Restatement words will help you express an alternative to what you previously stated. They work for all essay types, including  rhetorical precis  and  dialectic essays .

Use summary and conclusion transitional phrases to sum up your points and come up with the final paragraph of your writing.

The Ultimate List of Connecting Words: Download

And now, for the most interesting and practical part:

Below you can find the linking words worksheet that gathers all the most commonly used transitional words in essays. Feel free to download this linking words PDF and refer to it every time you write an essay and experience writer’s block:


Do you need more guides and worksheets like this to assist you with academic writing? Please share your ideas in the comments, and our writers will be happy to help!

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Useful Linking Words and Phrases to Use in Your Essays

By: Author Sophia

Posted on Last updated: October 26, 2023

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Linking words and phrases are used to show relationships between ideas. They can be used to join two or more sentences or clauses.

We can use linking words to give a result , add information , summarize , give illustrations , emphasize a point , sequence information , compare or to contrast idea .

Useful Linking Words and Phrases

In this article, you will learn about the most common linking words and phrases:

Useful Linking Words and Phrases

Giving a Result

Usage : To provide the result of what has been stated or has occurred

Linking W ords :

  • As a result
  • As a consequence
  • Consequently
  • For this reason
  • His wife left him.  As a result , he became very depressed.
  • She has lived in France, and  as a consequence  she speaks French fluently.
  • We do not have enough money.  T herefore  we cannot afford to buy the new car.
  • We do not own the building.  Thus , it would be impossible for us to make any major changes to it.
  • There has been a great deal of rain and  consequently  the reservoirs are full.
  • The customer was displeased with her meal,  hence  the chef prepared a replacement.
  • For this reason , they are not a good choice for exterior use.
  • Due to  a broken wing, this bird can’t fly.

Useful Linking Words and Phrases

Adding Information

Usage : To add to what has been previously stated

Linking Words:

  • Additionally / an additional
  • Furthermore
  • As well as that
  • In addition
  • In addition to this
  • Apart from this
  • Additionally , the bus service will run on Sundays, every two hours.
  • He said he had not discussed the matter with her.  Furthermore , he had not even contacted her.
  • We are unable to repair this watch.  Also , this is the fourth time this has happened.
  • I love wearing earrings. I design and make them  too .
  • We went to the park today.  As well as that , we did some shopping.
  • Along with  parties and parliaments, elections have lost their charm.
  • I can’t afford to go to the concert.  Besides , I don’t really like classical music.
  • You haven’t paid the rent yet.   In addition , you owe me money.
  • The report is badly presented.  Moreover , it contains inaccuracies.
  • John’s grades are terrible because he has been so lazy these days.  In addition to this , his relationship to his parents got worse.
  • Apart from this  paragraph, the report contains a number of sensible initiatives.

Adding information


Usage : To sump up what has been previously stated

Linking words :

  • In conclusion
  • To summarize
  • To conclude
  • In conclusion , walking is a cheap, safe, enjoyable and readily available form of exercise.
  • To summarize , this is a clever approach to a common problem.
  • The food was good and we loved the music.  Altogether  it was a great evening.
  • His novels belong to a great but vanished age. They are,  in short , old-fashioned.
  • To sum up , there are three main ways of tackling the problem…
  • In summary , this was a disappointing performance.
  • Briefly , our team is now one of the best in the world.
  • To conclude , I want to wish you all a very happy holiday season.

Giving Examples

Usage : To provide examples

Linking words:

  • For example/ For instance
  • In this case
  • Proof of this
  • There are many interesting places to visit in the city,  for example / for instance , the botanical garden or the art museum.
  • I prefer to wear casual clothes,  such as  jeans and a sweatshirt.
  • Including  Christmas Day and Boxing Day, I’ve got a week off work.
  • We need to concentrate on our target audience,  namely  women aged between 20 and 30.
  • I think I would have made a difference  in this case .
  • This building are a living  proof of this  existence, so we must preserve it.
  • I also make other jewellery  like  rings and bracelets.

Emphasizing a Point

Usage : To put forward a point or idea more forcefully

  • Undoubtedly
  • Particularly / in particular
  • Importantly
  • Without a doubt
  • It should be noted
  • Unquestionably
  • Undoubtedly , the story itself is one of the main attractions.
  • I don’t mind at all.  Indeed , I would be delighted to help.
  • Obviously , we don’t want to spend too much money.
  • I love silver earrings,  in particular  ones from Mexico
  • The car is quite small,  especially  if you have children.
  • Clearly , this will cost a lot more than we realized.
  • More importantly , can he be trusted?
  • He’s an  absolutely  brilliant cook.
  • I  definitely  remember sending the letter.
  • We still believe we can win this series  without a doubt .
  • I’m  neve r  surprised at what I do.
  • It should be noted  that   if you have something to note, then note it
  • Unquestionably , teaching has been a paramount part of his career.
  • Above all , this forest is designed for wear and tear.
  • This is  positively  the worst thing that I can even imagine.

Useful Linking Words and Phrases

Sequencing Ideas

Usage : To indicate the order of what is being said

  • First/ firstly (Second/ secondly, Third/ thirdly, Finally)
  • At this time
  • Subsequently
  • Lastly and most importantly
  • Last but not least
  • First and foremost
  • Firstly , I prefer the train because I can see the landscape.
  • At this time , the young man leapt into the air and flew off towards sunset.
  • They arrived on Monday evening and we got there the  following  day.
  • I had visited them three days  previously .
  • Your name is  before  mine on the list.
  • Subsequently , new guidelines were issued to all employees.
  • Above all , keep in touch.
  • Lastly, and most importantly , you should be optimistic.
  • Last but not least , I find I seriously cannot relate to women.
  • We will continue to focus on our players  first and foremost .

Sequencing Ideas

Comparing Ideas

Usage:  To show how things are similar

  • Compare / compare(d) to(with)
  • By the same token
  • In the same way
  • Correspondingly
  • Similarly , the basketball and hockey games draw nearly full attendance.
  • Equally , not all customers are honest.
  • Her second marriage was  likewise  unhappy.
  • She’s  just as  smart as her sister.
  • Working with housecats is  just like  working with lions or tigers.
  • Some people say I have a running style  similar to  him.
  • Having a power is not  the same as  using the power.
  • He gets the ball off quickly  compared to  two years ago.
  • Teenagers should be more respectful;  by the same token , parents should be more understanding.
  • Alex enjoys telling jokes;  in the same way/similarly/likewise ,his son adores funny stories.
  • Correspondingly , the roles each of them played were soon different.

Contrasting Ideas

Usage : To show how things are different

  • Nevertheless
  • On the other hand
  • Nonetheless
  • Despite / in spite of
  • In contrast (to)
  • Alternatively
  • Differing from
  • Contrary to
  • Unlike  most systems, this one is very easy to install.
  • There is little chance that we will succeed in changing the law.  Nevertheless , it is important that we try.
  • Laptops are convenient;  O n the other hand , they can be expensive.
  • The problems are not serious.  Nonetheless , we shall need to tackle them soon.
  • Despite/ In spite of  the rain, I went for a walk.
  • In contrast to  the diligent bee, the butterfly flies hither and yon with no apparent purpose.
  • The agency will make travel arrangements for you.  Alternatively , you can organize your own transport.
  • Northern European countries had a great summer.  On the contrary/conversely , Southern Europe had poor weather.
  • Even so , many old friends were shocked at the announcement.
  • Differing from  his white colleagues, he preferred instructing his scholars to the ambition of acquiring personal renown.
  • The situation in Ireland is quite  contrary to  this principle.

Useful Linking Words and Phrases

Linking Words for Essays | Images

Below is a handy list of words that are both useful and appropriate to academic language:

Linking Words for Essays

Other linking words to give an example or an illustration:

  • In  this  case,
  • In  another  case
  • Take  the  case  of
  • To  illustrate
  • As  an
  • Illustration
  • To  take  another  example
  • That  is
  • As  shown  by
  • As  illustrated  by
  • As expressed by

Linking Words for Essays

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50 linking words to use in academic writing

It’s very common for students to use long words they don’t understand very well in their essays and theses because they have a certain idea of what academic writing should be. Many students believe that academic writing is wordy and convoluted, and uses a lot of jargon. This leads many students to fall into a trap of imagining that the longer the word, the more impressive and intelligent their writing will seem.

We often see long sentences and multisyllabic words where shorter sentences and simpler words would do. Some students even use Microsoft Word’s thesaurus function to replace a common word with a more complicated word. This is a risky move, because unless you’re very careful, the new word may not carry quite the same meaning as the original, even if it’s similar.

The result can range from funny to confusing, which defeats the purpose of academic writing: to be as clear and concise as possible, using just the right words to convey your argument. Using uncommon words, instead of making your paper seem smarter, generally detracts from your ideas.

To avoid this, using linking or transition words that signpost your arguments can help to clarify your views and show the reader what to expect from certain paragraphs or sentences. These words give structure to the whole, helping you to organise your ideas and assist the reader in understanding them.

We have prepared some flashcards containing linking words you can use in academic writing.

CLICK HERE to download these FREE flashcards

Below is a handy list of words that are both useful and appropriate to academic language.

Describing similarities


Not only… but also

In the same way

Showing cause and effect


As a result

Hence (never ‘hence why’)

Since (try to avoid ‘as’ when showing cause and effect)


This suggests that

It follows that

For this reason

Comparing and contrasting


On the other hand

On the contrary

Showing limitation or contradiction

Despite/in spite of

While (not whilst!)



50 linking words to use in academic writing

Emphasis, addition or examples

To illustrate

Further (not ‘furthermore’)

First, second and third (not firstly, secondly and thirdly)

For instance

In addition

To summarise

It can be concluded that

As can be seen

Given the above

As described

The best way to get better at writing academic language is to read academic writing. You’ll pick up all sorts of useful tips from published papers in your area of study.

good essay linking words

Updated 31 January 2023 Ellen McRae, PhD, AE (IPEd), MNZSTI Senior Managing Editor

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Linking Words To Use In An Essay

Linking Words List

Table of Contents

Linking words are those words that showcase a connection between sentences. Linking words help in forming the uniformity in the essay. These words are also known as transition words and used to show a relation among paragraphs or different sections in an essay. As the name suggests, Linking words bridge the gap between the ideas or concepts written in the essays. Your text seems to be more cohesive with the usage of linking words. Use proper linking words to reduce the reading efforts of the readers. Readers don’t want to take mental stress in understanding your essay. Therefore, it is necessary to make things easy for them.

Different types of linking words in an essay

It is not an easy task to compose a compelling essay. If you want to make your essay more appealing and expressive, then focus on three things, first is research, presentation and persuasion. If you don’t have a knack for writing, then you will fail miserably in forming a cohesive essay with judicial use of linking words.

Linking words play an important role in any type of essay. Without linking words, the information presented in an essay is just a dump of words. If you don’t want your essay to be clunky and disjointed one, use linking words and phrases correctly.

There are various categories of linking words one can use while writing an essay. Today in this blog, you will read 8 main categories and linking words list to be used while framing an essay. So here are 8 types of linking words to be used in an essay:

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Linking words list for order and sequence


Flow is necessary for any type of essay. If there is an absence of flow of ideas, thoughts or logic in your essay, it will lose its glory. Here is a linking words list that helps by showing a sequence order in the essay.

  • First/ Second/ Third or Firstly/ secondly/ Thirdly
  • Primary/ Secondary
  • At the same time
  • At this point of time
  • Concurrently
  • First of all
  • Following this
  • In the first place
  • The next step
  • In the beginning
  • It all started when
  • Once upon a time
  • To begin with/ To start with

Linking words list to show a comparison


In various types of essays such as argumentative essay writing, compare and contrast essay writing, you might need to show comparison. Read different comparative essay examples to understand the role of these words in making a comparison. Therefore, you can follow the following words to make the comparison more clear. Here is a linking words list to show comparison:

  • Just as … so too
  • In the same time
  • By the same token
  • In the same way

Linking words list for contrasting

Just like the way you need linking words to show comparison, there are words that are used to show the contrast as well. Here is a of linking words list to show contrast:

  • However/ Nevertheless
  • Alternatively
  • Despite this
  • On the contrary
  • In spite of

Illustrating an example linking words list

Almost all types of essays require evidence or some examples to prove a specific point of view. But just telling an example may sound blunt. That is why we use linking words to show examples in a beautified manner. Have a look at the linking words list:

  • For example
  • For instance
  • In other words
  • An instance
  • As revealed by
  • To show that
  • In the case of
  • As an example
  • For one thing

Linking words list for additions


If you want to add some more information you can use addition linking words to convey the right meaning. Using “also” or “and” everywhere in the essay can take the charm away. So here is a linking words list you can use to while adding new information.

  • Furthermore
  • In addition
  • Specifically
  • To illustrate
  • To demonstrate
  • In line manner
  • Not only … but also
  • What’s more
  • By the same

Cause and effect linking words list

In any essay, if you want to draw a rational conclusion, you need to use cause and effect words. This makes a good connection of the whole essay with a conclusion. Use these linking words in an essay to show the cause and effect relationship.

  • Consequently
  • As a result of
  • As a consequence of
  • Contributes to
  • For this reason
  • Results from
  • Is the result of
  • Is the consequence of
  • Is caused by

Linking words list to Conclude

A good essay is one that is having a good conclusion. While most of the students use almost the same words to conclude their essays, here you have the chance to conclude the essay with some good words. Look at the linking words list for an excellent conclusion:

  • To conclude
  • In conclusion
  • On the whole
  • Summarising
  • By and large
  • All things considered
  • In the long run
  • For the most part
  • By the large
  • As a result

As you can see there are 8 main types of linking word categories that can be used while writing an essay. For more understanding visit smartwords.org .

But just using these words is not enough. You need to adjust and position them correctly or else, they will fail to tempt the readers.

In the next paragraph, I will be showing how to use these words in the sentences.

How to position linking or transition words in an essay

Using linking words correctly in an essay is not rocket science. You can learn it easily, all you need is the focus while writing an essay. There are three ways or I should say positions where you can fit your connecting words or linking words. 

The first position is: At the beginning of the sentence

You can start a sentence with a linking word that provides a reference to the previous point. Have a look at some examples to understand more clearly.

  • One can have a lot of difficulty in writing creatively. However, creative writing is a useful skill.
  • I am not a big fan of marvel comics. On the other hand, I like their concept.
  • I fumble a lot while speaking. As a result, I fail to clear interviews.

The second position is: In the middle of the sentence

In an essay, you can use linkings words in the middle of the sentences as well. Usually, we write it after the subject. Learn how to use through the following examples.

  • One cannot escape from failures. They are, however, good lessons of life.
  • I am not good at grammar, as a result, I fail to get good grades in academic assignments.
  • The correct information is required for a good essay, but ideas too, play an important role.

The third position is: At the end of the sentence

At times you can use the connection or linking words at the end of the essay. It makes sense, you can see that in the following sentences.

  • Learning grammatical rules is a tough process. It is very useful, however.
  • I am not a lover of poetry. I love to recite them, on the other hand.
  • I am not a confident speaker. I get nervous in public speaking, as a result.

I hope the above-mentioned information will help you to understand the correct use of linking words in an essay. For more help, you can visit Englishathome.com and learn more about the words to use in essays.

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All sentences in a paragraph need to relate to the main idea in the topic sentence. The reader should be able to see how each sentence flows from the previous one and how each is connected to the topic sentence. Linking words and phrases weave sentences together to create a cohesive paragraph.

Linking words and phrases

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  • Why use linking words?

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75 linking words for academic writing (+examples)

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Linking words play an important role in academic writing: They connect different paragraphs, sections or ideas in a text. Therefore, they considerably improve the readability and argumentation of academic texts such as a thesis, dissertation, essay or journal publication. This list of 75 linking words includes examples of how they can be used in academic writing.

Disclosure: This post may contain affiliate links, which means I may earn a small commission if you make a purchase using the links below at no additional cost to you . I only recommend products or services that I truly believe can benefit my audience. As always, my opinions are my own.

Linking words expressing order and sequence in academic writing

Linking words expressing additions in academic writing, linking words expressing cause and effect in academic writing, linking words expressing contrasts and comparisons in academic writing, linking words expressing emphasis in academic writing, linking words expressing illustrations in academic writing, linking words expressing summaries and conclusions in academic writing, linking words expressing conditionality in academic writing, linking words expressing generalisations in academic writing, linking words expressing concessions in academic writing.

1. First(ly), second(ly), third(ly)

Example: First, I review the existing literature on cross-border collaboration. Second, I explain the methodology …

Example: The thesis starts with a literature review. Next, I describe the case study design.

Example: Finally, recommendations for future research are presented.

4. Subsequently

Example: Study participants underwent several experiments and were subsequently examined.

5. Afterwards

Example: The event increased public awareness of this issue. Afterwards, politicians debated it more openly.

6. Eventually

Example: Eventually, this led to the creation of a social movement.

Example: Before scientists discovered the role of neurons in information processing, they assumed that…

8. Previously

Example: Previously, scholars believed that nurture was the most important factor in a child’s development.

good essay linking words

Example: Scholars examine the causes and effects of poverty.

10. Furthermore

Example: Furthermore, the data illustrates the number of chemicals that can be found in drinking water.

11. Additionally

Example: Additionally, the interviewee lamented a lack of attention to his work.

12. As well as

Example: Scholars utilise qualitative as well as quantitative methods to study this phenomenon.

13. Besides

Example: Besides the public outreach component, we wrote a handbook to disseminate the research results in the academic community.

Example: The financial compensation was also appreciated by the study participants.

15. Moreover

Example: Moreover, interviewees were asked to describe their own experiences.

You may also like: How to paraphrase a quote: 4 simple strategies

16. Because

Example: This theory was ultimately rejected because it was built on a flawed dataset.

Example: The outcomes improved since different parties joined forces.

Example: As the number of studies increases, better conclusions can be drawn.

Example: Scientists realised that the data analysis had flaws. So they decided not to run the same data analysis again.

20. Therefore

Example: Many researchers have conducted this experiment with similar results. Therefore, this theory can be debunked.

21. Consequently

Example: The literature highlights the importance of age and physical fitness. Consequently, these factors will be investigated further.

Example: Due to a low response rate, the study’s validity is low.

23. Nevertheless

Example: One academic study found the opposite results. Nevertheless, it can be argued that…

Example: Many scholars have explored this issue. Yet, to date, no inclusive framework exists to explain…

25. Although

Example: Although a confidentiality agreement was provided, study participants were hesitant to disclose private information.

26. In spite of

Example: In spite of the different study contexts, all experiments pointed to similar results.

27. Whereas

Example: People often stated that they are aware of the rules whereas they behaved as if they did not.

Example: While older studies often emphasise structural effects, newer ones tend to highlight the role of agency.

29. In contrast

Example: In contrast to previous findings, my analysis shows that…

30. Similarly

Example: One study found that the majority of residents in disadvantaged areas do not have access to sufficient resources. Similarly, my research revealed that most residents live too far away from the services and resources they would need to climb the social ladder.

31. Equally

Example: E qually important, however, is the role of personal beliefs in decision-making processes.

32. Likewise

Example: The interviewee considered this issue important and expected his colleagues to do likewise.

33. On the other hand

Example: On the one hand, research in this field advanced considerably in the last 20 years. On the other hand, a lot remains unclear.

Example: Unlike social scientists, physical scientists often conduct laboratory examinations.

good essay linking words

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35. Particularly

Example: Particularly relevant for this study is the molecular orbital theory.

36. Especially

Example: Especially younger interviewees expressed dissatisfaction with the status quo.

37. Above all

Example: Above all, this method can generate better insights into the physical processes at hand.

Example: Indeed, motivation turned out to be a defining factor of academic success.

38. Clearly

Example: Clearly, these scholars were not aware of recent advances in medical sciences.

39. Definitely

Example: This was definitely the most important event of the year.

40. Importantly

Example: More importantly, the findings underscore the importance of conflict resolution.

41. Undoubtedly

Example: Undoubtedly, all stakeholders had good intentions.

42. Obviously

Example: Obviously it is too early to draw final conclusions.

43. Of course

Example: Of course, this study should be replicated in a different context.

44. Surprisingly

Example: Surprisingly, all results were unambiguous.

45. Such as

Example: Scientists have explored different parts of the problem, such as CO2 emissions and hydrological processes.

46. For example

Example: Many interviewees were nervous. For example, when asked to describe the event, some of them started to stutter.

47. For instance

Example: Scholars have criticised this approach for different reasons. For instance, they argued that qualitative methods are insufficient to draw generalisable conclusions.

48. In this case

Example: Difficulties arise when no study participants can be found. In this case, alternative methods should be considered.

50. To conclude

Example: To conclude, the empirical analysis supports previous research findings.

51. In conclusion

Example: In conclusion, the reviewed literature highlights a clear research gap.

52. To sum up

Example: To sum up, a mixed methods approach is a better choice than a purely quantitative one.

53. In summary

Example: In summary, it is my opinion that conditions should be improved.

54. In short

Example: In short, scholars call for more research on climate change mitigation.

55. Altogether

Example: Altogether, these examples support the main argument.

Example: Energy supply became a growing problem. Thus, new policies were implemented.

Example: The first dataset was incomplete. Hence, a new dataset had to be developed.

Example: Unless stated otherwise, I refer to the concept as…

59. As long as

Example: As long as the conditions do not change, the results should remain stable.

Example: If scientists study this phenomenon in the future, they should pay attention to structural drivers.

61. Provided that

Example: Provided that nothing changes, the effects on society will be negative.

Example: Should the distribution change, it is fair to expect…

63. Even if

Example: Even if more experiments are conducted, human behaviour remains hard to predict.

Example: Often, this issue was flagged by interviewees themselves.

65. Commonly

Example: Commonly, this criterion is used for categorising plants.

66. Overall

Example: Overall the data confirmed the hypothesis.

67. Typically

Example: Typically emotions run high in such situations.

68. Generally

Example: Generally speaking, scholars address this issue from two angles.

Example: Mainly researchers in the global North discuss this phenomenon.

Example: Mostly, these results cannot be replicated outside of the lab.

71. Even if

Example: This is hard to prove. Even if the study sample is large enough.

72. Regardless of

Example: Regardless of their genetic makeup, mice showcased the same symptoms.

Example: Albeit experiencing setbacks, successful students do not get discouraged.

74. Admittedly

Example: Admittedly, the validity of this study should be increased.

75. Nonetheless

Example: Nonetheless, this study can be seen as a valuable contribution to the international literature.

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Writing phrases and linking words

  • Writing phrases


  • More and more families are choosing to have only one child.
  • The trend nowadays is towards having smaller families.
  • Over the past ten years or so the media have frequently carried reports of …
  • Recent research indicates that the number of teenagers who smoke is increasing.
  • Hardly a week goes by without another report of … appearing in the media.
  • This raises the issue of whether …
  • Although most people would generally agree that … few would deny that …
  • There are differing explanations / opinions as to why….
  • It is first necessary to explain…
  • In the following essay will be examined.
  • People (sometimes) claim that … but I feel that …
  • It is often said/argued that … However, it seems to me that …
  • It is a fact that …
  • Over the past few months/years, it seems that …
  • Recently, we have all become concerned that …
  • Nowadays, we are all realising that …
  • In the past, people used to …, but now …
  • These days, it seems that ….

Giving opinion

  • It seems to me that … I would also say that …
  • I am convinced that …
  • I am inclined to believe that …
  • There is no doubt in my mind that …
  • One of the drawbacks of … is …
  • However, one of the benefits is that …
  • I think that
  • In my opinion / in my own view / to my mind
  • This is a matter of opinion
  • In my experience
  • As far as I know
  • As far as I am concerned
  • To tell you the truth
  • I am convinced that
  • I firmly believe that
  • As I see it,
  • From my personal point of view,
  • It seems to me that
  • I personally believe that
  • From my perspective
  • To my way of thinking
  • It appears to me that

Presenting arguments

  • One justification often given for … is that…
  • Advocates / Proponents would claim that …
  • Those who object to … often argue that …
  • Another objection is that …
  • However, it should not be forgotten that …
  • … are opposed to … on the grounds that …
  • From the point of view of …

Describing causes

  • One factor which has led to … is …
  • As regards the causes for this, …
  • Concerning the causes for this, …
  • As for the causes, …
  • One of the factors which has brought this about is …
  • The problem often stems from …
  • The situation has been exacerbated by …
  • … has only made the situation worse.
  • One consequence of … is …

Proposing measures

  • As regards the most appropriate response to this situation, one suggestion would be to …
  • The first step to be taken would be to …
  • To alleviate the situation people should …
  • In addition they ought to …
  • To begin to tackle this situation society / individuals / the government need / s to …
  • … would certainly ameliorate the situation.
  • This can only be dealt with if …
  • To overcome this problem, …
  • Were the government to …, the situation would doubtless improve.
  • Individuals can do a great deal to …
  • The burden of responsiblity lies in the hands of …
  • It is vitally important that …
  • Legislation should be introduced to control …
  • It would be a grave error if we …

To State the Reasons

  • There are different reasons why it …
  • There are several explanations for …
  • There are many positive/negative reasons for …
  • There are some/more/fewer benefits/disadvantages to …

To Give an Opinion

  • (Why) I believe
  • I'd like to explain why
  • I would prefer
  • In my opinion
  • As far as I'm concerned
  • It seems to me

To Set Up a Condition

  • Whether (or not)
  • . . .may/might
  • . . .can be

To Further the Argument

  • First (of all) . . . Second . . .Third
  • Firstly … Secondly … Thirdly
  • In addition
  • There are three reasons why
  • Furthermore
  • As an example
  • For instance
  • What's more
  • Not only . . . but also
  • . . . including
  • . . . coupled with
  • Both . . . and

To Summarize / Conclude

  • In conclusion
  • As a result (of)
  • In other words
  • To summarize
  • On the whole
  • To conclude
  • As we have seen
  • As has been said

To Restate or Repeat an Argument

  • To put it differently

To Show Cause/Reason and Effect/Result

  • Consequently
  • Because (of)
  • If this occurs, then
  • To this end
  • For this reason
  • As a result

To Show Time Relationships

  • Immediately

To Generalize

  • For the most part
  • Generally speaking
  • By and large

To Show Contrast/Make an Exception

  • Some may argue that
  • In contrast
  • On the one hand
  • On the other hand
  • In spite of
  • On the contrary
  • Rather than
  • Either . . . or
  • Neither . . . nor
  • Nevertheless
  • Once in a while
  • Occasionally
  • Some…other(s)

To Emphasize

  • Surprisingly
  • Unquestionably
  • Without a doubt
  • Objectively

To Argue/Make a Suggestion

  • . . . seems to warrant
  • . . . contend/s
  • . . . argue/s
  • . . . justify/ies
  • This observation is supported by
  • . . . suggest/s
  • The suggestion is valid
  • . . . propose/s
  • . . . claim/s
  • . . .state/s
  • . . . clearly proof enough
  • If I had the choice
  • . . . examine/s
  • . . . assert/s

To Show Disagreement

  • . . . object/s (to)
  • . . . disagree/s with
  • . . . contradict/s
  • . . . doesn't/don't support
  • . . . is/are invalid
  • These arguments, one by one, can be challenged
  • . . . is absurd/ridiculous/unfounded/illogical
  • . . . not to be taken seriously
  • . . . has/have no scientific basis
  • . . . dispute/s

To Choose One Option over

  • . . . might be the better option
  • . . . make/s it a better policy
  • It's beneficial/better/positive
  • It's detrimental/worse/negative
  • . . . is true/false
  • The assertion that…
  • . . . seem/s to offer strong arguments for/against
  • . . . is/are better/worse than

To Show Similarity

  • As . . . as
  • In the same way
  • As in/as with/as was/etc.

To Show Purpose

  • In order to

To Show Evidence/Give an

  • As evidence of
  • The legitimacy of
  • For example
  • A few of these are
  • In the case of
  • For one thing . . . for another

To State the Problem

  • The problem is (how)
  • The question is
  • What is being asked/challenged

To State the Options

  • One option is
  • The other option is


  • Generally speaking,
  • On the whole,
  • In general,
  • By and large,
  • All in all,
  • Essentially,
  • All things considered

Expressing certainty

  • Definitely,
  • Indubitably
  • Needless to say
  • Undoubtedly,
  • Without doubt

Showing cause

Showing effect.

  • As a result,
  • Consequently,
  • For this reason,
  • Eventually,
  • The reason why

Adding Information

  • Another possibility is that…
  • At the same time it is true to say…
  • In addition…
  • In any case…
  • It should also be emphasized that…
  • It should also be noted that…
  • Mention should also be made of…
  • Related to these arguments is the critique that…
  • The corollary of this is that…
  • The key point to note is that…
  • The same can be said of…
  • The same is true of…
  • There were other factors which arguably counted for more.
  • This idea is supported by
  • This is further illustrated by….
  • This is further shown by the fact that….
  • What’s more

Expressing condition

  • One the condition of
  • Provided that
  • Provision, proviso (A stipulated condition)
  • Stipulate (Specify as a condition or requirement in a contract)

Weighing up arguments

  • On the one hand … on the other hand
  • To consider the advantages and disadvantages
  • Arguments for and against
  • To discuss the pros and cons
  • In theory … in reality
  • Not only … but also
  • As a matter of fact
  • By no means / not at all

Giving examples

  • A classic illustration often cited is…
  • Another example of this may be given.
  • et cetera / and so on / and so forth
  • In particular / particularly
  • In the … case this was perhaps the most obvious.
  • More detailed studies show that…
  • Only in one respect does the advantage seem to be with…
  • The evidence of … is even more obvious in the case of…
  • The origins of … can be traced back to…
  • This was by no means unique.
  • This was typified by…
  • To illustrate this point
  • To take yet another illustration…

Other useful phrases

  • It can be argued that…
  • It is important to recognize that…
  • It is only to be expected that…
  • It is also worth noting that…
  • It is likely that…
  • It is possible that…
  • It is anticipated that…
  • It is not clear whether…
  • It is significant that…
  • It is assumed that…
  • It is not surprising then, that…
  • It is sometimes suggested that…
  • It is clear that…
  • It is not surprising to find that…
  • It is unlikely that…
  • It is difficult to see…
  • It is not unreasonable to suggest that…
  • It is worth pointing out that…
  • It is essential, therefore, that…
  • It is not, however, simply a matter of…
  • It may seem surprising to say that…
  • It is evident that…
  • It is noteworthy that…
  • It seems that…
  • It is for this reason that…
  • It is now clear that…
  • It would seem clear that…
  • It is important to note that…
  • It is often argued that…
  • one could envisage
  • one might expect
  • one need only turn to
  • one could argue that
  • one might ask
  • The question one seeks to answer is
  • one could seriously question
  • one must remember

Positive words

  • magnificent
  • grandeur - The quality of being magnificent or splendid or grand, the quality of being exalted in character or ideals or conduct
  • magnanimous - The quality of being exalted in character or ideals or conduct
  • fantastical
  • extraordinary
  • avid - Emotionally desirable
  • avid ambition to succeed
  • spectacular
  • glorious - Bringing great happiness and thankfulness
  • illustrious - Widely known and esteemed
  • notable - Worthy of notice
  • splendiferous - Having great beauty and splendor
  • resplendent - Having great beauty and splendor, Richly and brilliantly colorful
  • flamboyant - Elaborately or excessively ornamented, Richly and brilliantly colorful
  • redoubtable - Having or worthy of pride
  • formidable - Extremely impressive in strength or excellence
  • wondrous - Extraordinarily good
  • sublime - Inspiring awe, Lifted up or set high
  • flair - natural talent
  • knack - A special way of doing something
  • outshine - Attract more attention and praise than others
  • paramount - Having superior power and influence
  • predominant
  • preponderating

To show intelligence

  • shrewd – hardheaded (practical experience and observation) intelligence
  • acumen - Shrewdness shown by keen insight
  • savvy - The cognitive condition of someone who understands
  • cognition - The psychological result of perception, learning and reasoning
  • Einstein - Someone who has exceptional intellectual ability and originality
  • work of art
  • maven - Someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field
  • mavin - Someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field
  • adept - Someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field
  • whiz - Someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field
  • wizard - Someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field

To intensify

  • exceedingly
  • toppingly - extremely well
  • extraordinarily
  • utterly - Completely and without qualification; used informally as intensifiers, With sublimity; in a sublime manner
  • dramatically
  • sheer - (adj.) Complete and without restriction or qualification; sometimes used informally as an intensifier; (adv.) Directly "he fell sheer into the water"
  • enounced, enunciated - Speak, pronounce, or utter in a certain way
  • pronounced - Speak, pronounce, or utter in a certain way
  • articulated - Express or state clearly
  • vocalized - Express or state clearly
  • posited - Put firmly
  • alleged - Declared but not proved
  • averred - Report or maintain, To declare or affirm in a grave manner and formally as true
  • affirmed, asserted
  • indited - Produce a literary work
  • penned - Produce a literary work
  • spelt - Indicate or signify
  • voiced, sounded - Give voice to
  • demean - Reduce in worth or character, usually verbally

It is noted

  • denoted - Be a sign or indication of, "Her smile denoted that she agreed"
  • innumerable
  • myriad (noun and adj.)
  • extol - (v) Praise, glorify, or honor
  • evoke - Call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)
  • arouse - Call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)
  • elicit - Call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)
  • enkindle - Call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)
  • provoke - Call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)
  • inflame - Arouse or excite feelings and passions
  • awake - Stop sleeping
  • conjure - Evoke or call forth, with or as if by magic
  • invoke - Evoke or call forth, with or as if by magic
  • summon - Gather or bring together
  • instill - deposit gradually

Adding ideas

  • coupled with  
  • for example (e.g.)
  • for instance
  • furthermore
  • in addition
  • that is (i.e.)

As expected

  • as a matter of fact
  • for that matter
  • it follows that


  • in other words
  • that is to say
  • to put it differently

Cause and effect

  • accordingly
  • as a consequence
  • as a result
  • as might be expected
  • consequently
  • for this purpose
  • for this reason
  • subsequently
  • at the same time
  • by the same token
  • in contrast
  • in spite of
  • nevertheless
  • nonetheless
  • notwithstanding
  • on one hand
  • on the contrary
  • on the other hand
  • first of all
  • to begin with
  • in the first place
  • for the time being
  • the next step
  • the meantime
  • simultaneously
  • in conclusion
  • with this in mind  
  • but of course
  • granted that
  • to doubt that
  • to the left
  • to the right
  • in the distance

Degrees of certainty

  • in all likelihood
  • in all probability
  • in any case


  • in particular
  • occasionally
  • particularly
  • provided that
  • specifically
  • as noted earlier
  • as we have seen
  • to put it another way
  • comparatively
  • coupled with
  • correspondingly
  • identically
  • together with
  • with attention to
  • for the most part
  • generally speaking


  • as an example
  • as an illustration
  • for example
  • for one thing
  • illustrated with
  • in this case
  • exclusive of
  • all things considered
  • by and large
  • in any event
  • in summation
  • in the final analysis
  • in the long run
  • on the whole
  • to conclude
  • to make a long story short
  • to sum it up
  • to summarize


Useful Linking Words for Writing Essays in English

Posted on Last updated: July 20, 2019

Useful Linking Words for Writing Essays in English

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Linking Words ! This page provides a list of useful linking words for writing essays in English for ESL learners.

Table of Contents

Linking Words

Linking words or transition words are words phrases used to connect one idea to the next. Learn linking words list in English.

  • In addition
  • Furthermore
  • Not only … but also
  • Besides this
  • In the same way
  • On the other hand
  • In spite of
  • On the contrary
  • Nonetheless
  • Even though
  • In contrast
  • Alternatively
  • In the first stage
  • To begin with
  • Another reason
  • Another advantage
  • At this point
  • Following this
  • A further reason
  • In the final stage
  • The final reason


  • As a result
  • Consequently
  • It follows that
  • In that case
  • Undoubtedly
  • The reason why
  • In other words
  • In order to
  • Provided that
  • Depending on
  • In conclusion
  • To conclude
  • To recapitulate

Linking Words & Phrases | Infographic

Useful Linking Words for Writing Essays in English

Thursday 20th of January 2022

i dont know what to say but waaaaasssssuuuuupppp

Thursday 22nd of April 2021

thx this is awesome it helps me a lot

Anna Kołodko

Wednesday 24th of February 2021

Thank you for sharing - now I have a full picture what is linking word at all, how many linking words there are and how it is used. :)

Samuel santos

Saturday 28th of September 2019

It is really helpful. Thanks for sharing.

Saturday 6th of April 2019

This article helps me a lot to my vocabulary in writing my essay Thank you


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  1. What Is a Linking Sentence in an Essay?

    A linking sentence coherently connects two other sentences together in an essay. It is placed between the two sentences in order to provide them with more context, allowing the paragraph to proceed in a logical fashion.

  2. How Long Is a 500-Word Essay?

    A 500-word essay averages two double-spaced pages. The length of a document depends on the paper and margin sizes as well as the general text formatting.

  3. How Long Is a 200 Word Essay?

    An essay containing 200 words is limited in length, requiring between three and five paragraphs depending on the sentence structure and vocabulary used. An essay is a short piece of writing about a particular topic.

  4. Linking/transition words

    Linking words within a sentence are referred to as coordinating conjunctions. Do not worry about the term: think about the function. Conjunction

  5. Connecting ideas in writing

    Additionally, and, also, apart from this, as well (as), in addition, moreover, further, furthermore. Condition to provide a condition. If, in that case

  6. The Ultimate List of Linking Words for Your Essay

    Types and List of Linking Words to Use in Essays: Addition/Agreement/Similarity; Contrast/Contradiction/Limitation/Opposition; Comparison/

  7. Useful Linking Words and Phrases to Use in Your Essays

    Emphasizing a Point · Undoubtedly · Indeed · Obviously · Particularly / in particular · Especially · Clearly · Importantly · Absolutely

  8. 50 linking words to use in academic writing

    Using uncommon words, instead of making your paper seem smarter, generally detracts from your ideas. ... Essay Writing · For ESLs · Grammar

  9. Mega linking words list to use in an essay

    Linking words are those words that showcase a connection between sentences. Linking words help in forming the uniformity in the essay.

  10. Common linking words

    Emphasis ; Undoubtedly, Indeed ; Obviously, Generally ; Admittedly, In theory/fact ; Particularly, Especially ; Clearly

  11. 75 linking words for academic writing (+examples)

    Linking words expressing order and sequence in academic writing · 1. First(ly), second(ly), third(ly). Example: First, I review the existing literature on cross-

  12. Linking Words for IELTS Writing Task 2

    Yes, you should use a good range of linking words in your essay. Reply. Jasandeep kaur says. September 25, 2020 at. Hlo madam , tomorrow will be my ILETS exam.

  13. Writing phrases and linking words

    To Further the Argument · First (of all) . . . Second . . .Third · Firstly … Secondly … Thirdly · In addition · There are three reasons why · Similarly · Furthermore

  14. Useful Linking Words for Writing Essays in English

    ADDITION · In addition · And · Similarly · Likewise · As well as · Besides · Another · Furthermore; Also; Moreover; And then; Too; Not only …