Criminology: Modern Criminal Justice Essay

Crime is any action that contravenes the governing code set by a social, political, or economic authority. In other words, crime is the natural tendency of human beings to deviate from the regulations of any governing institution in pursuit of survival, gain, or advantage (Lombroso et al, 2006). Any individual that is known to have committed a crime is known as a criminal. In this essence, crime can be of many forms. The governing code is then the law of the area of jurisdiction held by the said authority. In the case of a geographical area, the law covers all aspects of life and is supposed to be obeyed by all inhabitants of the territory who are subjects to the law. The criminal justice system is the institution or the criterion that is used to keep all people that are subject to the law in check. In addition, the criminal justice system provides a mechanism through which the deviant subjects are corrected or punished. A fully functional justice system is designed to establish, evaluate, and then met out the appropriate action to correct, punish or restrain the subject in question. The modern criminal justice system is defined in criminal law. This institution is primarily set up to ensure civil order in society. The actions of the criminal justice system in response to a crime committed are governed by the law. Most modern governments have a similar criminal justice system with slight variation due to social norms, religion, or differences in constitutional law.

One of the basic components of a criminal justice system is a body that establishes whether a subject has committed a crime. This body may be a policing institution, a military institution, or a civilian body consisting of members of a certain occupational discipline. Furthermore, the detection and investigation of crime is the responsibility of this body. Once the evidence of the crime having been committed has been gathered, the investigators have to apprehend the suspected criminal. This component of the criminal justice administration is often known as law enforcement.

Administration of justice involves another institution that determines if the law enforcement agency has gathered enough evidence to establish that the apprehended subject committed the crime under investigation (Schmalleger, 2001). Law enforcement has to present the suspected criminal and the evidence before the decision-making body. An accused person may be represented by a defense counsel who is often a solicitor or expert of the law. A criminal court, which is the decision-making body, takes into account the evidence by law enforcement and the argument by the suspected criminal or the defense counsel representing the accused. The court may decide to absolve the accused of having committed any crime or it may convict the suspected criminal. In case the suspect is found innocent, compensation may be awarded by the court if the state is found to have breached regulations governing prosecution. In addition, the court states or defines the action that is to be taken on the convict. The convict may be incarcerated, fined, or sentenced to community service depending on the gravity of the crime. Juvenile offenders and people with disabilities may be sentenced to some kind of probation. However, the court may decide to give law enforcement an extension of time to gather more evidence. Meanwhile, the suspected criminal may be released on bail or incarcerated in remand prison

If the court condemns a convict to serve a prison term, execution, or community service, then the correctional institutions take over. The correctional facility incarcerates the convict and administers procedures intended to correct the behavior of the criminal. The restriction and the limitation of freedom of the convict serve as a punishment and a deterrent from committing future crimes. In addition, the correction institutions carry out execution sentences on convicts condemned to death. Probation institutions intended to correct young offenders may be required to educate, and monitor the progress of the convicts. The administration of criminal justice requires the coordination of various institutions that are part of the government.

Lombroso, C., Gibson, M., & Rafter, N. H. (2006). Criminal man . Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Schmalleger, F. (2001). Criminal justice today: an introductory text for the twenty-first century (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

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IvyPanda. (2022, April 28). Criminology: Modern Criminal Justice.

"Criminology: Modern Criminal Justice." IvyPanda , 28 Apr. 2022,

IvyPanda . (2022) 'Criminology: Modern Criminal Justice'. 28 April.

IvyPanda . 2022. "Criminology: Modern Criminal Justice." April 28, 2022.

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Home / Essay Samples / Science / Criminology / The Theory Of Criminological Positivism And Its Relevance To Modern Criminology

The Theory Of Criminological Positivism And Its Relevance To Modern Criminology

  • Category: Science
  • Topic: Criminology , Theory

Pages: 4 (1893 words)

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Features of Criminological Positivism


  • Hale, C. Hayward, K. Wahidini, A. Wincup, E. (2009) ‘Criminology’ Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pp 74-80
  • Ward Frampton, T. (2013) PREDISPOSITION AND POSITIVISM: THE FORGOTTEN FOUNDATIONS OF THE ENTRAPMENT DOCTRINE The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology (1973-), Vol. 103, No. 1 (Winter 2013), pp. 111-146 Published by: Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law Stable URL: https://www. jstor. org/stable/24615611 Accessed: 11-11-2019 15:16 UTC
  • Van Swaanigan, R. (1997) Critical Criminology, Visions from Europe. London: Sage Publishing. P 56
  • Watlate, S. (2007) Understanding Criminology England: Open University Press. P 146
  • Nicole Rafter, Somatotyping, Antimodernism, and the Production of Criminological Knowledge, 45 Criminology 805 (2007).
  • Murray, C. Phillips, M. (2001) The Underclass +10

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