no longer supports Internet Explorer.

To browse and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to  upgrade your browser .

Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.

  • We're Hiring!
  • Help Center

paper cover thumbnail

The Effects of Motivation on Employee Performance: A Strategic Human Resource Management Approach

Profile image of IJMSBR Open Access Journal

Motivation has been established to be a critical sensation in the operations of today's small scale, large scale enterprises and multinational companies and its elements constitutes strength towards the achievement of organisations' strategic objectives in competitive environments. This study seeks to unravel the effects of motivation on employee performance, with a strategic human resource management approach. The fortitude for this research led to the retrieval of information from secondary sources published on the subject matter, and reviewed literature revealed the significance of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The careful examination of the content and process theories of motivation established actualities, and further facts described the impact of performance management on firms' growth and the role of strategic human resource management in enhancing high quality performance through a motivated workforce. The available reviewed sources established that appropriate motivation mechanisms has positive effects on employees performance and helps to retain high quality employees firms desire for competitive advantage. The relevance of this study could aid practising managers, heads of private and public institutions and also human resource management practitioners.

Related Papers

The Ijbmt , Roxana Cioclov

The following paper represents an in-depth analysis of the causality between motivation and performance of human resources, in organizational contexts. By analyzing the complexity of the two concepts individually, followed by the correlations between the two, the current paper will prove the bidirectionality of this relationship: motivation and performance determining each. Such a proven relationship will bring significant added value to the organizations that are interested to enrich their Human Resources practices, allowing them to strategically plan and target their actions in a manner that will ensure high level of involvement, engagement and active participation of their people. The study becomes both a theoretical and practical foundation of strategic HR management, in terms of how can motivation and performance be instrumented in order to align the individual efforts to the organizational strategy. In terms of methodology, the paper approaches a qualitative method, starting by identifying the elements that determine motivation and the ones that determine performance, including the way they can determine one another. Current paper is therefore an initial study, that could then be valued in further quantitative studies that would collect and interpret statistical data to demonstrate the theoretical hypothesis and model proposed.

term paper on motivation pdf

Annales Universitatis Apulensis Series Oeconomica

Larisa Dragolea

Budapest International Research and Critics Institute (BIRCI-Journal) : Humanities and Social Sciences

Hassan Elsan Mansaray

This paper discusses the link between motivation and performance, and established what makes motivation to have a central role in getting high performances from employees in organizations. It was revealed from the review that there are several motivational theories used by employers at different situations when they want their employees to highly perform. As motivation is to influence employees to perform, hence; performance is the evaluation with respect to acknowledged tasks, objectives, goal line and rational anticipations linked with a role, occupation in an organization. This paper has looked at some of these theories that have been proven and accepted by the general public. They comprise Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, McGregor’s theories x and y, McClelland’s theory of learned needs, Alderfer’s ERG theory, Herzberg’s two-factor theory, Vroom’s expectancy theory and different types of motivation, such as intrinsic and extrinsic. It is evident from the literature reviewed that all...

Anuary Mgalu

The study was about the effect of employees’ motivation on employees’ performance. A case study of National Social Security Fund: Head Quarters. The main objective of the study was to assess the influence of employees’ motivation on the employees’ performance. While the specific objectives were to examine the influence of: working environment on employees’ performance, intrinsic factors on employees’ performance and extrinsic factors on employees’ performance. The methodology of the study included the use of Primary data. The method used to collect data/information was questionnaire and reviews from different Management and Motivation books, documents and journals concerning with the topic of employees retrenchment. Analysis and interpretation of the findings revealed the influence of employees’ motivation on the employees’ performance in parastatal organizations can be influenced with the environment of work itself which comprises physical environment and support also intrinsic and extrinsic factors if carefully used they can improve general employees’ performance. Some of recommendations and suggestions provided to organizations is to provide training and seminars to the managers on how to motivate their employees which will result to improve their performance Therefore if organizations observe the given recommendations and suggestions concern with what to do when doing employees motivation because the recommendation will help the organization to attain a required performance as well as satisfy employees needs in the organization.

marven dela cruz

awais ahmad

Himanshu Pankaj Boro

Joanes Kyongo

The relationship between motivation and performance is a universal concern and is often talked about but many organizations do not make concrete efforts to study it in detail. These organizations blindly apply the popular motivational theories without findings and instigators which would be the result of an intensive study on motivation. In today’s hyper-competitive marketplace, understanding what fosters and forwards employee motivation and thus organizational performance is critical. Motivation is about stimulating people to action and to achieve a desired task. For organizations of all sorts to be efficient and successful, enough of every person’s drives must be stimulated and satisfied to ensure effective performance. There is more emphasizes on excellent management as a major contributor to personal effectiveness, group efficiency and business success. The concept of motivational management was there in practice since the age of slavery; however, its motivation was as a result ...

Zenodo (CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research)

Budi Agung Prasetya

This study aims to determine the influence of the level of motivation on performance in the Inspectorate General (ITJEN) is the Government Internal Supervision Apparatus (APIP) within the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research and Technology (Kemendikbudristek). ITJEN Kemendikbudristek has a vital role in realizing the quality and accountable management of state university (PTN) governance. For this reason, it is essential to conduct research related to the audit performance produced by ITJEN and how the level of motivation affects what has a causality relationship with the resulting audit performance. Based on the results of research and discussion, it can be concluded that the level of motivation and employee performance is not optimal. As for statistical analysis, it is known that the level of motivation has a positive and significant influence in carrying out its role in the organization.


Ocnos: Revista de estudios sobre lectura


Glauco Carvalho

Développement durable et territoires

Gaël Plumecocq

Fevzi Kasap

Il Nuovo Cimento

Dario Camuffo

Arthritis & Rheumatism

Robert Walton

New Zealand Journal of Botany

Patrick Brownsey

NCK-days 2012 : Crossing borders in coastal research : jubilee conference proceedings

Mathijs van Ledden

Pediatric Medicine

Otilia Frasinariu

Ángeles Rubio Gil


Franz Daniel Fernández Vaca

Geophysical Research Letters

Mihaly Horanyi

Biomedical Journal of Scientific & Technical Research

naseer ullah

Physical Review E

Alexei Sokolov

Expert Systems with Applications

Reginaldo Souza

Scientific Reports

Lior Guttman

Endophytic fungi in grasses …

Katia F Rodrigues

International Journal of Research in Vocational Studies (IJRVOCAS)

Rinto M Nur

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

Magesh Srinivasan

Case Reports in Medicine

ghazaleh sajadi

Gautam Biswas

Revista del Hospital Materno Infantil Ramón Sardá

Biotechnology and Bioengineering

Mats Rundgren

Teo Adi Nugroho

WA 0852 7019 0835 Tempat Prakerin Medan Gratis

See More Documents Like This


  •   We're Hiring!
  •   Help Center
  • Find new research papers in:
  • Health Sciences
  • Earth Sciences
  • Cognitive Science
  • Mathematics
  • Computer Science
  • Academia ©2024
  • International edition
  • Australia edition
  • Europe edition

People bring flowers at the Crocus City Hall concert venue following a terrorist attack in Moscow, Russia.

Moscow attack explainer: why would Islamic State attack Russia and what will Putin’s response be?

After IS claimed responsibility for shooting in Moscow’s Crocus city hall, questions remain about how Russia will respond

  • Russia attack – latest updates

The attack on Moscow’s Crocus City concert hall is the deadliest attack claimed by the Islamic State (IS) on European soil, with 137 people confirmed to have been killed .

On Friday evening, attackers carrying assault rifles entered the concert hall on the outskirts of Moscow, shooting for nearly an hour as panicked concertgoers scrambled to escape. Then the attackers set the venue on fire.

The death toll is slightly higher than the devastating Paris attacks of 2015 , which came at the height of the IS’s power.

Since Friday, events have moved quickly, with four suspects – identified as citizens of Tajikistan by a Russian news agency – appearing in court on Sunday, pleading guilty to being involved.

Questions remain, however: the shape that President Vladimir Putin’s response will take is unclear, while experts are seeking to explain the precise motive for the attack.

Why would IS attack Russia?

There are practical, historical and ideological reasons why IS would attack Russia.

IS leaders have long seen attacks against distant targets as an integral part of their extremist project. Such operations – when successful – terrorise their enemies but also mobilise existing supporters and attract new ones.

Often, targets are determined by what resources are available. Nine years ago, a cohort of French and Belgian recruits in Syria led to a wave of attacks in both countries. In the past 18 months, IS has made a concerted effort to recruit central Asian militants through its Afghan branch, known as Islamic State Khorasan Province (ISKP). Being Russian speaking, or even Russian nationals, these recruits can easily reach a target in Moscow, offering multiple new opportunities for attacks.

Russia has been in the cross-hairs of IS for many years. IS leaders, like many Islamic militants, are mindful of Russian support for the regime of Bashar al-Assad in Syria. A key point made by IS propaganda from Pakistan to Nigeria is that Moscow is part of the broader coalition of Christian or western forces engaged in an existential, 1,400-year-old battle against Islam.

IS statements claiming responsibility for the attack boasted of “killing Christians”.

Moscow concert hall attack: what we know so far  – video report

Leaders of ISKP may also see Russia as supportive of the continued rule of the Taliban, which has repressed them. They will also remember brutal Soviet military operations in Afghanistan in the 1980s and “the Jihad” waged by their fathers or grandfathers against Moscow’s forces. Russia’s bloody war in Chechnya in 1999 may be a factor too.

What will Russia’s response be?

Many terrorist attacks seek to provoke a powerful repressive response from authorities, with the aim of further escalating violence. If this was part of the IS plan for Moscow, they are unlikely to be disappointed.

Russian authorities’ interrogation of the suspects appears to have been particularly brutal.

A man suspected of taking part in the attack sits inside the defendant cage as he waits for his pre-trial detention hearing.

Videos circulating of their interrogations suggest that the men were tortured; one of the videos appears to show members of the security forces cutting off the ear of a suspect and then stuffing it into his mouth.

In court, all of the suspects appeared heavily bruised with swollen faces. One of them was brought to court directly from hospital in a wheelchair. He was attended by medics and was seen with multiple cuts.

Putin has vowed to punish those behind the “barbaric terrorist attack” – and Muslim minorities in Russia are likely to face a wave of repression.

In the Russian ruler’s only public remarks on the massacre he made no reference to IS’s claims of responsibility.

Instead, despite IS claiming the attack and releasing footage to corroborate those claims, Russia has still sought to place some blame on Ukraine.

On Saturday, Putin claimed without evidence that the four arrested gunmen planned to flee to Ukraine. The Ukrainian president, Volodymyr Zelenskiy, has said Putin and others close to him are seeking to divert the blame from Russian intelligence failings.

The US has said it received intelligence that ISKP acted alone.

Will the death toll rise?

As of the Monday after the attack, emergency workers said they were continuing to search for anyone who may be left wounded or dead inside the severely damaged concert hall. The death toll rose multiple times over the weekend as more bodies were found.

Many families were left not knowing if relatives present at the concert hall on Friday night were alive. Igor Pogadaev told the AP news agency that he was desperately seeking any details of his wife’s whereabouts after she went to the concert and stopped responding to his messages. Pogodaev said he scoured hospitals in the Russian capital and the broader Moscow region, looking for information on newly admitted patients. But his wife was not among those reported injured or on the list of victims identified so far, he said. Moscow’s health department said on Sunday it had begun using DNA testing to identify the bodies of those killed, a process that would take at least two weeks.

Reuters and the Associated Press contributed to this report

  • Moscow concert hall attack
  • Vladimir Putin
  • Islamic State

Most viewed


  1. Employee motivation research paper pdf

    term paper on motivation pdf

  2. Importance of motivation in the workplace essay

    term paper on motivation pdf

  3. 🏷️ Sample introduction for term paper. Research Paper Introduction

    term paper on motivation pdf

  4. Term paper samples pdf free download: Fill out & sign online

    term paper on motivation pdf

  5. dissertation on motivation of employees pdf

    term paper on motivation pdf

  6. 😊 Research paper on employee motivation. Apa research papers on

    term paper on motivation pdf


  1. MBA start. Трудовая мотивация. Модели, приемы и проблемы 1

  2. #ias #UPSC #ips #irs #motivational video

  3. This paper Motivation video #motivation #quotes

  4. Board paper motivation 😂 #funny #rgbucket #dosti #comedy

  5. Exam ke liye motivate part -1 #motivation

  6. Class 8th//kaboardexam//real paper//motivation video //reallife


  1. (PDF) Motivational Theories

    Mukaddes, Rashed, & Samad, 2010) We begin by looking at three early motivation theories: Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Herzberg. Motivation/Hygiene theory and Victor Vroom's Expectancy theory ...

  2. Full article: Motivation

    Motivation, the psychological construct 'invented' to describe the mechanism by which individuals and groups choose particular behaviour and persist with it, has a history going back millennia in all cultures. Ancient Greek, Roman, Egyptian, Indian, Chinese, and Indigenous cultures from all continents developed rubrics about positively ...

  3. PDF Motivation and Action: Introduction and Overview

    Motivation as a Product of Person and Situation Motivation psychology seeks to explain the direction, per-sistence, and intensity of goal-directed behavior. The many factors involved can Þrst be classiÞed as pertaining either to the person or to the situation. Throughout this volume, we will draw on the general model of motivation presented in

  4. Motivation: Introduction to the Theory, Concepts, and Research

    Motivation is a psychological construct that refers to the disposition to act and direct behavior according to a goal. Like most of psychological processes, motivation develops throughout the life span and is influenced by both biological and environmental factors. The aim of this chapter is to summarize research on the development of ...

  5. PDF Understanding the Theories and Interventions of Motivation in ...

    Understanding the Theories and Interventions of Motivation in Organization Development. Marczak, Emily and Yawson, Robert. University of Southern Maine, Quinnipiac University 18 May 2021 Online at MPRA Paper No. 108001, posted 31 May 2021 08:55 UTC. UNDERSTANDING THE THEORIES OF MOTIVATION 1.

  6. (PDF) A literature review on motivation

    Abstract and Figures. Research on motivation has attracted academic and corporate entities over the last two decades. In the present study, authors have reviewed the intense literature to extract ...

  7. (PDF) motivation: Concept and Theories

    65. Motivation: Concept. and Theories. When we look at the lives of great men such as Abraham Lincoln, Mahatma. Gandhi, Dr. C V Raman, Leonardo da Vinci, William Shakespeare, Goswami, Tulsi Das ...


    0 1{θ≥c/βδV } (δθV − c)dF (θ), where 1{·} denotes the indicator function, and note that the integrand is increasing in θ. Definition 1 An individual with distribution F over ability θ has higher self-confidence than another one with distribution G if the likelihood ratio f (θ) /g (θ) is increasing in θ.

  9. PDF Performance Appraisal on Employees' Motivation: A ...

    Performance appraisal is. fi. necessary for raising the performance levels of employees in terms of output quality and time management. There many positive outcomes of a performance appraisal program, which include increased motivation and teamwork spirit, morale among the employees, reduction in employee turnover, job satisfaction as well as ...

  10. PDF Employee Motivation and Performance

    and employee motivation more particularly. In the preceding years different definitions of motivation were defined, eg. Herzberg (1959) defined employee motivation as performing a work related action because you want to. Normally it is agreed that employee motivation can be distinguished in intrinsic and extrinsic motiva-tion (Staw 1976, 49-52).

  11. PDF Motivation Research in Writing: Theoretical and Empirical Considerations

    Finally, we offer suggestions for future research in writing motivation. Gary A. Troia, Rebecca K. Shankland, Kimberly A. Wolbers (2012) "Motivation Research in Writing: Theoretical and Empirical Considerations" Reading & Writing Quarterly 28:1 pp 5-28 Version of record available @ (DOI: 10.1080/10573569.2012.632729)

  12. (PDF) Motivation in organizational behavior: History, advances and

    The impact of personal control on performance and satisfaction. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 43, 29-51. Gröpel, P., & Kehr, H. M. (2014). Motivation and self-control: Implicit motives moderate the exertion of self-control in motive-related tasks. Journal of Personality, 82, 317-328.

  13. PDF Intrinsic Motivation and the Five-Paragraph Essay: Lessons Learned on

    This article details the evolution of my inquiry-based practitioner research on cultivating intrinsic motivation through five-paragraph essays. Motivation refers to the impetus to act. Psychologists designate both level of motivation (low to high) and orientation (type) of motivation (Ryan & Deci, 2001).

  14. PDF MINDS@UW Home

    MINDS@UW Home

  15. (PDF) Literature Review on Employee Motivation

    A meta-analysis of 128 studies examined the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. As predicted, engagement-contingent, completion-contingent, and performance-contingent rewards ...

  16. PDF 1. What is motivation and why does it matter?

    Motivation can be intrinsic or extrinsic (or perhaps both). Researchers who have struggled with questions of what motivates students generally recognize two major types of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is the desire to do or achieve something because one truly wants to and takes pleasure or sees value in doing so.

  17. PDF A Theory of Human Motivation

    Typically an act has more than one motivation. Practically all organismic states are to be understood as motivated and as motivating. Human needs arrange themselves in hierarchies of pre-potency. That is to say, the appearance of one need usually rests on the prior satisfaction of another, more pre-potent need.

  18. (PDF) The Effects of Motivation on Employee Performance: A Strategic

    2.1.3 Significance of Motivation on Employee Performance Kondalker (2007) describes the significance of motivation as follows: Page 83 International Journal of Management Sciences and Business Research, Dec-2016 ISSN (2226-8235) Vol-5, Issue 12 High level of performance: It is the duty of every manager to ensure that the employees have a high ...

  19. [PDF] Motivation and job satisfaction

    Motivation, pay satisfaction, and job satisfaction of front‐line employees. C. Stringer Jeni Didham Paul Theivananthampillai. Business. 2011. Purpose - This paper aims to explore the complex relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, pay satisfaction and job satisfaction at the retailer that uses a pay-for-performance plan ...

  20. PDF A literature review on motivation

    the organization which leads to enhance motivation level of employee and ultimately organizational performance are enhanced. Smith and Rupp (2003) stated that performance is a role of individual motivation; organizational strategy, and structure and resistance to change, is an empirical role relating motivation in the organization.

  21. (PDF) A Study of Employee Motivation in Organization

    A Study o f Employee Motivation in Organization. Dr. Ankur Jain, Dr Bhuwan Gupta and Dr. Meenakshi Bindal. 1 HOD, Department of Management Studies IET, Alwar, Rajasthan, INDIA. 2 Associate ...

  22. PDF Motivation

    Motivation is the process or reason to start and sustain a behavior. Motivation can be internal (intrinsic motivation) or external (extrinsic motivation). While both can be helpful aspects of maintaining positive habits and behaviors, we are ultimately most driven when we are guided by an inner force. Positive Influences on Motivation: •


    motivation is the vacation, which is also the reward for your act of saving for it. 3.2.4 Intrinsic Motivation Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that comes from inside an individual rather than from any external or outside rewards, such as money or grades. The motivation comes from the pleasure one gets from the task itself or from the ...

  24. Moscow attack explainer: why would Islamic State attack Russia and what

    After IS claimed responsibility for shooting in Moscow's Crocus city hall, questions remain about how Russia will respond